The History of the Family and Abstracts: New Journal

JAI PRESS Inc. is pleased to announce the publication of a new journal entitled The History of the Family: An International Quarterly beginning with Volume 1 Number 1 (1996). The Quarterly is edited by Dr. Tamara K. Hareven and Dr. Andrejs Plakans. The editors are joined by an Editorial Board of distinguished scholars in the field.

Editorial Board : Michael Anderson, University of Edinburgh. Rudolf Andorka, Budapest Economic University. Hubert Charbonneau, University of Montreal. John P. Demos, Yale University. Glen H. Elder, Jr., University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill. Theo Engelen, Catholic University of Nijmegen. Stanley L. Engerman, University of Rochester. Antoinette Fauve-Chamoux, Ecole des Hautes Etudes en Sciences Sociales. Akira Hayami, International Research Center for Japanese Studies, Kyoto. David I. Kertzer, Brown University . Peter Laslett, Cambridge Group for the History of Population and Social Structure, Cambridge, England. Emmanuel LeRoy Ladurie, College de France. James Z. Lee, California Institute of Technology. Massimo Livi-Bacci, University of Florence. Bruce Mazlish, Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Michael Mitterauer, University of Vienna. Kiyomi Morioka, Shukutoku University, Chiba. Jan Oldervoll, University of Bergen. David Ransel, Indiana University. Alice Rossi, University of Massachusetts, Amherst. Jurgen Schlumbohm, Max-Planck-Institute for History, Gottingen. Daniel Scott Smith, University of Illinois, Chicago. Richard Smith, Cambridge Group for the History of Population and Social Structure, Cambridge, England. Marvin B. Sussman, University of Delaware. Lars-Goran Tedebrand, Umea University. Charles Tilly, The New School for Social Research. Frans van Poppel, Netherlands Interdisciplinary Demographic Institute, The Hague. Maris A. Vinovskis, University of Michigan. Ronald G. Walters, Johns Hopkins University. Charles Wetherell, University of California, Riverside. Robert Wheaton, Concord, MA

The History of the Family: An International Quarterly will make significant contributions by publishing works reflecting new developments in scholarship and by charting new directions. Since recent work in the historical study of the family has developed in the direction of non-quantitative analysis, the Quarterly will publish works based on both quantitative and qualitative research and will encourage the integration of the two. In light of new ongoing research in cultural history and anthropology, The History of the Family: An International Quarterly will emphasize cultural aspects of family and kinship and attitudes towards the family across different societies, using sources in literature and art, as well. Further emphasizing the international developments in historical research on the family, the Quarterly will encourage articles on comparative research across various cultures and societies in Asia, Africa, Latin America, and the Pacific Rim, in addition to Europe, the United States and Canada, as well as work in the context of Global History. While firmly rooted in History, the Quarterly will be interdisciplinary; it will publish articles in Historical Anthropology, Historical Sociology, Economic History and Psychology as they relate to the family and the life course.

The History of the Family: An International Quarterly will publish essays submitted by individual authors as well as special topical issues in the History of the Family, the Household and Kinship, Marriage, Childhood and Youth, Life Course and Aging, and Historical Demography as it relates to the family. The Quarterly will also publish book review essays, methodological reports, descriptions of databases and other source materials and conference reports.

About the Editors

Tamara K. Hareven

Tamara K. Hareven is Unidel Professor of Family Studies and History at the University of Delaware and Visiting Scholar at the Sociology Department, Harvard University. A social historian and one of the foremost leaders in the field of family history, the life course and aging. Dr. Hareven has organized international conferences and workshops, and founded the Journal of Family History in 1975, for which she was the editor for two decades. Professor Hareven received her B.A. from the Hebrew University in Jerusalem in 1961, her M.A. from the University of Cincinnati in 1962, and her Ph.D. from Ohio State University in 1965. She is author of several books and numerous articles and has edited collections in the history of the family, work and family, the life course, and aging. Her best known books are Family Time and Industrial Time (Cambridge University Press, 1982, reprinted by University Press of America, 1993, with Randolph Langenbach); Amoskeag: Life and Work in an American Factory City (Pantheon, 1978, reprinted by University Press of New England, 1995); Transitions: The Family and the Life Course in Historical Perspective (Academic Press, 1978, edit.); Aging and the Life Course in Interdisciplinary and Cross-Cultural Perspective (Guilford Press, 1982, edit. with Kathleen Adams), and Aging and Generational Relations: An Historical and Life Course Perspective, (Walter de Gruyter, Berlin, 1966, edit.). She has completed a comparative study on Japan, to be published in her book, The Silk Weavers of Kyoto: Family and Work in a Changing Traditional Industry, and is currently writing a book entitled Generations in Historical Time. Professor Hareven has been a recipient of grants from the Ford Foundation, Rockefeller Foundation, National Endowment for the Humanities, the National Institute on Aging, the Social Science Research Council, and the Radcliffe Graduate Society Medal, 1992. She was President of the Social Science History Association in 1995, and is Fellow of the Gerontological Society of America .

Andrejs Plakans

Andrejs Plakans is Professor of European History at Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa. He was Associate Editor of the Journal of Family History from 1985 to 1995. He is the author of Kinship in the Past: An Historical Anthropology of European Family Life 1500-1900 (Basil Blackwell, 1984); co-editor (with Tamara Hareven) of Family History at the Crossroads: Linking Familial and Historical Change (Princeton University Press, 1987), and The Latvians: A Short History (Hoover Institution Press, 1995). Plakans received his BA degree in history at Franklin and Marshall College, Lancaster, Pennsylvania, and his MA and Ph.D. degrees from Harvard. A specialist in Eastern European social history, he has published widely on the history of the family in that par t of Europe, as well as on the rise of nationalism and on the political history of the Baltic area. He has held research grants from the National Science Foundation, National Endowment for the Humanities, and the Ford Foundation; and has been a Visiting Professor at the University of Pittsburgh, the University of California - Riverside, and the University of Latvia in Riga, Latvia. A past President of the Association for the Advancement of Baltic Studies, he has also served on committees of the American Association for the Advancement of Slavic Studies, the American Historical Association, and the Social Science History Association.

The History of the Family: An International Quarterly contains essays representing a variety of societal settings and disciplines:

Abstracts for Vol. 1, No. 1

Antoinette Fauve-Chamoux
BEYOND ADOPTION: ORPHANS AND FAMILY STRATEGIES IN PRE-INDUSTRIAL FRANCE

ABSTRACT: There was no legal adoption of under-age children in France before 1923. After the collapse of the Roman Empire the customs of western European societies, including France, tried to find a new family framework for orphaned children and sought carefully to secure the transmission of the assets such children inherited. Relatives had duties towards the children, and the children, in turn, had to work and serve for their substitute parents and to obey them. A child was a "person" in western Christian society as soon as he or she was baptized, and the parents were in charge. But an orphan or semi-orphan was controlled by a family council and his or her future was submitted to familial debate and was controlled by neighbors and relatives, often in front of public and judicial authorities. French society before the 1789 Revolution had devised many ways of meeting the needs of the numerous orphans created by the prevailing high mortality rate. Maternal or paternal kinship expressed itself in diverse ways in the lives of these children, according to the different regional cultures that in France strongly influenced the practice and modalities of family reproduction.

Michael R. Haines
LONG-TERM MARRIAGE PATTERNS IN THE UNITED STATES FROM COLONIAL TIMES TO THE PRESENT

ABSTRACT: Marriage in colonial North America was notable for being early (for women) and marked by low percentages never marrying. This was different from the distinctive northwest European pattern of late marriage and high proportions of never married people late in life. But the underlying neolocal family formation behavior was the same in both colonial North America and the areas of origin of this population. Thus, Malthus was correct. Abundant resources rather than basic behavioral differences made early and extensive marriage possible in the colonies. Between 1800 and the present there have been long cycles in nuptiality. Since about 1800, female age at first marriage rose from relatively low levels to a peak around 1900. Thereupon a gradual decline commenced with a trough being reached about 1960 at the height of the baby boom. Then began another, and rapid, upswing in female marriage age. Proportions never married at ages 45-54 replicated these cycles with a lag of about 20-30 years. Since 1880 (when comprehensive census data become available), male nuptiality patterns have generally paralleled those of women. Male marriage ages were higher than those of females with proportions never marrying also usually higher. Considerations of differentials by race and ethnicity are important in looking at the American experience over time. Ages at marriage in the black population have, for example, moved from being lower to being higher than those for whites. More work is needed in the period 1800 to 1880 when we lack comprehensive census data, vital records, and other data sources.

Phyllis J. Johnson and Peter Suedfeld
COPING WITH STRESS THROUGH THE MICROCOSMS OF HOME AND FAMILY AMONG ARCTIC WHALERS AND EXPLORERS

ABSTRACT: The essay examines an aspect of family life that has been ignored by many researchers: the role of representations of family and home for men whose work requires prolonged periods of separation and distance. Content analysis of diaries and correspondence (primarily written during the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries) shows that Arctic explorers and whalers engaged in activities reminiscent of those popular at home. We hypothesize that such activities may have helped the men to bear with an environment characterized by danger, discomfort, uncertainty, remoteness, isolation, and lack of privacy. Constructing these microcosms also engaged the crews' creativity and energy in relieving long stretches of unfilled time, and may have prepared them for a smoother re-integration upon their return home. The diaries and letters also expressed the voyagers' longings for their family and their developing of surrogate emotional ties with their ships and shipmates.

David Ransel
BAPTISM IN RURAL RUSSIA: VILLAGE WOMEN SPEAK OF THEIR CHILDREN AND THEIR WAY OF LIFE

ABSTRACT: The disintegration of the Soviet Union made possible the collection of oral history testimony from Russian villagers, with the objective of recording firsthand the experiences of the women who participated in (and, indeed, themselves carried through) the demographic transition in Russia. Informants understood christening as an important aspect of child care and took pride in having held to these practices despite the efforts of the Communist Party/State to eradicate institutionalized religion in the Soviet Union. Baptism as the basic ritual of incorporation was common in Russian villages right through the Soviet era. Despite the assaults of the 1930s and beyond that caused the loss of 90 percent of their places of worship and clergy and despite the risks to their own livelihood and safety, peasants contrived to provide their children, through baptism, with protection against the spiritual and temporal dangers of this life and to offer them the hope of salvation in the next. Women found ways in these communities to maintain social bonds and to defend familial arenas over which they still had some control.

Jurgen Schlumbohm
MICRO-HISTORY AND THE MACRO-MODELS OF THE EUROPEAN DEMOGRAPHIC SYSTEM: LIFE COURSE PATTERNS IN THE PARISH OF BELM, GERMANY-- SEVENTEENTH TO THE NINETEENTH CENTURIES

ABSTRACT: Current models of the European demographic-economic system in pre- industrial times are based on strong assumptions about the predominant patterns of individual life courses. Now recent micro-studies of individual communities make it possible to check whether the actual patterns of life fit these assumptions. The findings for Belm present an amazing blend of confirmations and contradictions. The connection between marriage and the formation of a new self-supporting household is equally subject to doubt. Together with the findings of other micro-studies, the evidence for Belm suggests that the assumptions about mechanisms linking marriage to economic resources should be reconsidered, and that there is need for a dialogue between macro-theories and micro-history.

Barry Wellman and Charles Wetherell
SOCIAL NETWORK ANALYSIS OF HISTORICAL
COMMUNITIES: SOME QUESTIONS FROM THE PRESENT FOR THE PAST

ABSTRACT: The essay suggests to historians the usefulness of applying a social network analytic approach to studying communities and community-like social structures such as kinship groups and work groups. Historians have long employed social network as a metaphor, but few have embraced the substance, theory or methods of the social network paradigm. In the 1970s and 1980s, historians and other social scientists on both sides of the Atlantic revisited questions about the nature of family and community life, and, searching for connectivity, laid the groundwork for a social network approach to the study of community. The community question itself evolved as sociologists changed their ideas about what constituted community and where to find it. Researchers were no longer restricted to searching for community in the solidarities of neighborhoods and kinship groups. Instead they studied all active community-like relationships, no matter where located. As a result, analysts were able to show that community had not been "lost" under the impact of contemporary societal transformations nor "saved" in village-like neighborhoods. Rather, people formed far-flung networks containing a sizable and varied number of ties with kith and kin that supplied sociability, support, and information. These ties also provided indirect links to the people and resources of other social milieux.

Abstracts for Vol. 1 No. 2

Anders Brandstrom
LIFE HISTORIES OF SINGLE PARENTS AND ILLEGITIMATE INFANTS IN NINETEENTH-CENTURY SWEDEN

ABSTRACT: The importance of legitimacy and illegitimacy for differing levels of infant mortality has generally been left out of the discussion of historical demographers. This essay presents tentative findings for the Sundsvall area of Sweden, which is being studied in a recent project on the decline of infant and childhood mortality in the Nordic countries. The focus is on the complete reproductive histories of single mothers and the life expectancies among infants born to women, who at least once in their reproductive lives experienced the birth of an illegitimate child. In Sundsvall, industrialization only temporarily affected the illegitimacy ratio, but its effect was obvious even in agrarian parishes. The number of illegitimate children per woman remained relatively stable over time, with the exception of the town of Sundsvall. It was more common in the urban environment for women to give birth to several illegitimate children. Mortality was also higher among these infants, but its negative effects can be seen equally among both legitimate and illegitimate children. Even if illegitimate births were more common in the town, there was no clear trend over time indicating the existence of the kind of "subcultures" proposed by Peter Laslett.

Alain Bideau and Guy Brunet
STAY OR LEAVE? INDIVIDUAL CHOICE AND FAMILY LOGIC: THE DESTINATIONS OF CHILDREN BORN IN THE VALSERINE VALLEY (FRENCH JURA) IN THE EIGHTEENTH AND NINETEENTH CENTURIES

ABSTRACT: To study inheritance, it is necessary in the first place to know the number of heirs in each family, how property was divided between them, and whether their inheritance was sufficient to enable them to maintain and support several children in the parish. This study examines the process through which the populations of the parishes of the Valserine valley in France reproduced themselves from one generation to the next, by means of examining the "effective" progeny of couples, to determine how many of them produced children (heirs) who continued to live in the valley. The ultimate goal of this research is to establish the characteristics of those who left the valley and how these persons differed from those who chose to stay. The article examines whether it is possible to discern family strategies in the way these decisions were made, and whether behavior of the persons in questions was determined by individual choice.

Patrice Bourdelais and Michel Demonet
THE EVOLUTION OF MORTALITY IN AN INDUSTRIAL TOWN: LE CREUSOT IN THE NINETEENTH CENTURY

ABSTRACT: The article examines the population of the town of Le Creusot in detail with respect to the characteristics and evolution of mortality in the second third of the nineteenth century, during the town's rapid industrial growth. The authors analyze the mortality statistics of Le Creusot in comparison with other towns in the same department (Saoneet -Loire), with the neighboring city of Lyon, with another industrial town (Seraing), and with France as a whole. The effects of industrialization and of the influx of labor on the mortality rate of Le Creusot appear to be undeniable. The level of life expectancy at birth in Le Creusot in 1836 declined during forty years of worsening living and environmental conditions and was attained again only in 1876. Among the causes noted for excess mortality in industrial towns, it is important to distinguish those due to working conditions (accidents, fatigue) and the direct consequences of industrial activity (factory smoke, toxic waste), from those due to living and housing conditions and the state of public and private hygiene in the town.

George Alter
THE EUROPEAN MARRIAGE PATTERN AS SOLUTION AND PROBLEM: HOUSEHOLDS OF THE ELDERLY IN VERVIERS, BELGIUM, 1831

ABSTRACT: The essay considers the effects of marriage patterns on the support of the elderly by using empirical evidence from Verviers, a small industrial city in nineteenth-century Belgium. The (Northwest) European Marriage Pattern offered a solution for those elderly who had children, especially those with large families, because coresidence with children was the main source of support. The larger community experienced a problem in the form of large numbers of persons who never married or reached old age with no surviving children. Moreover, while those who had married were able to maintain their economic status, those who never married liquidated their property holdings and became boarders and lodgers in the households of non-kin.

Michel Oris
FERTILITY AND MIGRATION IN THE HEART OF THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION

ABSTRACT: Within the context of a larger research project on the formation of industrial populations in the nineteenth century, this essay examines the relationship between immigration and natality in Tilleur, a small locality representative of the process of industrialization in Belgium. The main purpose of the essay is to test a general hypothesis concerning the distinction between a phase of foundation and a phase of maturation in the process through which an industrial population is formed. The results are a contribution to the debate about the beginning of the fertility transition in industrial cities and its relation to differential nuptiality and fertility in populations of differing geographic origins.

Bernard Derouet
NUPTIALITY AND FAMILY REPRODUCTION IN MALE INHERITANCE SYSTEMS: REFLECTIONS ON THE EXAMPLE OF THE FRANCHE-COMTE (SEVENTEENTH-EIGHTEENTH CENTURIES)

ABSTRACT: The family system of rural Franche-Comte until the nineteenth century was based on egalitarian inheritance among sons and on the exclusion of daughters; as such, it was associated with distinct Malthusian nuptiality. The system as a whole cannot be understood without an examination of the formation and dynamics of the type of family that included frequent stages of undivided patrimony and coresidence, in a context that that gave little encouragement to neolocal marriage and to the independence of sons. A comparative perspective suggests certain similarities with the stem family system, despite differences in inheritance norms. Prime importance must be given to the notion of self-regulation that is ensured by the family unit itself, in comparison with other societies where regulation took place through the mediation of "market" phenomena. Acceptance of the common idea of a contrast between impartible and partible inheritance should be highly qualified, insofar as partibility can disguise various patterns of social reproduction. Different kinds of joint family household systems must be distinguished carefully, for they have neither the same significance nor imply the same demographic patterns.

Articles in Forthcoming Issues:

Kinship-based Resource-Sharing in the Agrarian Economy of Frontier Slavonia, 1698
E.A. Hammel and H.P. Kohler

Family, Kin, and the Quest for Community: A Study of Social Networks in Early Modern Italy
Sandro Lombardini

Marriage, Residence, and Occupational Choice of Senior and Junior Siblings in the English Past
Richard Wall

Law and Practice in Adoptions in France from the Fifteenth Century to the Present
Andr, Burgu-ere

Situating the Family of Ottoman Bulgaria Within the European Pattern Maria Todorova

The Dissolution of Large Complex Households in the Balkans: Was the Ultimate Reason Structural or Cultural? Hannes Grandits and Siegfried Gruber

Influence of Demographic Trends on the Number of Undivided Family Households in Southern Croatia
Nenad Vekaric

Homes, Heirs, and Non-Heirs in the L'Adour Valley, France: Social and Geographic Mobility in the Nineteenth Century Rolande Bonnain

Parents and Progeny: Inheritance and the Transition to Adulthood in Colonial North Carolina
Glenn Deane

A Death in the Family: Household Structure and Mortality in Rural Liaoning, China: Life-Event and Time Series Analysis, 1792-1867 Cameron Campell and James Z. Lee

The Family in Context: The Balkans in European Comparison Michael Mitterauer

Patriarchy in the Balkans: Temporal and Cross-Cultural Approaches Joel M. Halpern, Karl Kaser, and Richard A. Wagner

Life Course and Family Patterns in Florence, 1810-1991 Marzio Barbagli and Elisabetta Cioni

Forthcoming Special Issues:

Household and Family Contexts in the Balkans New Directions in the History of the Family in Spain Colonialism and Family Structures in Africa and Latin America

Submissions should be sent to:

Professor Tamara K. Hareven, Editor
University of Delaware
101 Alison Hall
Newark, Delaware 19716


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