[Editor's Note: this query, posted twice, received only one reply. However, the query itself has valuable resource information, hence its inclusion here. MER]
Is anyone familiar with the black religious nationalist movement of the late nineteenth and twentieth century United States?
My working definition of black religious nationalists: women who combined rhetoric of social prophecy and criticism with strategies to liberate and free black people and others based upon their conviction that their efforts were directed and mandated by a transcended spirit.
I am working through the following sources, focusing on Anna Julia Cooper, Mary Church Terrell, Maria Stewart, Ida B. Wells, and Frances Ellen Harper.
Baker-Fletcher, Karne A Singing Something: Womanist Reflections on Anna Julia Cooper (1994, Crossroad, NY)
Brooks, Evelyn "The Woman's Movement in the Black Baptist Church, 1880-1920", (Univ. of Rochester, Ph.D. diss., 1984)
Fox-Genovese, Elizabeth "Strategies and Forms of Resistance: Focus on Slave Women in the United States", Resistance: Studies in African, Caribbean, and Afro-American History Gary Y. Okihiro, ed. (U of Massachusetts Press, 1986)
Giddings, Paula When and Where I Enter: The Impact of Black Women on Sex and Race in America (NY,Bantam, 1984)
Hull, Gloria, et al, eds All the Women are White, All the Men Are Blacks, But Some of us Are Brave: Black Women's Studies (NY, Feminist Press, CUNY, 1992)
Litwack, Leon & Meier, August Black Leaders of the Nineteenth Century (Urbana, U of Illinois Press, 1988)
Loewenberg, Bert and Bogin, Ruth, eds. Black Women in the Nineteenth-Century American Life: Their Words, Their Thoughts, Their Feelings (Penn State U Press, Univ. Park,PA, 1976)
Guy-Sheftall, Beverly Word of Fire: An Anthology of African-American Feminist Thought (NY, New York Press, 1990)
Hine, Darlene Clark Hine Sight: Black Women and the Re-Construction of American History (Brooklyn, NY, Carlson Pub, 1994)
Howard-Pitney, David The Afro-American Jeremiah: Appeals for Justice in America (Phila, Temple U Press, 1990)
McCartney, John T. Black Power Ideologies: An Essay in African-American Political Thought (Phila, Temple U Press, PA, 1992)
Wilson, Jeremiah Jones The Golden Age of Black Nationalism, 1850-1925 (NY, Oxford U Press, 1978)
Reuther, Rosemary Radford & Keller, Rosemary Skinner, eds In Our Own Voices: Four Centuries of American Women's Religious Writing (San Francisco, Harper & Row, 1995)
Tate, Gayle "Black Nationalism: An Angle of Vision" The Western Journal of Black Studies, 12:1(1988)
Thanks in advance.
>From Michele A. Gates Moresi email@example.com 30 July 1996
I'm afraid my answer will have to be another request: could you be more precise? I can say that I am "familiar" with the writings of the women you are focusing on, so what is it you are asking about them?
It seems you have a good working definition of "black religious nationalists" that links these women together (and a good bib), but how does that determine a "movement" among women over such a large span of time- (Stewart stopped lecturing publicly in 1833, Cooper published in 1892.) Do you mean to link them as individuals to a larger black movement that is developing and changing over time?
Note that Evelyn Higginbotham's work has been published, Righteous Discontent: The Women's Movement in the Black Baptist Church, 1880-1920 (Harvard UP, 1993). Looking forward to hearing from you.
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