This course will cover Finnish history from prehistoric times until the present. The major emphasis, however, will be on the period after 1809. This course is primarily designed for foreigners who have done no previous coursework in Finnish history.
|August 1:||Introduction of course
Prehistoric and early historic Finland ( -1323)
|August 2:||Finland as part of the Swedish realm (ca. 1323-1809)
Life in Finland (ca. 1323-1809)
|August 3:||The creation of autonomous Finland
Nationalism in Finland (ca. 1800-1917)
|August 4:||The rise of a civil society (ca. 1860-1905)
Revolt and civil war (ca. 1905-1918)
|August 8:||The politics of the First Republic 1919-1939|
|August 9:||The golden age of Finnish culture (ca. 1890-1939)|
|August 10:||Tour of the Art Museum at the Ateneum|
|August 11:||Finland at war 1939-1945|
|August 15:||Film:"Talvisota" ("The Winter War")|
|August 16:||The recognition of realities and the ccreations of new myths:
Finnish foreign policy 1944-1981
|August 17:||The development of industrial, urban Finland|
|August 18:||Finland since 1981: A new political culture? A second "Age of Liberty"? A Third Republic?|
|August 19:||Final examination|
This bibliography is by no means a complete list of all books on Finnish history. Many of the "short histories" of the country have not
been included, as well as some works on very narrow or obscure topics.
The scholarship in major foreign languages concerning the history of Finland suffers from three major weaknesses. Firstly, much of the foreign-language literature is old and dated. Secondly, some historians, Finnish as well as foreign, have sacrificed a rigorous interpretation of Finland's history for the sake of the country's image abroad. This type of intellectual dishonesty is seen especially in the many books written by scholars in the 1960's and 70's concerning Finnish foreign policy. This desire to give foreigners an "official line" of Finnish history has not yet died among Finnish historians and intellectuals, but it has weakened as Finns are now confronting their country's history in a more honest fashion.
Thirdly, there is simply no foreign-language scholarship for many important questions of Finnish history. On issues such as the settlement of Finland, the position of Finland inside the Swedish realm, and the women's movement no significant foreign-language scholarship exists. The only alternative for one who does not know Swedish or Finnish is to glean whatever one can from one of the general works listed below.
The best work in any language is Suomen historian pikkujaettilaeinen. Porvoo: WSOY, 1987.
|Engman, Max and David Kirby eds.||Finland: People, Nation, State. London: Hurst, 1989.
A collection of essays on questions of Finnish history.
|Hjerppe, Riitta.||The Finnish Economy 1860-1985: Growth and Structural Change. Helsinki: VPK, 1989.|
|Jutikkala, Eino.||A History of Finland. New York: Praeger, 1962.
Also in French and German. This book, written by the dean of Finnish historians, was the standard text of Finnish history until the publication of pikkujaettilaeinen.
|Kirby, D.G.||Finland in the Twentieth Century. London: Hurst, 1979.
An excellent overview.
|Kirby, D.G.||Northern Europe in the Early Modern Period: the Baltic World 1492-1772. London: Longman, 1990.|
|Puntila, L.A.||The Political History of Finland 1809-1966. London: Heinemann, 1975.|
|Sentzke, Geert.||Die Kirche Finnlands. Joensuu: Pohjois-Karjalan kirjapaino, 1968.|
|Zetterberg, Seppo.||Finland Since 1917. Helsinki: Otava, 1991.
A very good short history of independent Finland. An excellent book for the uninitiated.
|Barton, H.A.||Scandianavia in the Revolutionary Era 1760-1815. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1986.|
|Buchholz, Werner.||Staat und Stdndegesellschaft in Schweden zur Zeit des Ueberganges vom Absolutismus zum Staendeparlementarismus. Stockholm Studies in History 27. Stockholm, 1979.|
|Lisk, Jill.||The Struggle for Supremacy in the Baltic 1600-1725. London: University of London Press, 1967.|
|Oakley, Stewart.||War and Peace in the Baltic 1560-1790. London: Routledge, 1992.|
|Roberts, Michael.||The Age of Liberty: Sweden 1719-1772. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1986.|
|Roberts, Michael.||The Early Vasas: A History of Sweden 1520-1611. Cambridge: University Press, 1968.|
|Roberts, Michael.||Gustavus Adolphus and the Rise of Sweden London: English Universities' Press, 1967.|
|Roberts, Michael.||The Swedish Imperial Experience 1560-1718. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1976
This book consists of a collection of Roberts's lectures. Light but informative reading.
|Copeland, William R.||The Uneasy Alliance: Collaboration between the Finnish Opposition and the Russian underground 1899- 1904. Suomalaisen tiedeakatemian toimituksia B, no. 179. Kuopio, 1973.|
|Korhonen, Keijo.||Autonomous Finland in the Political Thought of Nineteenth Century Russia. Turun yliopiston julkaisuja B, no. 105. Turku, 1967.|
|Paasivirta, Juhani.||Finland and Europe 1815-1914: International Crises in the Period of Autonomy 1808-1914. London: Hurst, 1981.|
|Polvinen, Tuomo.||Imperial Borderland. Durham: Duke Univ. Press, 1996.|
|Schoolfield, George C.||Helsinki of the Czars. Camden, 1996.|
|Schweitzer, Robert.||Autonomie und Autokratie: Die Stellung Grossfuerstentums Finnland in der zweiten Haelfte des 19. Jahrhunderts. In series Studien der Hochschulen des Landes Hessen. Reihe 2 Marburger Abhandlungen zur Geschichte und Kultur Osteuropas, 1978.|
|Tommila, Paeivioe.||Le Finlande dans la politique europeene en 1809-1815. In series Studia historica, vol. 13. Helsinki, 1966.|
|Virtanen, Keijo.||Settlement or Return? Finnish Emigrants (1860-1930) in the International Overseas Migration Movement. Studia Historica, vol. 10. Helsinki, 1979.|
|Wilson, William A.||Folklore and Nationalism in Modern Finland. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1976.
A penetrating examination of the relationship between culture and politics.
|Alapuro, Risto.||The State and Revolution in Finland. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1989.|
|Barros, James.||The Eland Islands Question: Its Settlement by the League of Nations. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1968.|
|Fol. Jean-Jacques.||Accession de la Finlande a l'independence 1917-1919. 2 vols. Paris, 1977.|
|Hovi, Kalervo.||Interessensphdren im Baltikum: Finnland im Rahmen Ostpolitik Polens 1919-1922. Studia historica, vol. 13. Helsinki, 1984.|
|Hovi, Olavi.||The Baltic Area in British Policy 1918-1921. Studia Historica, vol. 11. Forssa, 1980.|
|Haemaelaeinen, Pekka-Kalevi.||In Time of Storm: Revolution, Civil War and the Ethnolinquistic Issue in Finland. Albany: University of New York Press, 1978.|
|Jaeaeskelaeinen, Mauno.||Die ostkarelische Frage: Die Entstehung eines Nationalen Expansionsprograms und die Versuche zu seiner Verwirklichung in der Aussenpolitik Finnlands in den Jahren 1918-1920 Studia historica, vol. 6. Helsinki, 1965.|
|Karvonen, Lauri.||From White to Blue and Black. in series Commentationes Scientarium Socialium. Societas Scientarium Fennica, vol. 36. Helsinki, 1986.|
|Lyytinen, Eino.||Finland in British Politics in the First World War Suomalaisen tiedeakatemian toimituksia ser. B, no. 207 1980.|
|Paasivirta, Juhani.||The Victors in World War I and Finland: Finland's Relations with the British, French and the United States Governments in 1918-1919. Helsinki: SHS, 1965.|
|Paasivirta, Juhani.||Finland and Europe: The Early Years of Independence 1917-1939. Helsinki: SHS, 1988.|
|Rintala Marvin.||Three Generations: The Extreme Right in Finnish Politics. University of Indiana publications, Russia and Eastern Europe Series 22. Bloomington, 1962.
Rintala has also produced this book in article form, which appears in Hans Rogger and Eugen Weber eds. The European Right.
|Upton, Anthony.||The Finnish Revolution 1917-1918. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1980.
The best single account of the events of 1917-1918 in any language.
|Jakobson, Max.||The Diplomacy of the Winter War. Cambridge, Mass: Harvard University Press, 1961.
The first scholarly account of the Winter War, and a work that has withstood the the test of time. In 1984, this book was republished under the title Finland Survived. Also available in German and French.
|Krosby, Hans-Peter.||Finland, Germany, and the Soviet Union: The Petsamo Dispute. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1968.|
|Nevakivi, Jukka.||The Appeal That Was Never Made: the Allies, Scandianavia, and the Finnish Winter War 1939-1940. Montreal: McGill-Queens University Press, 1973.|
|Rautkallio, Hannu.||Finland and the Holocaust. New York: Holocaust Library, 1987.
An interesting work describing the courage of the Finnish political leadership in its refusal to allow Finnish Jews to be shipped to Nazi concentration camps. Rautkallio's claim that during World War II "anti-semitism did not exist in Finland" should however not be taken seriously.
|Upton, Anthony.||Finland 1939-1940. London: Davis-Poynter, 1974.
A concise and very insightful account of the Winter War.
|Upton, Anthony.||Finland in Crisis 1940-1941. London: Faber and Faber, 1964.
With this work Upton continued the debate over whether Finland could have avoided entering World War II on the side of Germany. For those interested in the aspects of this debate one should also read the part in Kirby's book Finland in the Twentieth Century covering this controversy.
|Allison, Roy.||Finland's Relations with the Soviet Union 1944-1984.
The most comprehensive and up-to-date account of Finnish-Soviet relations.
|Berry, R. Michael.||American Foreign Policy and the Finnish Exception. Studia historica, vol. 24. Helsinki: Gummerus, 1987.|
|Haeikioe, Martti.||A Brief History of Modern Finland. Helsinki: Lahti Research and Training Centre, 1992.
This book concentrates solely on the postwar era.
|Maude, George.||The Finnish Dilemma. London: Oxford, 1976.
One of the few dispassionate assessments of post-World War II Finnish foreign policy that was written during the height of the "age of stagnation."
|Polvinen, Tuomo.||Between East and West: Finland in International Politics 1944-1947. Porvoo: WSOY, 1986.|
|Upton, Anthony, ed.||The Communist Parties of Finland and Scandinavia London: Weidenfield and Nicolson, 1973|
|Haavio-Mannila, Elina.||Unfinished Democracy: Women in Nordic Politics. New York: Pergammon Press, 1985.|
|Nousiainen, Jaakko.||The Finnish Political System. Cambridge, Mass: Harvard University Press, 1971.
Much in the Finnish political system has changed since this book was published. Look for either a newer edition of this work or use Arter's book, which is more up-to-date and better written.
|Arter, David.||Politics and Policy-making in Finland New York: St. Martin's Press, 1987.|