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THE HABSBURG LEGACY
East Central Europe, 1500-2000 It is impossible to comprehend the problems that confront modern east central Europe without understanding the region's history. This course will examine its special evolution and problems from the perspective of the multinational Habsburg and Ottoman empires, and the countries that replaced them in the twentieth century. Individual topics will show how: geography played a key role in setting east-central Europe apart from the rest of the Continent; centuries of warfare between the Christian and Moslem worlds forced massive population shifts that created the region's current, hopelessly mixed ethnic map; the character of the Habsburg and Ottoman empires slowed the evolution of western models of government; religious antagonisms between Protestants, Catholics, Orthodox Christians and Moslems ultimately led to today's numerous ethnic conflicts; both German and Russian influence have deep and extensive historic roots. =========== CLASS TEXTS 1. Charles Ingrao, The Habsburg Monarchy, 1618-1815 2. Harold Nicolson, The Congress of Vienna 3. Edward Crankshaw, The Fall of the House of Habsburg 4. Bruce Pauley, The Habsburg Legacy, 1867-1939 5. Robert Kaplan, Balkan Ghosts ============== CLASS SCHEDULE Week 1 Origins to 1648 2 The Thirty Years' War 3 The Last Crusade 4 The Baroque Monarchy 5 Enlightened Absolutism 6 Revolutionary Age 7 The Metternich System Simulation: Congress of Vienna 8 1848 9 From Defeat to Dualism, 1850-1914 Simulation: Nationalities Congress 10 Origins & Outbreak of World War I 11 War & Peace 1914-1921 Simulation: Peace without Victory 12 The Consequences of Dissolution 13 Hitler & Stalin 14 Communism & Cold War 15 Post-Communism & Civil War Simulation: Is there a Solution? WEEK 1: ORIGINS TO 1618 A. Readings Charles Ingrao, The Habsburg Monarchy, 1618-1815 Ch. 1 B. Questions What makes the Habsburg monarchy so distinctive? How do the experiences of the Austrian and Spanish Habsburgs compare? Who and where are the region's various peoples, and how did they get there? WEEK 2: THE THIRTY YEARS' WAR A. Readings Ingrao, The Habsburg Monarchy, 1618-1815 Ch. 2 B. Questions What effect did the Counter-Reformation have on east central Europe? What is your assessment of the strategy/tactics pursued by the Habsburg regime? What were the Thirty Years' War's short- and long-term effects? How did it effect the relationship between Germany and the east central Europe? WEEK 3: THE LAST CRUSADE A. Readings Ingrao, The Habsburg Monarchy, Chapter 3. B. Questions Compare the Austrian and Turkish empires Explain regional religious conflicts: -Islam vs. Christianity -Protestantism vs. Catholicism Would you have been an "Easterner" or a "Westerner"? Why? What was the effect of 1683? What happens if Vienna falls? How did the region's demographic map change? How would you characterize the relationship between Hungary and monarchy? Whose side are you on? Why? How would you resolve the monarchy's "Hungarian Problem" ? Was the Ottoman Empire destined for defeat and decline? Why (not)? WEEK 4: THE BAROQUE MONARCHY A. Readings: Ingrao, The Habsburg Monarchy, 1618-1815, Chapter 4 ----- "The Pragmatic Sanction and the Theresian Succession: a Re-evaluation" B. Questions: Was a Second Habsburg Empire inevitable? What was the message behind the Baroque? To what extent did it accurately portray reality? What was the effect of the Pragmatic Sanction on east central Europe? WEEK 5: ENLIGHTENED ABSOLUTISM A. Readings Ingrao, The Habsburg Monarchy 1618-1815, Chapters 5-6 B. Questions What is the impact of: the Enlightenment? bureaucratic absolutism? Maria Theresa and Joseph II? How and to what extent does the region undergo Germanization? How would you have done things differently? Can you find anything in your reading that gives you cause for optimism? How would you characterize the Habsburg monarchy in 1792? WEEK 6: THE REVOLUTIONARY AGE A. Readings- Ingrao, The Habsburg Monarchy, Chapter 7 B. Questions- How does the monarchy's statesmen/people react to the French Revolution? Was theirs the best response/strategy? What would you have done differently? Was the Revolution really a threat to the monarchy? What impact did the French Revolution have on east central Europe? What is the relationship between literacy and nationalism? WEEK 7: THE METTERNICH SYSTEM A. Reading- Harold Nicolson, The Congress of Vienna B. Simulation:- THE CONGRESS OF VIENNA I. Agenda: 1. the disposition of France, Napoleon, and his family 2. territorial settlements for the great and lesser powers II. Objective: 1. to serve what you see as the interest of the country you represent 2. to achieve a secure and durable European peace settlement III. Procedure: You are strongly encouraged to submit proposals to other individuals before the Congress via E-Mail. This will permit you to prepare your position when the Congress actually convenes at 7PM on 15 March. Late arrivals risk having their countries (and their class credit) disappear. Any proposals that you make prior to the meeting should be recorded (either on E-Mail, on 5," diskette, or on paper). You should always justify your proposal to the country with whom you are negotiating. You should also send a copy to me, perhaps with additional justifications for my eyes only. Any individual who responds to your overtures, should follow this same format. Once the Congress has convened, all proposals should be submitted in writing. To be adopted by the Congress proposals must receive at least 5 votes (and a plurality of all votes cast). Votes will be weighted as follows: 2 Austria 2 Great Britain 2 Prussia 2 Russia 1 France 1 SHARED by Spain/Naples, Papacy, Sardinia, Netherlands, & Germany (not counted unless all 5 countries agree) The completed peace settlement must receive at least 6 votes to be adopted. WEEK 8: THE REVOLUTIONS OF 1848 A. Readings- Coursepack selections B. Questions: To what extent was the Metternich System a success? a failure? Why did revolution break out in the Habsburg monarchy? Could it have been avoided? Why did it fail? How would you have: (1) governed after 1815? (2) dealt with the revolution? How had the Metternich System affects the development of capitalism? liberalism? nationalism? C. Radio Free Europe - Radio Liberty Everyone in the seminar should begin receiving a daily digest from this E-Mail news service. To do so you must mail an E-Mail letter to: Listserv@UBVM.CC.Buffalo.Edu The text of your one-line letter should be: Sub RFERL-L YourLogin@Mentor.CC.Purdue.Edu
[EXAMPLE: Sub DoeJ@Mentor.CC.Purdue.Edu John Doe] WEEK 9: FROM DEFEAT TO DUALISM, 1850-1914 A. Readings- 1. Bruce Pauley, The Habsburg Legacy, Ch. 1 2. Read the relevant sections in one of the following: Kann, R.A. The Multinational Empire "" and Zdenek David, The Peoples of the Eastern Habsburg Lands 3. E-Mail: RFE/RL B. Questions- How would have you handled the monarchy's domestic/foreign affairs after 1848? What were the monarchy's three biggest problems after 1867? Were they soluble? Be prepared to rank the relative national consciousness of each nationality. What explains the wide variations among different groups? C. Simulation- NATIONALITIES CONGRESS I. Agenda: 1-What will be the country's official name ? 2-Who is sovereign ? 3-To whom will minister be responsible ? 4-Who will be qualified to vote ? 5-How will the monarchy be subdivided ? 6-What languages will be used in: schools & universities ? the regular army/navy & militia ? parliament & provincial assemblies ? inner correspondence (among civil officials) ? outer correspondence (between civil officials and the public) ? II. Objectives: 1. to serve what you see as the interest of the nationality you represent 2. to achieve a secure and durable settlement III. Procedure: You are strongly encouraged to submit proposals to other individuals before the Congress via E-Mail. This will permit you to prepare your position when the Congress actually convenes. Late arrivals risk seeing their nationality imperially and royally screwed. Once we convene: 1. The Congress represents all groups proportionally. 2. At least initially, we will vote as one, united body. 3. The Emperor reserves the right to have the final say on any issue. IV. Voting: All proposals must receive a plurality to pass. The overall settlement must be endorsed by an absolute majority (26 votes); of course, the larger the majority, the more durable the settlement is likely to be. 24 Germans 20 Magyars 13 Czechs 10 Poles 8 Ruthenes 6 Romanians 6 Croats 4 Serbs 4 Slovaks 3 Slovenes 2 Italians --- 100 WEEK 10: ORIGINS & OUTBREAK OF WORLD WAR I A. Readings- 1. Bruce Pauley, The Habsburg Legacy, Ch. 2 2. Coursepack, selections on the Ottoman Empire 3. E-Mail: RFE/RL B. Questions- What were the major destablizing developments within the Ottoman Empire? What developments and trends made a major European conflict more likely? Was the Great War inevitable? Who was at fault? -- BE PREPARED TO APPORTION THE GUILT! WEEK 11: WAR & PEACE 1914-1919 A. Readings- 1. Bruce Pauley, The Habsburg Legacy, Ch. 3 2. Jaroslav Hasek, Good Soldier Svejk 3. Individual readings chosen by nation B. Simulation- PEACE WITHOUT VICTORY I. Agenda: 1. the admission/exclusion of the defeated powers as voting members 2. territorial settlements for the great and lesser powers II. Objective: 1. to serve what you see as the interest of the country you represent 2. to achieve a secure and durable European peace settlement III. Procedure: You are strongly encouraged to submit proposals to other individuals before the Congress via E-Mail. This will permit you to prepare your position when the Congress actually convenes. Late arrivals and no-shows will be assumed to be suffering from dissolution. Any proposals that you make prior to the meeting should be recorded (either on E-Mail or on 5," diskette, but NOT on paper) for easy transmission of all correspondence after the Congress. You should always justify your proposal to the country with whom you are negotiating. You should also send a copy to me, perhaps with additional justifications for my eyes only. Any individual who responds to your overtures, should follow this same format. To save time, I strongly recommend that you submit any formal proposals to me before the Congress meets. Once it has convened, all proposals should be submitted in writing. To be adopted by the Congress proposals must receive at least a plurality of all votes cast. Votes will be weighted as follows: 3 Great Britain 3 France 3 United States 2 Italy 1 Serbia 1 Poland 1 Romania Germany Austria Hungary The completed peace settlement must receive an endorsement of TWO-THIRDS of the votes cast to be accepted. WEEK 12: THE CONSEQUENCES OF DISSOLUTION A. Readings- Bruce Pauley, The Habsburg Legacy, Ch. 4-6 B. Questions- Among the region's nationalities, who were the winners? losers? What were the consequences of dissolution -for each nationality? -for the region as a whole? WEEK 13: HITLER & STALIN A. Reading- Coursepack selections B. MOVIE- "Crisis at Munich" C. Questions- What were Hitler's and Stalin's objectives? policies? allies and enemies? Explain the actions of individual countries, including the great powers. WEEK 14: COMMUNISM & COLD WAR A. Reading- Vaclav Havel, The Power of the Powerless: Citizens against the State in Central-Eastern Europe B. Questions- Anationalism Revisited: To what extent did Communism parallel Habsburg dynasticism? What effect did Communism have on east central Europe? Was it better off under Communism? WEEK 15: POST-COMMUNISM & CIVIL WAR A. Readings- Misha Glenny, The Fall of Yugoslavia B. Questions- This time you ask them, then answer them. - send me a copy of 1-3 questions by E-Mail by noon Saturday - I'll then distribute the best ones to the seminar by Sunday night - You will be evaluated on both the questions and answers you give. C. Simulation- Is there a Solution? .
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