and against all those of that dishonest nation, who fell into our hands, the Mannlicher rifle has done its work. Of the 1,200 prisoners we took at Nigrita, only forty-one remain in the prisons, and everywhere we have been, we have not left a single root of this race.
I embrace you tenderly, also your brother and your wife
(2) Mr. Panaghi Leventi, Doctor Aliverion Euboea.
I also enclose herewith, the letter of congratulation from my commandant, Mr. Contoghiri in which he praises my squadron, which on the occasion of the short stay of a few days of our division, received the order at five o'clock, to march to the north of Serres. During the march, we engaged in a fight with the Bulgarian comitadjis, whom we dispersed, after having killed the greater part. We burnt the two villages of Doutlii and Banitza, the homes of the formidable comitadjis, and passed everything through the fire, sparing only the women, the children, the old people, and the churches. All this was done without pity or mercy, executed with a cruel heart, and with a condemnation still more cruel.
Merocostenitza, 12th July, 1913.
The outposts of the Army.
Love to you and also the others.
(3) Mr. Sotir Panaioannou, in the village of Vitziano, parish Ithicou Tricala de Thessalie.
River Nesto, 12th July, 1913.
Here at Vrondou (Brodi) I took five Bulgarians and a girl from Serres. We shut them up in a prison and kept them there. The girl was killed and the Bulgarians also suffered. We picked out their eyes while they were still alive.
Yours affectionately: COSTI.
(4) Bulgarian Frontier, 11th July, 1913.
DEAR BROTHER JOANI:
Here is where the archicomitadjis live. We have massacred them all. And the places we have passed will remain in my memory forever.
(5) RHODOPE, Bulgarian Frontier, 11th July, 1913.
And from Serres to the frontier, we have burnt all the Bulgarian villages. My address remains the same: 7th Division, 19th Regt.; 12 Battalion at RHODOPE.
JOAN CHRISTO TSIGARIDIS. (6) NESTOS, 13th July, 1913. Village Bansta,
If you want to know about the parts where we are marching, all are Bulgarian villages,
and everyone has fled. Those who remain are "eaten" by the Mannlicher rifle and we have also burnt a few villages. The Bulgarians suffered the same fate at the hands of the Servians.
(7) In the desert, 12th July, 1913.
. . . in Bulgarian territory, we are beating the Bulgarians who are continually retreating and we are on the point of going to Sofia. We enraged them by burning the villages, and now and again when we found one or two, we killed them like sparrows
Your brother GEORGE (name unreadable)
I am writing you in haste.
(8) Zissis Coutoumas to Nicolas Coutoumas.
With the present I give you some news about the war that we have made against Bulgarians. We have beaten them and have reached the Turkish-Bulgarian frontier. They fled into Bulgaria and we massacred those who remained. Further, we have burnt the villages. Not a single Bulgarian has been left. God only knows what will come of it. I have nothing more to write you. I remain, your Son Zissis Coutoumas. Many compliments from Thimios. He is well as also the other young men here.
12th July, 1913.
(9) M. Zaharia Kalivanis, Erfos-Milipotamos, Rethimo, Crete.
RHODOPE, 13th July, 1913.
Seal of the Commandant of Public Safety, Salonica
We burn all the Bulgarian villages that we occupy, and kill all the Bulgarians that fall into our hands. We have taken Nevrocop and were well received by the Turks, many whom came to our ranks to fight against the Bulgarians. Our army is in touch with Servian and Roumanian armies, who are 32 kilometers from Sofia. With regard to ourselves we are near the ancient frontier.
(10) July 15th, 1913.
My BROTHER SOTIR:
Thanks to God, I am well at the moment of writing you. We are at present on the Bulgarian-Thracian frontier. As far as the war is concerned, I can not tell you anything about the situation and what takes place. The things that happen are such that have never occurred since the days of Jesus Christ. The Greek army sets fire to all the villages where there are Bulgarians and massacres all it meets. It is impossible to describe what happens. God knows where this will end. The time of . . . has come for us to start eating one another.
Love from your brother PANAGHIS BEGLIKIS.
I am writing you in haste.
(11) Bulgarian Frontier, 12/VII/1913.
Everywhere we pass, not even the cats escape. We have burnt all the Bulgarian villages that we have traversed. I can not describe it to you any better.
Your loving brother
My address is as follows:
12th Squadron, 3d Battalion, 19th Regt. 7th Division-if away, send on.
(12) RHODOPE, 13th July, 1913.
MY DEAR LEONIDAS:
Keep well, as I am. That is what I wish you. I received your letter, which gave me great pleasure. I also received one from Aristides, who is well, and writes that he has also been enrolled, which pains me, because my sufferings are such that could not be consoled by tears, because everything is lost, because you can not imagine what takes place in a war. Villages are burnt, and also men, and we ourselves set fire and do worse than the Bulgarians.
Your affectionate brother,
(13) Mr. Demetrios Chr. Tsigarida at Mexiata Hypati--Phtiotis.
COPRIVA (?), 11th July, 1913
For the Greek Army, as souvenir of the Turco-Bulgarian war.
Seal of the Commandant of the 19th Regt.
I was given 16 prisoners to take to the division and I only arrived with 2. The others were killed in the darkness, massacred by me.
(14) IN BULGARIA, 13th July, 1913.
What a cruel war is taking place with the Bulgarians. We have burnt everything belonging to them, villages and men. That is to say, we massacre the Bulgarians. How cruel! The country is inundated with Bulgarians. If you ask how many young Greeks have perished, the number exceeds 10,000 men.
YOUR SON, TSANTILAS NICOLAOS.
P.S. Write me about the enrollments that are taking place. They are surely on the point of enlisting old men. Curses on Venizelos.
(15) To Georgi D. Karka (Soldier)
First Section of the Sanitary Corps, 9th Division.
The River Nestor, 12th July, 1913.
DEAR BROTHER GEORGI:
Thank God I am quite well after coming through these five engagements. Let me tell you that our division has reached the river Nestor, that is to say, the old Bulgarian Frontier, and the Royal Army has passed this frontier. By the King's orders we are setting fire to all the Bulgarian villages, because the Bulgarians burned the beautiful town
Serres, also Nigrita and a lot of Greek villages. We have turned out much crueller the Bulgars--we violated every girl we met. Our division took 18 pieces of artillery in good condition and two worn out pieces, altogether 20 cannon and 4 machine guns. It is impossible to describe how the Bulgars went to pieces and ran away. We are all well, except that K. Kalourioti was wounded at Nigrita and Evang the Macedonian got a bayonet wound while on outpost duty, but both are slight cases. Remember me to our countrymen and friends, although after coming through so much, thank God I am not afraid of the Bulgars. I have taken what I had a right to after all they did to us at Panghaion.
My greeting to you,
(Some illegible words follow.)
(16) M. Aristidi Thanassia,
Commune of Athanamow, Trikala, Thessaly.
14 July, 1913.
I have received your letter of the lst and I am very glad that you are well, after all, so are we up to now. Let me tell you, Aristidi, all we are going through during this Bulgarian War. Night and day we press on right into Bulgarian territory and at a moment we engage in a fight; but the man who gets through will be a hero for his country. My dear cousin, here we are burning villages and killing Bulgarians, women and children. Let me tell you, too, that cousin G. Kiritzis has a slight wound in his foot and that all the rest of us, friends and relations are very well including our son-in-law Yani. Give my greeting to your father and mother and your whole household, as well as cousin Olga.
That is all I have to say,
With a hearty hug. Your brother,
ANASTASE ATH. PATROS.
(17) M. George P. Soumbli, Megali Anastassova,
RHODOPE, 12th July, 1913.
* * * We got to Nevrokop, where again we were expected, for again we fought the entire day, and we chased them (the enemy) to a place where we set on the with our bayonets and took eighteen cannon and six machine guns. They manage to get away and we were not able to take prisoners. We only took a few, whom we killed for those are our orders. Wherever there was a Bulgarian village, we set fire to it and burned it, so that this dirty race of Bulgars couldn't spring up again. Now we are at the Bulgarian frontier, and if they don=t mend their manners, we shall go to Sofia.
With an embrace,
7th Division, 19th Regiment, 12th Company, Salonica.
(18) M. Christopher Kranea,
Rue Aristotle et de l'Epire 48. Athens.
RHODOPE, 14th July, 1913.
DEAR BROTHER CHRISTOPHER:
I am writing from Rhodope, a Bulgarian position, two hours away from the old Bulgarian frontier. If God spares me I shall write again. I don't know how much further we shall go into Bulgarian territory or if we are to have any more fights, as I don't know what further resistance we shall have to meet. If this war is to be the end of me, I pray the Almighty to comfort you greatly; and above all my mother and the relatives; but I hope that God will preserve my life. The money you speak of has not come yet. I have sent a few "bear-leaders" into a better world. A few days back my god-father Vassil Christon, tried his hand at shooting eight comitadjis. We had taken fifty whom we shared among us. For my share I had six of them and I did polish them off.
That is all I have to say.
Greeting from your brother,
(19) M. Georges N. Yrikaki,
Vari-Petro, Cydonia, Canea, Crete.
Macedonia, July 12, 1913.
* * * After that we went forward and occupied the bridge over the Strouma. A lot of Bulgars were hidden in different spots. After we had occupied the bridge we found numbers of them every day, and killed them. The Bulgars have burned the bridge to stop our advance towards Serres.
This is my address--
19th Regiment, 3d Battalion, 9th Company, 7th Division.
(20) To A. M. Nicolas Hartaloupa,
Ksilokastro, Tricala, Corinth.
Rhodopian Mountains, 18/7/1913.
DEAR BROTHER NICOLAS:
I am very well and I hope you are as well as I am. We have turned up close to the Bulgarian frontier. We are constantly pressing on and putting the enemy to flight. . . . When we pass Bulgarian villages we set fire to them all and lay them waste.
With an embrace,
(21) To Mme. Angheliki K. Lihouidi,
RHODOPE, July 13, 1913.
I send you my greetings. I am in good health. * * * We have to--such is the order--burn the villages, massacre the young, only sparing the aged and children. But we are hungary. * * *
(22) To M. Christo Tchiopra,
Petrilo, Arghitea, Karditza, Thessaly.
The River Nestor,
July 13, 1913.
My greeting to you. I am well and hope you are in good health. * * * This is something like real war, not like that with the Turks. We fight day and night and we have burned all the villages.
(23) Independant Cretan Regiment,
To Corporal Em. N. Loghiadi.
Dobrisnitza, 12th July, 1913.
* * * today I am answering your letters of the 22nd of May and the 21st of June. * * * We have had a little engagement near the Strouma with the refugees from Koukouch and Lahna. The guns mowed them down on the road. We did not succeed in occupying the bridge, which they burned in their retreat toward Serres. This letter is being sent from Mehomia.
(24) To M. Dimitri Koskinaki,
Skardelo, Milopotamo, Retimo, Crete.
Nevrokop, July 12, 1913.
I am well and I hope you are, too. * * * We burned all the Bulgarian villages on our route and we have almost reached the old frontiers of Bulgaria.
With an embrace,
(25) 11th July, 1913.
I have not time to write much; you will probably find these things in the papers. * * * It is impossible to describe how the Bulgarians are being treated. Even the villagers--it is butchery--not a town or village may hope to escape being burned. I am well and so is cousin S. Kolovelonis.
With a loving embrace,
(26) The Bulgarian Frontier, 11th July, 1913.
DEAR BROTHER ANASTASE:
I hope you are well. Don't worry, I am all right. We have had a lot of engagements, but God has spared my life. We had a fight at Nevrokop and took 22 cannon and a lot of booty. They can't stand up to us anywhere, they are running everywhere. We massacre all the Bulgarians that fall into our clutches and burn the villages. Our hardships are beyond words.
I embrace you and kiss my father's hand.
13th JULY, 1913.
All the villages here are Bulgarian, and the inhabitants have taken to flight as they did not wish to surrender. We set fire to all the villages and smash them up,--an inhuman business; and I must tell you, brother, that we shoot all the Bulgarians we take, and the are and a good number of them.
With an embrace,
11th July, 1913.
MY DEAR LEONIDAS:
I can't find paper to write to you, for all the villages here are burnt and all the habitants have run away. We burn all their villages, and now we don=t meet and a living soul. I must tell you that we are close upon the old frontiers of Bulgaria. We have occupied the whole of Macedonia except Thrace. * * * I want an immediate answer.
This is my address,
CORPORAL GEORGE KORKOTZI,
19th Regiment, 3d Battalion, 11th Com an 7th Division--wherever we may be.
No. 52.--A. BURNED VILLAGES IN BULGARIAN TERRITORY, DISTRICT OF STRUMNITSA
The list of burned villages which follows will be found to be accurate, in the sense that it includes no villages which have not been burned. But it is far from complete, save as regards the Kukush and Strumnitsa regions. Many other Bul arian villages were burned,
particularly in the Serres and Drama districts. In many cases we have not been able to discover the exact number of houses in a village. It will be noted that the list includes and a few Turkish villages in Bulgarian territory burned by the Greeks, and a few villages burned by the Servians. The immense majority of the villages are, however, Bulgarian villages burned by the Greek army in its northward march.
The number of burned villages included in this list is 161, and the number of houses burned is approximately 14,480.
We estimate that the number of houses burned by the Greeks in the second war can fall short of 16,000.
The figures which follow the names indicate the number of houses in each village.
Eleven Bulgarian villages burned by the Greeks, with number of houses in each.
Dabilia (50), Novo-selo (160), Veliussa, Monastira, Svrabite, Popchevo (43), Kostourino (130). Rabortsi (15), Cham-Tchiflik (20), Baldevtsi (2), Zoubovo (30).
Nine Turkish villages burned by the Greeks: Amzali (150), Guetcherli (5), Tchanakli (2), Novo-Mahala (2), Ednokoukovo (80), Sekirnik (30), Souchitsa (10), Svidovitsa (10), Borissovo (15).
Two Patriarchist villages, Mokreni (16), and Makrievo (10), with three-fourths of town of Strumnitsa, about 1,000 houses and shops.
In all over 1,620 houses.
District of Petrits.--Fourteen villages burned by the Greeks: Charbanovo, Breznitsa, Mouraski, Mitinovo, Ormanli, Michnevo, Starochevo, Klutch, Koniarene, Kalarevo, Mikrevo, Gabrene, Skrit and Smolare (the two last partially).
District of Razlog.--Dobrinishta (298).
District of Gorna.--Djoumaia, Simitli, Dolno-Souchitsa and Srbinovo (200)--the last burned by the Greeks after the peace of Bucharest.
District of Melnik.--Sixteen Bulgarian villages burned by the Greeks: Spatovo, Makrikostenovo, Sklave (30), Sveti-Vratch (200), Livounovo (60), Dolni-Orman (90), Tchiflitsite, Prepetcheno (20), Kapotovo, Kromidovo, Harsovo (100), Dolna-Oumitsa, Hotovo, Spatovo (16), Spanchevo (30), Otovo (60). District of Nevrokop.--Seven Bulgarian villages burned by the Greeks: Dolna-Brodi (300), Libiachovo (400), Kara-Keui (40), Godlevo, Tarlis (10), Obidin, Tcham-Tchiflik, and ten houses in the town of Nevrokop; also the Turkish village of Koprivnik (100).
B. BURNED VILLAGES OF BULGARIAN NATIONALITY IN GREEK TERRITORY
District of Salonica.--Bulgarian villages burned by the Greeks: Negovan, Ravna, Bogorod. District of Ziliahovo.--Bulgarian villages burned by the Greeks: Skrijevo, Libechovo, Kalapot (partially), Alistratik (partially), and Guredjik.
District of Kukush.--Forty Bulgarian villages burned by the Greeks: Kukush tow 1,846 houses, 612 shops, 5 mills. Idjilar (70), Aliodjalar (50), Goliabache (40), Salamanli (15), Ambar-Keui (35), Karaja-Kadar (25), Alchaklish (13), Seslovo (30), Stresovo (20), Chikirlia (15), Irikli (20), Gramadna (100), Alexovo (100), Morartsi (350), Roschlevo (40), Motolevo (250), Planitsa in part (180), Nimantsi (40), Postolar (38), Yensko (45), Koujoumarli (30), Bigliria (18), Kazanovo (20), Dramomirtsi (115) in part, Gavalantsi (45), Kretsovo (45), Michailovo (15), Kalinovo (35), Tsigountsi (35), Harsovo (50), Novoseleni in part (20), Malovtsi (20), Vrighitourtsi (15), Garbachel (30), Haidarli (10), Daoutli (18). Tchtemnitsa (40), Rayahovo (150) in part, Gola (15).
In all 4,725 buildings.
District of Doiran.--Eleven Bulgarian villages burned by the Greeks: Akanjeli (150), Dourbali, Nicolits, Pataros, Sourlevo, Popovo, Hassanli, Brest, Vladaia, Dimontsi, Ratartsi.
District of Demir-Hissar.--Five Bulgarian villages burned by the Greeks: Kruchevo (800), Kirchevo (180), Tchervishta (170), German (80), and Djouta-Mahala.
District of Serres.--Six Bulgarian villages burned by the Greeks: Doutli (100), Orehovatz (130), Drenovo, Moklen, Frouchtani, Banitsa (120).
District of Gevgheli.--Fifteen Bulgarian and three Vlach villages burned, mainly by the Greeks, but in two cases by the Servians: Sehovo, Schlopentsi, Matchoukovo, Smol, Baialtsi, Marventsi, Orehovitsa, Smokvitsa, Balentsi, Braikovtsi, Kostourino, Mouine, Stoyacovo, Fourca, and Ohani, Houma and Longountsa (vlach).
C. BURNED VILLAGES OF BULGARIAN NATIONALITY IN SERVIAN TERRITORY
District of Tikvesh.--Five Bulgarian villages burned by the Servians: Negotin (800), Kamendol, Gorna-Dissol, Haskovo, Cavadartsi (in part) (15), etc.
District of Kotchana.--Three Bulgarian villages burned by the Servians: Sletovo, Besikovo, Priseka, etc.