Senior Lecturer of Economic and Social History
Dept. of Social Science History, PL 54,
00 014, University of Helsinki, Finland,
Tel. +358-9-191 24900; E-mail: email@example.com
Points of Departure
In terms of the wilderness, Finland is a European superpower. Its forest resources are exceeded only by Russia and Sweden, and the number of its lakes, about 188,000, is second to none. In addition, its territory is the seventh largest in this continent, and only Iceland and Norway are less sparsely populated. As a result, there are good reasons to suppose that in these circumstances, the environment must have played a central role in Finnish history.
Although billions of tall trees are far more visible and numerous than five million people in the country, Finnish historiography, following European academic traditions, has generally preferred the focus on political, cultural, social and economic matters to that on the environment. However, environmental issues have not been neglected completely. They have at least provided settings for societal events and developments documented by history writing for the past nine hundred years, but occasionally the interest of historians has exceeded the basic level. Consequently, Finnish historical research has touched various themes, which are now related to environmental history.
Broadly speaking, Finnish environmental history can be divided in three phases: the embryonic phase from the 18th century to the mid-20th century, the formative phase from the 1950s to the early 1970s and the current phase from the mid-1970s to the present.
From pre-industrial times, Finns have discussed and debated mainly about four tangible features of their environment: climate, forests, water resources, and landscape. This outlook of peasant society was reflected in academic research in the embryonic phase of the emerging discipline. Like other scholars, historians also dealt with these central elements of nature. During the past three centuries, Finnish historical research has not been able to ignore relationships between society and nature; on the contrary, interactions between these two spheres have been discussed in various publications. I admit that very often the approach has been strongly anthropocentric. Occasionally, however, one can see that peasants as well as scholars have understood the importance of nature and emphasised humans’ responsibility to take care of it. However, the environmental awareness of peasant society was not based on scientific knowledge of ecology; it was based on practical experience and common sense. I call it “instinctive environmental consciousness.”
Early climate history started in 18th century Finland by making observations and collecting data, while a scientific target was to find out climatic regularities. Compiling historical statistics aimed to examine causal relationships between climatic conditions and harvests. Night frosts and consequent harvest failures were a real threat for Finnish agriculture during the Little Ice Age (1500–1870). Timber famines that had troubled Southern and Central Europe since the ancient times caused anxiety in Sweden and Finland, too. In addition, in early modern times a close neighbour, Denmark, faced an environmental crisis because the country had cut its forests. The governments of the 18th century Swedish kingdom, which included also Finland before 1809, attempted to find ways to limit and rationalise the use of timber resources. Particularly, inefficient stoves, slash-and-burn cultivation and tar production were thought to waste timber enormously. The poverty, ignorance and underemployment of peasants were seen as preventing more rational forestry. Public debate and research by contemporaries provide a great deal of material although most of available records cannot be classified as environmental history, not even an embryonic one. Dredging rapids and lowering lakes became a substantial part of agrarian policy at the turn of the 18th and 19th centuries. Earlier historiography gloried those activities as great achievements of civil engineering in pre-industrial Finland. However, the professor of history Ernst G. Palmén conducted research and assessed environmental impact of lowering lakes in the late 19th century. In a 1903 article, he sharply criticised that policy, claiming it was detrimental to the environment and risky for the economy. Because Palmén proved to have mature environmental consciousness and highlighted lowering lakes as an environmental problem of his time, I regard him as one of the trailblazers in Finnish environmental history.
In the 19th century, the national awakening and the rise of the fine arts directed the attention to landscapes. Provincial sceneries and prominent national landscapes were adopted as elements in building a national identity in Finland that at the time was a Grand Duchy under the Russian Emperor. Here the new layer was based on old peasant ideals of beautiful landscapes. A pathbreaking work in the national landscape history is the book Finland framstäldt i teckningar [Finland in drawings] (1845), which was illustrated by several artists and also included an explanatory text by Zacharias Topelius and A. Reinholm. The editors used landscape drawings to present both famous and historical sceneries of the fatherland in an embellished and romantic light. The book, which has later been reprinted several times, aimed to describe prominent landscapes in all provinces of the grand duchy.
In general, Finnish national landscapes have two central elements: forests and watercourses. Erämaa, the customary Finnish concept for a wilderness with large old-growth forests, has retained its place in the Finnish mind as a model for a real forest, although such wilderness areas have been diminished to a tiny fraction of the total forested area. A scene of an inland lake is still the most admired landscape. It is, of course, preferred that these two main elements are both included in the same view. Therefore, the most worshipped icon of the national scenery has been a clear blue lake in the embrace of a thick green forest, viewed from a high granite cliff.
In the 1890s, Finnish landscape painting made a transition from nature romanticism to symbolism, but did not give up nationalist themes. This genre even strengthened its links to national mythology, a love of the wilderness and an admiration of the simple and traditional way of life. The forested wilderness was used to symbolise a pure, unspoilt nature state and as a contrast to the decadence and complexity of modern industrialising civilization. Several paintings on wild, turbulent rapids and waterfalls have in turn been seen to stand for the strength and determination of the Finnish people in its struggle against russification and in dreaming of political independence.
Formative Phase of Environmental History during the Postwar Decades
After the October revolution in Russia, Finland gained its political independence in 1917. The Civil War of 1918 and the following economic difficulties dampened interest on environmental issues. However, the parliament of the new republic passed the first law on conservation in 1923. Important research was also done on the relationships between people and nature on the regional level, but in the interwar years, the number of works remained very few in this field.
In the 1950s, Finnish historians, geographers, anthropologists and social scientists who turned their interest again to the historical interactions between humanity and the environment were influenced by three sets of foreign models, and consequently a new, formative phase in Finnish environmental history embarked.
The first model for new environmental history was adopted from France, where a school of historians had gathered around the journal Annales d’histoire économique et sociale, founded by March Bloch and Lucien Febvre in 1929. The Annalists were interested more in the slowly changing structures of the past and phenomena of extensive periods than in the history of individuals and events. Following this Annalist tradition, Fernand Braudel claimed that environmental history is, at its best, so-called history of long duration, histoire de la longue durée. “To perceive and trace underlying structures one has to cover, in spendthrift fashion, immense stretches of time,” Braudel wrote about the foundations of civilizations.
second model, or actually a set of models, was derived from American
anthropology, human ecology and historical research. For example, the Finnish professor
of economic geography Ilmari Hustisch followed the model of an American
symposium Man’s Role in Changing the Face of
the Earth of 1955 and arranged a series of lectures on the same
topic four years later in Helsinki.
The third model for environmental history was adopted from a current debate on the exhaustion of natural resources. The first impulse was received from an article, The Historical Roots of Our Ecologic Crisis, by American historian Lynn White, Jr. Public discussion began in the media after the publication of a report called The Limits to Growth by the Club of Rome. The book was translated into Finnish in 1973, just a year after its publication in London.
In the early 1970s, the terms ekologinen historia, ecological history, and ympäristöhistoria, environmental history, were coined by Finnish researchers and considered more or less synonyms for each other. The first research project focusing on environmental history was set up in 1973, and its head, the licentiate of philosophy Veijo Saloheimo, was among the pathbreakers who first used the term ympäristöhistoria in print. Furthermore, in its final report the project defined the discipline in a modern way. At the time, the first courses on the topic were held at Finnish universities and various publications by Finnish researchers in the field were completed. It has sometimes been claimed that the 1970s were a decisive turning point in environmental awareness among Finnish historians. However, although new terms and fresh viewpoints established the cornerstones of a formative discipline, there were, at the time, less than a dozen scholars actively researching history from environmental viewpoints.
It is noteworthy that the rise of modern environmental history took place simultaneously in Finland and the USA, where the American Society for Environmental History (ASEH) was founded in 1975. In the following year, the society started to publish its journal Environmental Review. Therefore, Finnish developments were not merely reflections of contemporary trends in the United States or Central Europe. The coincidence of events does not support a hypothesis of imitation or a mechanical transfer of ideas. In contrast, if we examine the content of Nordic environmental history of the late 20th century more closely, we may notice that approaches, topics and terminology have only partly been adopted from current foreign models. The other part was mainly derived from deeper layers of common national experience and historical research. Besides external influences, national traditions have played a significant role in the rise of environmental history in Scandinavia and Finland. In the Nordic Countries, environmental aspects were being researched even before Rachel Carson wrote her book Silent Spring in the early 1960s and before the American approach to environmental issues reached the shores of the Baltic Sea.
The rest of this article focuses to analyse the third phase, the past thirty years, in Finnish environmental history because during that time the discipline has matured and developed considerably although it has not yet managed to gain an established status in any university of the country.
Contributions during the Last Quarter of the 20th Century
A pathbreaking rise clearly took place in Finnish environmental history in the late 1970s, when novel viewpoints and concepts were launched. A benchmark of this vital phase was the publication of the book Natur och byte [Nature and trade] by professor Sven-Erik Åström in 1978. It was received with enthusiasm by a small number of specialists but the mainstream of historians and the reading public ignored the book. Consequently, the author bought the bulk of the edition from the publisher just to prevent the sales of its copies at a reduced price.
After the second oil crisis in the late 1970s, Finland entered the next decade with a steadily growing economy. While the Yuppies dominated the 1980s, green ideas seemed to stay in the background. No major breakthroughs were made in the research on environmental history, although various books and articles were published. They were prepared mainly by scattered individuals, because at the time there were no big projects or research teams in the field. The high tide turned to an ebb.
In the 1980s, Maria Suutala wrote on national concepts of nature and the intellectual traditions in environmental history. Zoologist Yrjö Haila sketched “ecohistorical phases.” Antero Heikkinen pondered what would be promising objects for ecohistorical study. Social scientist Ilmo Massa continued his work on the history of Lapland and completed a book based on his licentiate thesis. He concentrated his study on the use of natural resources in the northernmost part of the country and applied an old German term Raubwirtschaft, “plunder-economy,” as his key theoretical concept. Another major theme of the decade was slash-and-burn cultivation. On that theme, Jussi Raumolin collected and edited a special issue for the Journal of the Finnish Anthropological Society and even managed to attract international attention to the topic. Anthropologist Matti Sarmala also wrote articles on Finnish slash-and-burn cultivation as a cultural system. In addition, meteorologist Reijo Solantie included the cultivation of rye in his study on climatic history. An important theme was also the research on environmental movements and policies. Sociologist Timo Järvikoski was the most productive in that field. During the decade, he published his Ph.D. thesis and some smaller research reports on environmental protests.
In the early 1990s, another turning point took place and a quick growth in research followed. Professor of botany Yrjö Vasari gathered a group of younger researchers together. As a result, the group organised an international symposium at the Lammi Biological Research Centre in 1992 and launched some new research projects. The boom was supported by special educational funds from the University of Helsinki and the Ministry of Education. Several lecture series in environmental history were delivered to dozens of students.
In the 1970s and 1980s, very few Finnish environmental historians had studied history as their major. Thus, it was a significant breakthrough in autumn 1991 when Historiallinen aikakauskirja, the Finnish Historical Journal, published a special issue on environmental history authored partly by “amateur historians.” It also meant an important symbolic recognition by mainstream historians. The issue included survey articles on environmental history in various countries and analyses on the characteristics of environmental history as a discipline. After this issue and the Lammi symposium, several students of history became interested in the field and began to prepare master’s and doctor’s theses on environmental themes.
Intellectual history continued be a major trend of research in the 1990s. Yrjö Haila wrote on ecology, science and society, while he turned his focus more on the research of current environmental policy. The research of gender issues in environmental history has been a rapidly growing sub-discipline abroad since 1974, when Françoise d'Eaubonne launched the term “ecofeminism” in her book. Although gender studies form an established field of research in Finland, ecofeminism has not, however, gained much popularity in this country. In environmental history, Maria Suutala represents a tiny group of Finnish ecofeminists. As an intellectual historian of Central Europe, she examines the relationships between humans and animals as well as gender issues mainly from the viewpoint of German traditions.
Forest history, in contrast, remained very popular during the past decade, while researchers expanded their field of interest to other topics than slash-and-burn cultivation. Ari Lehtinen earned his Ph.D. degree in geography with his research on timber-line conflicts in northern Finland. Jussi Raumolin prepared his doctoral dissertation in social policy on debates around forest-based development. Finally, a book on Finnish ecohistory by journalist Juha Kuisma and an anthology edited by Timo Myllyntaus and Mikko Saikku dealt with forests extensively.
Conservation and environmental movements attracted several researchers in the 1990s. Forester Eeva Hellström studied forest conflicts. Ari Lehtinen and Pertti Rannikko gave attention to local environmental movements. For sociologists, local controversies were fascinating objects for research at a time when citizens were losing their interest in traditional politics. Environmental conflicts especially attracted the younger generation. New social movements and the rise of the Green party to become a member of the Finnish government have also aroused international interest. In these studies, nature conservation was overshadowed by political movements. Political historian Sirje Nienstedt described the politisation of conservation and the rise of environmental policies in Finland.
Finnish landscape history has recently moved from the countryside to deal with urban areas, too. Among others, Maunu Häyrynen has specialised in researching the past of parks and gardens besides traditional national landscapes. In his publications, he deals with urban landscapes in their Finnish political and social context.
New Trends of the 21st Century
At the turn of the millennium, a new, energetic period started in Finnish environmental history, although several of research themes remained the same as before. Forest history is still well represented. Ismo Björn wrote a long-term history of forests and timber use in Northern Karelia. Also, Eeva Hellström’s Ph.D. thesis is related to forests and environmental conflicts. A new feature in Finnish forest history is that its focus is expanding over national borders, while research results are more often published in foreign languages and abroad. In addition, old themes of forestry are researched from afresh viewpoints. Examples of studies on foreign countries include books by Antti Erkkilä and Harri Siiskonen, who examined forestry in Southwest Africa, and publications by Mikko Saikku, who has been studying deforestation in a delta of the southern USA.
novel phenomenon during the past few years has been the rise of water history
and local environmental history. These two have frequently been connected.
Books have been published on the history of water supply systems in Helsinki, Turku,
Tampere and Hämeenlinna; an outline of national
development has been issued as well. Many of these studies not only
aim to relate water supply to the sewage system, but also to place both of them
in a larger context.
The third new feature is the great interest in environmental threats and catastrophes. This theme also often contains the history of diseases. Compared to other recent Finnish research topics, the history of environmental disasters differs clearly because of its close integration with international discussion. This is understandable since the greatest threats and the worst disasters have been abroad where most of the source material related to them is located and where these issues have been discussed more frequently. In the book compiled by Hannu Salmi, the term “catastrophes” is understood quite broadly and his team does not focus solely on environmental disasters. Furthermore, in their book, another group headed by Risto Marjomaa, Jouko Nurmiainen and Holger Weiss concentrated on wars, famines, diseases and death in their book, and there is a similar emphasis in the publication compiled by history students from the Tampere University. In his recent book, Heikki S. Vuorinen, in turn, approaches the history of diseases from a perspective of the history of medicine.
The fourth fresh feature is a recent discussion on the relationships between technology and the environment. The key point there is how economic growth and technological development have affected the environment during the industrialisation. Have consequences been only negative or have there been some positive impact as well? This debate have been related to the Finnish studies on the environmental Kuznets curve.
Environmental history has been included in the curricula of various Finnish universities since the late 1980s. The past twelve years witnessed a number of master’s, licentiate’s and doctor’s theses in the field, but the discipline does not have any teaching posts or study programmes of its own. In this respect, Finland lags far behind the United States and Sweden. Visits and lectures by several American and European environmental historians have assisted to bridge the gap. For example, Donald Worster has been to Finland a few times and Alfred Crosby has twice been a visiting professor at Helsinki University, both times an academic year.
Considering the number of researchers and publications, it can, however, be claimed that the study of environmental history in Finland has had an auspicious development. In the European context, Finland can hardly be classified as a latecomer, although environmental history lacks institutional recognition. Finnish researchers have continued previous traditions in this field of history, while at the same time opening new directions of inquiry. Furthermore, they have not restricted their research to the environmental history of their home country but have contributed, for example, to the study of African, Caribbean, European, and North American environmental history. In addition to active participation in conferences abroad, Finns have also organised international meetings on environmental history in their own country.
An analysis on Finnish research traditions suggests that the historiography of the discipline did not actually start three decades ago when the term ympäristöhistoria, environmental history, was introduced. Nor can the period of environmental consciousness among historians be limited only to the past thirty years. Even a short survey on Finnish historiography can show that environmental issues have been part of Finnish historical research for at least two and a half centuries.
Although the 1970s was not the very beginning of Finnish environmental history, it was an epochal turning point of this emerging discipline. Since then, a clear change towards ecocentric approaches and explicit environmental concern has taken place.
The main traditions of research, such as the history of climate, forests, water resources and landscapes, arose as early as the 18th and 19th centuries. Research topics have partly changed during the decades but various traditional works created a basis for current Finnish environmental history. First of all, they raised several issues that today are still essential. In addition, these sources continue to supply information, statistical data, concepts and methods for present studies on the two-way interactions between humanity and nature.
Current environmental history is built on previous traditions. Therefore, continuity and national heritage are strongly interwoven into recent concepts, even in the latest publications on Finnish environmental history. Owing to these long traditions, the rapid rise of environmental history in Finland has been possible and the achievements of his discipline without any established position have been impressive. However, I find something missing. Greater innovations, new breakthroughs, and pristine perspectives are issues that are at the moment lacking in the field. In my view, agricultural history, for example, is a rather old-fashioned discipline still containing various taboos. Although there are several options for re-evaluating our agricultural history, hardly any environmental historian has dared tackle this field. However, Harri Siiskonen took a big step to a new direction with his book Poison, spray, destroy.... Plant protection instructions in Swedish and Finnish professional agricultural journals, 1940 – 1980, where he, among other topics, compares reactions of the leading Finnish and Swedish agricultural journals to Rachel Carson’s striking claims in the early 1960s.
While I wonder why nobody has written on agricultural history from a vegetarian or vegan viewpoint, for instance, I well understand that such a task would need exceptional courage. In Finland, agricultural history is heavily charged with emotions and national myths. Presumably there are many questions that no one dares ask.
Old traditions may not always be beneficial; often they are mixed blessings. Without them, the impact of recent foreign studies on Finnish environmental history could have been much stronger than it has been. In my view, we Finnish environmental historians have perhaps been too engaged in our old traditions. They may have become burdens preventing us from seeing things from new angles. One might suggest that the absorption in traditional issues and old debates has postponed the inflow of new impacts into current Finnish environmental history.
 Traditional environmental issues and research topics have been examined more closely in the following survey articles: Timo Myllyntaus, Ympäristöhistorian näkökulma [A viewpoint of environmental history], Ympäristökysymys, Ympäristöuhkien haaste yhteiskunnalle, Eds. Ilmo Massa and Rauno Sairinen. Helsinki: Gaudeamus 1991, 93-114 and Timo Myllyntaus, Suomalaisen ympäristöhistorian kehityslinjoja [Outlines of Finnish environmental history], Historiallinen aikakauskirja vol. 89 (1991), 321-331.
 Thorkild Kjærgaard, The Danish Revolution, 1500–1800. An Ecohistorical Interpretation. Translated into English by David Hohnen, (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1994).
 E.G. Palmén, Suomessa tapahtuneista järvenlaskuista, [Lowering the surface of Finnish lakes], Valvoja 23 (1903), 365-385.
 Zacharias Topelius, ed., Finland framstäldt i teckningar (Helsingfors, 1845-1852); Zacharias Topelius, ed., Das malerische Finnland: 118 Ansichten der merkwürdigsten Örter in Finnland nach der Natur / La Finlande pittoresque: 118 vues des places les plus remarquables en Finlande, dessinées d’apres nature, (Helsingfors: 1853); Matti Klinge and Aimo Reitala, ed., Maisemia Suomesta. Z. Topeliuksen ja hänen taiteilija-aikalaistensa kuvateos uudelleen toimitettuna (Helsinki: Otava 1987).
 The literal translation is “hunting ground”, a remote and nearly uninhabited area.
 Martti Linkola, Suomalainen kulttuurimaisema [Finnish cultural landscape], Ympäristöestetiikka, Eds. A. Kinnunen and Y. Sepänmaa, (Helsinki: Gaudeamus, 1981), 118-149.
 Nationalist artists painted several landscapes of this kind. For example, Albert Edelfelt, Kaukolanharju auringonlaskun aikaan [Kaukolanharju at sunset], painted in 1889-90.
 Helmer Smeds, Malaxbygden. Bebyggelse och hushållning i södra delen av Österbottens svenskbygd. En studie i människans och näringslivets geografi [The Region of Malax. Settlement and the economy in southern part of a Swedish-speaking region in the province Österbotten. A study of a human and economic geography] (Helsingfors, 1935).
 Fernand Braudel, On History, (Chicago: Chicago University Press, 1980), 55; Fernand Braudel, A History of Civilizations, (New York: Penguin 1993), 28.
 The proceedings of the international symposium at Princeton University was edited by William L. Thomas, Jr., Mans’ Role in Changing the Face of the Earth (Chicago, 1956). Cf. Jeffrey K. Stine and Joel A. Tarr, At the Intersection of Histories. Technology and the Environment, Technology and Culture, vol. 39 (1998) no 4, 602.
 Symposium on Man’s Influence on Nature in Finland, Special issue edited by Stig Jaatinen, Fennia 85 (1960).
 Harold Innis, The Fur Trade in Canada (Toronto, 1930); Harold Innis, The Cod Fisheries (Toronto, 1940).
 Prof. Sven-Erik Åström and his disciple Kai Hoffman, for example. See Hoffman’s Ph.D. thesis: Suomen sahateollisuuden kasvu, rakenne ja rahoitus 1800-luvun jälkipuoliskolla [The growth, structure and financing of the Finnish sawmill industry in the late 19th century], Bidrag till kännedom av Finlands natur och folk H.124, (Helsinki: Societas Scientarium Fennica, 1980), 172-175.
 Lynn White, Jr., The Historical Roots of Our Ecologic Crisis, Science 155 (March 1967).
 Donella Meadows et. al., Kasvun rajat. Ihmiskunnan kohtalon tilannetta koskevaan Rooman klubin tutkimussuunnitelmaan liittyvä raportti, Translated by Kyösti Pulliainen, Pertti Seiskari ja Hannu Taanila, (Helsinki, 1973).
 The research group “An Environmental History of Eastern Finland” started its pilot study in August 1973, and in May 1974 the Academy of Finland provided funding for its proper project. More than a dozen researchers were involved and among them Veijo Saloheimo, Sven-Erik Åström and Jussi Raumolin were scholars who later published several works on environmental history. Veijo Saloheimo, Matti Lakio, Kari Pitkänen and Jukka Vuorinen, Itä-Suomen ympäristöhistoriallisen tutkimuksen loppuraportti, Publications of Karelian Institute no 33 (Joensuu: University of Joensuu 1978), 5-6.
 From various alternatives, ympäristöhistoria was found to fit in the Finnish language best, and therefore it was established as the term for the discipline. Veijo Saloheimo, Maankäyttö perinnäisen maatalouden muutoksissa, Publications of Karelian Institute no 28 (Joensuu: University of Joensuu 1977).
 “Research in environmental history aims to examine the impact of various production and distribution modes on the mutual relationships of human communities and nature,” Saloheimo et al., (1978), 5.
 The journal continues to be published under the name Environmental History. Timo Myllyntaus and Mikko Saikku, “Environmental History: A New Discipline with Long Traditions,” Encountering the Past in Nature. Essays in Environmental History, Eds. Timo Myllyntaus and Mikko Saikku (Athens, OH: Ohio University Press 2001), 13.
 Rachel Carson, Äänetön kevät, Translated from the first American edition of 1962 into Finnish by Pertti Jotuni, (Helsinki: Tammi, 1963). The book was also published in Swedish at the same year: Rachel Carson, Tyst vår, Translated by Roland Adlerberth (Stockholm: Tiden 1963). “ Silent Spring exposed the hazards of the pesticide DDT, eloquently questioned humanity’s faith in technological progress and helped set the stage for the environmental movement,” an American webpage describes the book in a nutshell (http://www.nrdc.org/health/pesticides/hcarson.asp).
 Sven-Erik Åström, Natur och byte. Ekologiska synpunkter på Finlands ekonomiska historia [Nature and exchange, Ecological aspects of Finnish economic history], (Ekenäs: Söderström & C:o, 1978).
 Maria Suutala, Luonto ja kansallinen itsekäsitys. Runeberg, Topelius, Lönnrot ja Snellman suomalaisen luontosuhteen kuvaajina[Nature and national self-image. Runeberg, Topelius, Lönnrot and Snellman as reflectors of the Finns' relationship to nature], Hyöty, sivistys, kansakunta, (Eds.) Juha Manninen and Ilkka Patoluoto, (Oulu, 1986), 237-270.
 Yrjö Haila, Ekohistorialliset kaudet eli alkuperäisluontoa etsimässä, [Ecohistorical phases or searching for original nature], Tiede ja edistys (1989) no 2.
 Antero Heikkinen, Ekohistoria tutkimuskohteena, [Ecological history as an object for study], Oikeutemme ympäristöön. Puheenvuoroja eri tieteenaloilta, (Eds.) Leena Aho and Seppo Sivonen (Juva, 1987), 24-41.
 Ilmo Massa, Ihminen ja Lapin luonto. Lapin luonnonkäytön historiaa [Humans and Lappish nature. A history of nature exploitation in Lapland], Suomen antropologisen seuran toimituksia 12, (Helsinki, 1983).
 Jussi Raumolin, Special Issue on Swidden Cultivation, Suomen Antropologi vol. 12 (1987) no 4, 183-279; Jussi Raumolin, “La ‘Raubwirtschaft’ au tournant du siècle,” Annales Economies, Sociétés, Civilisations, vol. 39 (1984), 798-819. The latter article has been published also in Italian in Primo Maggio. Saggi i documenti per una storia di classe (1986/87) no 26, 25-36.
 Matti Sarmela, Suomalainen kasviviljely kulttuurijärjestelmänä, [Finnish swidden cultivation as a cultural system], Kotiseutu (1989) no 1, 8-24.
 Reijo Solantie, Climatic conditions for the cultivation of rye with reference to the history of settlement in Finland , Fennoscandia archaeologica V, (Helsinki, 1988).
 Timo Järvikoski, Vesien säännöstely ja paikallisyhteisö: sosiologinen tutkimus valtakunnallisen päätöksenteon seurauksista esimerkkitapauksena Lokan ja Porttipahdan tekojärvet, [Regulation of watercourses and the local community, Sociological research on consequences of national decision making; Artificial lakes of Lokka and Porttipahta as case studies, Sosiologian tutkimuksia, Turun yliopisto, Sarja B, 19 (Turku, Turun yliopisto, 1979); Timo Järvikoski, Luonnonsuojelu yhteiskunnallisena vaikuttajana Suomessa, [Conservation as a social trend-setter in Finland], Politiikka (1984) no 2, 163-176.
 Outi Jokinen, Ympäristömelu ja yhteiskunnalliset rakenteet. Pohdintoja historijoitsijan paikasta ympäristötutkimuksessa, Esitelmä Historiatieteiden jatkokoulutuskonferenssissa “Edistyykö tutkimus?” Tampereella 3-4.6.2002. Available in the web: http://www.uta.fi/laitokset/historia/tutkijakoulu/sivut/paperi02/OutiJokinen.pdf.
 J. Donald Hughes, In the Neighborhood of the Great Bear. An Environmental History Workshop in Finland, ASEH News, vol. 4 (1993) no 1, 3-4; Some of the papers presented in the symposium were published in Environmental History Newsletter, Published by the European Association of Environmental History, (1993) no 5 and some in Environment and History, Special Lammi Symposium Issue, Richard Grove, Timo Myllyntaus and Mikko Saikku (eds.), vol. 2 (1996) no 1.
 Timo Myllyntaus, Ympäristötutkimus ja -opetus yhteiskuntahistorian laitoksella [Research and education at the Department of Social Science History], Ympäristötutkimus ja –opetus Helsingin valtiotieteellisessä tiedekunnassa, Ed. Ilmo Massa, Työraportteja 14/1998, (Helsinki: Helsingin yliopisto, Sosiaalipolitiikan laitos, 1998), 53-59.
 Historiallinen aikakauskirja, Special issue on environmental history, Guest editor Timo Myllyntaus, vol. 89 (1991) no 4, 291-331.
 Yrjö Haila, Vihreään aikaan. Kirjoituksia ihmisen ekologiasta, [Toward a green era. Writings on human ecology], (Helsinki, 1990); Yrjö Haila and Richard Levins, Humanity and Nature. Ecology, Science and Society, (London, 1992) Available also in Finnish.
 Françoise d'Eaubonne, Le féminisme ou la mort, (Paris: Horay 1974).
 Maria Suutala, Tier und Mensch im Denken der deutschen Renaissance, Ph.D. thesis, Studia Historica 36, Suomen Historiallinen Seura, (Helsinki, 1990); Maria Suutala, Naiset ja muut eläimet. Ihmisen suhde luontoon länsimaisessa ajattelussa, [Women and other animals. The human relationship to nature in western thought], (Helsinki, 1995).
 Ari A. Lehtinen, Northern Natures. A Study of the Forest Question Emerging within the Timber-line Conflict in Finland, (Helsinki, 1991). Reprint from Fennia 169 (1990) no 1, 57-169.
 Jussi Raumolin, The problem of forest-based development as illustrated by the development discussion, 1850–1918, Research reports 4/1990 (Helsinki: University of Helsinki, Department of Social Policy, 1991).
 Juha Kuisma, Tuli leivän antaa: Suomen ekohistoria [Fire provides bread: An Ecohistory of Finland], (Jyväskylä: Gummerus, 1997).
 Timo Myllyntaus and Mikko Saikku, Encountering the Past in Nature, Essays in Environmental History, Foreword by Alfred W. Crosby, First edition, (Helsinki: Helsinki University Press, 1999); Second, revised edition, (Athens, OH: Ohio University Press, 2001).
 Timo Myllyntaus (ed.), Liikkeen voima – Kansalaistoiminta ympäristökysymysten muovaajana [The power of the movement – The impact of citizens’ activities on environmental issues], Research reports no 122, (Oulu: University of Oulu Yliopisto, Research Institute of Northern Finland, 1994).
 Eeva Hellström and Aarne Reunala, Forestry Conflicts from the 1950s to 1983. A Review of a Comparative Study between USA, Germany, France, Sweden, Finland and Norway, European Forest Institute Working Paper 7, (Joensuu: European Forest Institute, 1996).
 Timo Järvikoski, Young people as actors in the environmental movements, Young, Nordic Journal of Youth Research 3 (1995) no 3, 80-93.
 Jukka Paastela, Finland's New Social Movements, Research Reports 86/1987, Dept. of political science, University of Tampere (Tampere, 1987); Jukka Paastela, Finland, The "Vihreät", New Politics in Western Europe, The Rise and Success of Green Parties and Alternative Lists, (Ed.) Ferdinand Müller-Rommel, (Boulder, Colorado 1989), 81-89; Ann-Sofie Storved, Neue Soziale Bewegungen und die Grünen in Finland: Entwicklung und Perspectiven, Forschungsjournal Neue Soziale Bewegungen (1993): 1, 25-32; Jukka Paastela, “Finland,” Environmental Politics, Special Issue: Green Parties in National Governments, Guest editors, Ferdinand Müller-Rommel and Thomas Poguntke, vol. 11 (Spring 2002) no 1, 17-38.
 Jyrki Heimonen and Jani Kaaro, Luonto-Liiton historia 1943–1998, Jatkosodan varjosta Jerisjärven tielle. [A History of Finnish Nature League, 1943–1998] (Helsinki: Luonto-Liitto, 1999).
 Sirje Nienstedt, Ympäristöpolitiikan alku. Ympäristönsuojelun tulo Suomen valtakunalliseen politiikkaan 1960- ja 1970-luvun vaihteessa [The beginning of environmental policy. Enterance of environmental policy into Finnish national politics at the turn of the 1960s and 1970s], Turun yliopiston poliittisen historian tutkimuksia 9, (Turku, 1997).
 Maunu Häyrynen, National landscapes and their making in Finland, Topos 7, (1994); Maunu Häyrynen, and Olli Immonen (eds.), Maiseman arvotus [Mystery of landscape], Kansainvälisen soveltavan estetiikan instituutin raportteja n:o 1, (Lahti: Kansainvälinen soveltavan estetiikan instituutti, 1996).
 Maunu Häyrynen, Maisemapuistosta reformipuistoon: Helsingin kaupunkipuistot ja puistopolitiikka 1880-luvulta 1930-luvulle, [From a landscape park to a reformist park: Urban parks and park policy in Helsinki from the 1880s to the 1930s], (Helsinki: Helsinki-seura, 1994); Maunu Häyrynen, Vihreät vuosirenkaat, Helsingin kaupunkipuistojen kehitys [Development of parks in Helsinki], Näkökulmia Helsingin ympäristöhistoriaan. Kaupungin ja ympäristön muutos 1800-ja 1900-luvuilla, Eds. Simo Laakkonen, Sari Laurila, Pekka Kansanen and Harry Schulman, (Helsinki: Helsingin kaupungin tietokeskus, 2001), 32-51.
 Ismo Björn, Kaikki irti metsästä: metsän käyttö ja muutos taigan reunalla itäisimmässä Suomessa erätaloudesta vuoteen 2000, Bibliotheca historica 49, (Helsinki: Suomen historiallinen seura, 2000). Summary: Capitalizing on the forest : Use, users and change in the forest in the wilderness economy on the edge of the taiga in Eastern Finland through the year 2000.
 Eeva Hellström, Conflict cultures: Qualitative comparative analysis of environmental conflicts in forestry, Silva Fennica, Monographs 2, (Helsinki: Finnish Society of Forest Science & Finnish Forest Research Institute, 2001). Ph.D. thesis, Electronic version: http://ethesis.helsinki.fi/julkaisut/maa/talou/vk/hellstrom/ .
 For example: Myllyntaus, Hares & Kunnas, “Sustainability in Danger?” Environmental History (2002); Timo Myllyntaus & Timo Mattila, “Decline or Increase? The Standing Timber Stock in Finland,” Environmental Economics vol. 41 (May 2002) no 2, 271-288; available online at http://elsevier.dmdelivery.nl/?eNMrLtTX%2BX2RrZmZsYfQ%2F2dbwf7FtvCEAUBYHpA%3D%3D
 Myllyntaus and Saikku (eds.), (2001).
 Antti Erkkilä and Harri Siiskonen, Forestry in Namibia 1850–1990, Silva Carelica 20, (Joensuu: University of Joensuu, Faculty of Forestry, 1992).
 Mikko Saikku, The Evolution of a Place: Patterns of Environmental Change in the Yazoo-Missisippi Delta from the Ice Age to the New Deal, Renvall Institute publications no. 12 , (Helsinki: University of Helsinki, Renvall Institute for Area and Cultural Studies, 2001).
 M. Stenroos, V.-P. Toropainen and J. Vallin, Turkulaisen veden pitkä matka Halisen koskelta Turun keskuspuhdistamolle, Turun vesilaitoksen juhlakirja [A long journey of water from the Halinen rapids to the central purification plant, The festschrift for the municipal waterworks of Turku], (Turku, 1998); Petri Juuti, Kaupunki ja vesi: Tampereen vesihuollon ympäristöhistoria 1835–1921(Tampere: KehräMedia, 2001); Includes an English summary: City and water, Environmental history of water and sanitation services in Tampere, 1835-1921; Petri Juuti, Riikka Rajala and Tapio Katko, Terveyden ja ympäristön tähden. Hämeenlinnan kaupungin vesilaitos 1910 - 2000 [For health and the environment, The municipal waterworks of Hämeenlinna, 1910 - 2000], (Hämeenlinna, 2000); Simo Laakkonen, Vesiensuojelun synty: Helsingin ja sen merialueen ympäristöhistoriaa 1878-1928, (Helsinki: Gaudeamus, 2001); English summary: The origins of water protection in Helsinki 1878-1928; Timo Herranen, 125 Years of Life with Water. The History of Water Services in Helsinki (Helsinki: Helsinki Water, 2002).
 Tapio Katko, Water! Evolution of Water Supply and Sanitation in Finland from the mid-1800s to 2000, (Helsinki: Finnish Water and Waste Water Works Association, 1997) .
 See for example: Vesa-Matti Lahti, Riskiyhteiskunta tuli kylään: sosiologien tutkimus vesijohtoveden saastumisen seurauksista ihmisten elämässä [Risk society became to visit: A sociological research on the consequences of polluted tap water to people’s life], (Helsinki: University of Helsinki, 1996).
 Vesitalous,Finnish Journal for Professionals in the Water Sector, vol. 43 (2002) no 2.
 Juha Ylimaunu, Itämeren hylkeenpyyntikulttuurit ja ihminen-hylje –suhde, Suomalaisen Kirjallisuuden Seuran toimituksia no 773, (Helsinki: Suomalaisen Kirjallisuuden Seura, 2000), Ph.D. thesis with an English summary: The sealing cultures and the human-seal relationship of the Baltic Sea.
 Hannu Salmi, (ed.): Lopun alku. Katastrofien historiaa ja nykypäivää [The beginning of the end. History of catastrophes and the present], (Turku: Turun yliopisto, 1996).
 R. Marjomaa, J. Nurmiainen and H. Weiss, Ilmestyskirjan ratsastajat. Sota, nälka, taudit ja kuolema historiassa [Apocalyptic riders. War, hunger, diseases and death in history], (Tampere: Vastapaino, 2000).
 Erik Tirkkonen ja Tanja Vahtikari (eds.), Ihminen katastrofissa: sodat, taudit, ympäristötuhot: Kirjoituksia katastrofien historiasta [The humans in a catastrophe: Wars, diseases and environmental damage: Writings on the history of catastrophes], Tampereen yliopiston historian opiskelijoiden julkaisuja no. 1, (Tampere: Patina, 1999).
 Heikki S. Vuorinen, Tautien historia [A history of diseases], (Tampere: Vastapaino, 2002).
 An interview by Timo Paukku, “Teknologian mansikkapaikoilla” [Strawberry patches of technology], Helsingin sanomat, 16.11.2002, C15; Timo Myllyntaus, Technology and the Environment, Searching for their Nexus in History, Tekniikan Waiheita (2003) no 1 (forthcoming); Timo Myllyntaus, A Line drawn in the Water. Historical Perspectives on Technology and the Environment, an article manuscript .
 T. Haukioja & J. Kaivo-oja, Talouskasvu ja ympäristö: kestämätöntä vai kestävää kasvua teollisuusmaissa? [Economic growth and the environment: unsustainable or sustainable growth in the industrialised countries], Kansantaloudellinen aikakauskirja, vol 94 (1998) no 1, 49-61; Jan Kunnas, Ympäristötaloudellinen Kuznets-käyrä-hypoteesi ja Suomen energiantuotantoon liittyvä ilman saastuminen [Environmental Kuznets-curve hypothesis and air pollution by Finnish energy production], Master’s thesis, Dept. of Economics, University of Helsinki, 2001; Jan Kunnas & Timo Myllyntaus, Environmental Kuznets Curve Hypothesis and Air Pollution in Finland, an unpublished article manuscript; Jan Kunnas & Timo Myllyntaus , CO2 Emissions from Fossil Fuel Burning – Comparative Case Studies on Austria, Denmark, Finland, Sweden and Switzerland, 1830 – 2000, A paper presented in the 29th Symposium of ICOHTEC - The International Committee for the History of Technology, Granada, Spain, June 24-29, 2002.
 Myllyntaus & Saikku, (2001), 27.
 At least two bibliographies have been compiled that contain information on publications in Finnish environmenal history: Tytti Viinikainen (ed.), Yhteiskuntatieteellinen ympäristötutkimus Suomessa. Katsaus tutkimusaloihin ja kirjallisuuteen [Environmental research in Finnish social sciences. An overview of the research fields and literature, 1990 -1996], (Helsinki: Finnish Environment Institute & Edita, 1997); Myllyntaus, Finnish Environmental History. A Short Bibliography, Working paper no 1 by the research project “Energy and the Environment,” (Helsinki, 2002).
 Harri Siiskonen, Myrkyttäkää, ruiskuttakaa, hävittäkää... Ruotsalaisten ja suomalaisten maatalouden ammattilehtien kasvinsuojeluvalistus 1940–1980, Historiallisia tutkimuksia 209, (Helsinki: Suomalaisen kirjallisuuden seura, 2000); Harri Siiskonen, Silent Spring and the Nordic Agricultural Magazines, Scandinavian Economic History Review vol. 50 (2002) no 1, 7-23.
This article will appear in an edited book, Miljöhistoriska aspekter och aspekter på miljöhistoria, ed. by Erland Mårald & Christer Nordlund, Skrifter från forskningsprogrammet Landskapet som arena nr X (Umeå, 2003), and is published online with the kind permission of the editors and author.
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