See Louis Massignon, La Passion de Husayn Ibn Mansur Hallaj: martyre mystique de l'Islam executé a Baghdad le 26 mars 922: étude d'histoire religieuse, 2 vols., Paris, 1922; new ed., Paris, 1975 (Eng. trans. by H. Mason as The Passion of al-Hallaj, Mystic and Martyr of Islam, 4 vols., Bollingen Series XCVIII, Princeton, 1982). The section covering the trials constitutes chapter VI of volume 1.
 See R. Blackwell, Galileo, Bellarmine, and the Bible, Notre Dame, 1991; R. Feldhay, Galileo and the Chuirch: political inquisition or critical dialogue?, Cambridge, 1995; M. A. Finocchio (ed. and trans.), The Galileo Affair: A Documentary History, University of California Press, 1989; G. De Santillana, The crime of Galileo, New York, 1953; R. S. Westfall, Essays on the Trial of Galileo, Notre Dame, 1989; H. Vedrine, Censure et pouvoir: trois proces: Savonarole, Bruno, Galilée, Paris, 1976;
 See A. Mercati, Il sommario del processo di Giordano Bruno, con appendice di documenti sull' eresia e l'inquisizione a Modena nel secolo 16, Vatican City, 1942; G. Aquilecchia, Giordano Bruno, Rome, 1971; W. Boulting, Giordano Bruno: His Life, Thought and Martyrdom, London, 1914.
 See The Trial of Joan of Arc: Being the Verbatim Report of the Proceedings from the Orleans Manuscript, Westport, Conn., 1956; L. Morice, Joan of Arc: a Recreation of her 1431 trial for treason, Lakeside, Ca., 1991; R. Pernoud, The retrial of Joan of Arc: the evidence at the trial for her rehabilitation, 1450-1456, London, 1955; W. S. Scott, The Trial of Joan of Arc, 1968; J. Quicherat, Proces de condamnation et de réhabilitation de Jeanne d'Arc, New York, 1960; K. Sullivan, Inquiry and Inquisition in Late Medieval Culture: the Questioning of Joan of Arc and Christine de Pisan, Ph.D., University of California, 1993.
 See R. H. Bainton, Hunted Heretic: The Life and Death of Michael Servetus, 1511-1553, Boston, 1953; J. Friedman, Michael Servetus: A Case Study in Total Heresy, Geneva, 1978.
 See A. Dondaine, Les hérésies et l'Inquisition XIIe-XIIIe siecles: documents et études, London, 1990; C. T. Gorham, The Medieval Inquisition: A Study in Religious Persecution, London, 1918; B. Hamilton, The Medieval Inquisition, London, 1981; H. Kamen, The Spanish Inquisition, New York, 1956; G. Henningsen, Inquisition and Interdisciplinary History: Report from an International Symposium on the Medieval and Modern Inquisition, Copenhagen, 1979; H. C. Lea, The Inquisition of the Middle Ages: Its Organization and Operation, New York, 1900; W. Monter, Frontiers of Heresy: the Spanish Inquisition from the Basque Lands to Sicily, Cambridge, 1990; B. Netanyahu, The Origins of the Inquisition in Fifteenth Century Spain, New York, 1995; C. Roth, The Spanish Inquisition, 1964; R. Sabatini, Torquemada and the Spanish Inquisition, rev. ed., Boston, 1930; Domenico Scandella known as Menocchio: His Trials before the Inquisition (1583-1599), Binghampton, N.Y., 1996; S. Seidel Manchi, Erasmus als Ketzer: Reformation und Inquisition im Italien des 16 Jahrhunderts, Leiden, New York, 1993; A. C. Shannon, The Medieval Inquisition, Washington, D.C., 1983; Symposium Internacional sobre la Inquisizion Espanola, The Spanish Inquisition and the Inquisitorial Mind, Boulder, Colo., 1987; J. Tedeschi, The Prosecution of Heresy: Collected Studies on the Inquisition in Early Modern Italy, Binghampton, NY, 1991; A. S. Turberville, Medieval Heresy and the Inquisition, London, 1920; W. C. Wakefield, Heresy, Crusade and Inquisition in Southern France 1100-1250, London, 1974.
 See Association of Social Anthropologists of the Commonwealth, Witchcraft Confessions and Accusations, London & New York, 1970; H. Boguet, An Examen of Witvches Drawn from Various Trials of Many of this Sect in the District of Saint Oyen de Joux Commonly known as Sainte Claude in... Burgundy, trans. E. A. Ashwin, ed. M. Summers, [London], 1929; C. H. L. Ewen, Witch Hunting and Witch Trials: the Indictments for Witchcraft from the Records of 1373 assizes held for the Home Circuits AD 1559-1736, London, 1929; J. Hansen, Zauberwahn, Inquisition und Hexenprozess im Mittelalter, und die Entstehung der grossen Hexenverfolgung, 1964; G. Henningsen, The Witches' Advocate: BAsque Witchcraft and the Spanish Inquisition, 1609-1614, 1980; R. Martin, Witchcraft and the Inquisition in Venice 1550-1650, Oxford, 1989;
 See Z. Oldenbourg, Massacre at Montsegur: A History of the Albigensian Crusade, New York, 1961; J. R. Strayer, The Albigensian Crusades, Ann Arbor, 1971; B. Hamilton, The Albigensian Crusade, 1974; H. T. Warner, The Albigensian Heresy, London & New York, 2 vols., 1922;
 See E. Peters, Heresy and Authority in Medieval Europe; London, 1980; N. P. Tanner (ed.), Heresy Trials in the Diocese of Norwich, 1428-31, London, 1977; R. Kieckhefer, Repression of Heresy in Medieval Germany, Ph. D., University of Texas at Austin, 1972.
 See Monkey trial : the State of Tennessee vs. John Thomas Scopes, Boston, 1960; L. Sprague De Camp, The Great Monkey Trial, [New York], 1967; R. Halliburton, The Scopes "Monkey Trial" and its thirty-fifth anniversary celebration, [n. p.], 1964, Reprinted from the Proceedings of the Oklahoma Academy of Science, vol. 44, 1964; Marvin N. Olasky, When world views collide: journalists and the great monkey trial: paper presented at the annual meeting of the Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication (69th, Normou, OK, August 3-6, 1986), Alexandria, VA., 1986; Tom McGowen, The great monkey trial: science versus fundamentalism in America, New York, 1990; W.C. Bledsoe, 'Scopes "Monkey" trial', in Tennessee's role in U.S. constitutional development: a series of essays, Murfreesboro, TN, 1991; S. L. Harrison, The Scopes "monkey trial", revisited: Mencken and the editorial art of Edmund Duffy, [USA], 1993.
 See A. D. Shupe Jr. and D. G. Bromley, The New Vigilantes: Deprogrammers, Anti-Cultists and the New Religions, Veverley Hills, London, 1980; T. Rabbino, Cults, Culture, and the Law, Chico, Ca., 1985; D. Bromley and J. Richardson (eds.), The Brainwashing/Deprogramming Controversy: Sociological, Psychological, Legal, and Historical Perspectives, New York, 1983; D. M. Kelley, 'Deprogramming and Religious Liberty', The Civil Liberties Review, July/August 1977, pp. 23-33; J. T. Biermans, The Odyssey of New Religious Movements: A Case Study of the Unification Church, Lewsiton, NY, 1986.
 Though insufficiently studied, the definition of heresy within science (particularly medicine) is of immense importance. Thomas Kuhn's study of paradigm shifts (The Structure of Scientific Revolutions, 2nd. ed., Chicago, 1970) and Harry Collins's work on replication (Changing Order: Replication and Induction in Scientific Practice, London, 1985 ) both indicate the broad context within which such studies can shed light on the creation and maintenance of scientific orthodoxy. Thomas Szasz's controversial but lucis studies of the links between psychiatry and the law are equally illuminating (Law, Liberty, and Psychiatry, London, 1974; The Therapeutic State, Buffalo, NY, 1984; The Manufacture of Madness: A Comparative Study of the Inquisition and the Mental Health Movement, New York, 1970). See also R. Wallis (ed.), On the Margins of Science: The Social Construction of Rejected Knowledge, Keele, 1979; R. Wallis and P. Morley (eds.) Marginal Medicine, London, 1976.
 For an examination of the links between social normalization, punishment, tutelage, torture, and the political and social realms, see Darius M. Rejali, Ttorture and Modernity: Self, Society, and State in Modern Iran, Boulder, San Francisco, Oxford, Westview Press, 1994.
 The Ahmadi/Qadiyani issue is mainly restricted to Pakistan, although `ulama and newspapers in other Muslim countries do issue condemnations from time to time. Trials of Baha'is in Iran are well known, but there have been several important judgements in cases throughout the Islamic world, including Morocco (1962), Egypt (1985), and even Turkey (1928, 1933). The literature on this subject is immense. I intend to publish a bibliography of Arabic and Persian material shortly.
 There were some inquisitions of leaders of the Ni`mat Allahi Sufi revival in late eighteenth-century and early nineteenth-century Iran (William Royce, 'Mir Ma'sum 'Ali Shah and the Ni'mat Allahi Revival 1776-77 to 1796-97', Ph. D., Princeton University, 1979, p. 173. We have details of the inquisition of Ma`sum `Ali Shah, but only in an anti-Sufi treatise by the alim who organized the trial and issued the death sentence, Mulla Muhammad `Ali Bihbihani (see ibid, p. 170, cited Bihbihani's Risala-yi Khayratiyya as cited in other works).
Sayyid Kazim Rashti, al-Ahsa'i's successor as head of the Shaykhi school, was summoned to more than one inquisitorial gathering; but these seem to have been more in the nature of debates than formal trials (see D. MacEoin, 'From Shaykhism to Babism', Ph. D., University of Cambridge, 1979, pp. 106, 108-109). Our record of these meetings is extremely limited.
Baha' Allah was briefly detained and interrogated by the civil authorities during his exile to Acre, following the murder of three Azali Babis by seven of his followers. This interrogation was part of the investigation of the crime and does not seem to have touched on his religious claims or beliefs (see H. M. Balyuzi, Bahá'u'lláh The King of Glory, Oxford, 1980, pp. 326-30).
 Moojan Momen, 'The Trial of Mulla `Ali Bastami: A Combined Sunni-Shi`i Fatwa against the Bab', Iran 20 (1982): pp.113-43; Abbas Amanat, Resurrection and Renewal: The Making of the Babi Movement in Iran, 1844-1850, Ithaca and London, 1989, pp. 220-238.
18 The Nasikh al-tawarikh mistakenly places this event under the year 1263.
 Mazandarani uses, among others, the terms majlis-i mukalima, baz-khwast, and muhakama. Mirza Asad Allah Fadil-i Mazandarani, Kitab-i zuhur al-haqq, vol. 3, Tehran, n.d., p. 14.
20 Za`im al-Dawla describes it as hay'ati az `ulama' va fuqaha' va fudala' va umara' va shakhsiyyatha-yi buzurg az a`yan va saran-i shahr, bi-riyasat-i khudash [i.e. the Crown Prince] (Mirza Mahdi Khan Za`im al-Dawla, Miftah Bab al-abwab ya tarikh-i Bab va Baha, Persian trans. by Hajj Shaykh Hasan Farid-i Gulpaygani, 3rd. ed., Tehran, 1328 sh./1968, p. 137.
 It is not impossible that the idea of confronting the Bab with a tribunal made of chiefly of clerics came from the prophet himself. In one of his letters to Muhammad Shah, dated 1264, he writes: 'Why do you not summon the `ulama of the land and then summon me, so that I may confound them just as I did with others before them, from among the deniers?' (Muntakhabati az ayat az athar-i Hadrat-i Nuqta-yi Ula, [Tehran], 134 badi`/1977-8, p. 11).
22 A facsimile, text, and translation of this fatwa were published by Browne (E. G. Browne, Materials for the Study of the Bábiå Religion, Cambridge, 1918, pp. 258-59. Browne suggests that `Ali Asghar was Mirza `Ali Asghar Shaykh al-Islam,.but is unable to identify Abu 'l-Qasim. The latter was, in all probability, the Shaykh al-Islam's son, Shaykh Abu 'l-Qasim. Curiously enough, it is likely that neither of these men was actually present at the tribunal. Abu 'l-Qasim later wrote an attack on the Bab entitled Qal` al-Bab, which has not been published. Amanat (p. 388) describes him as `Ali Asghar's 'nephew' and finds references to him in Zarandi and Mu`in al-Saltana which are not there.
 See, for example, Mazandarani, Zuhur al-haqq, p. 15; `Abd al-Husayn Nava'i (ed.), Fitna-yi Bab, 2nd. printing, Tehran, 1351/1973, p. 127.
 For facsimile, text, and translation, see Browne, Materials, pp. 248-55.
 For facsimile, text, and translation, see ibid pp. 256-58.
 See ibid, pp. 260-62.
27 Rida Quli Khan Hidayat, Tarikh-i Rawdat al-safa-yi Nasiri, vol. 10, Qum, 1339 sh./1961, pp. 423-28. A translation of this account, with additions and adjustments, is provided by E. G. Browne in A Traveller's Narrative Written to Illustrate the History of the Báb, Cambridge, 1891, vol. 2, pp. 277-90. Volume 10 of the Rawdat al-s]afa was first published in 1274/1857.
28 Mirza Muhammad Taqi Lisan al-Mulk Sipihr, Naasikh al-tawarikh: Salatin-i Qajar, Tehran, 1385/1965, 4 vols. in 2, vol. 3, pp. 126-30. Sipihr finished the Qajar volumes of his history in 1274/1857-58, and the first edition was probably a continuation of the 1273 edition of the entire history.
29 Published as Fitna-yi Bab, ed. `Abd al-Husayn Nava'i, 2nd. printing, Tehran, 1351/1973, pp. 20-28. An earlier edition is recorded in the Russian version of Storey: vol. 1, ed. Qasim Radi, Tehran, 1343/1964. Nava'i is coy about the manuscript which forms the basis of his text. There appears to be a manuscript in the Majlis library.
 So far published only in English translation, or in translations based on it: [Mulla Muhammad Nabil Zarandi], The Dawn-Breakers: Nabiål's Narrative of the Early Days of the Bahá'iå Revelation, ed. and trans. Shoghi Effendi, Wilmette, Ill., 1932, pp. 314-19. For comments on this source, see MacEoin, Sources, pp. 166-69.
31Haji Mirza Jani Kashani, Kitáb-i-Nuqtatu'l-Káf, ed. E. G. Browne, London & Leiden, 1910, pp. 133-36. For details of this source, see MacEoin, Sources, pp. 134-52.
 Mirza Muhammad Taqi Mamaqani, Namus-i Nasiri, published as Guft-u-shunud-i Sayyid `Ali Muhammad Bab ba rawhaniyun-i Tabriz, ed. Hasan Mursilvand, Tehran, 1374 sh./1996, p. 26.
 Rida Quli Khan Hidayat, Tarikh-i Rawdat al-safa-yi Nasiri, vol. 10, Qum, 1339 sh./1961. Nava'i (Fitna p.127) states that Nizam al-`Ulama's son compiled a file (daftar) from which Hidayat and Sipihr took their accounts.
 This is difficult to establish. Both books were finished and published around 1273/1274, but it does seem to be the case that Sipihr borrowed from his contemporary.
 Or Mamaqani.
 These are more difficult to be sure of. The original text was published in Arabic, and the Persian version is a translation.
 See D. MacEoin, The Sources for Early Babi Doctrine and History, Leiden, 1992, p. 175. My text for the section dealing with the trial of the Bab (p. 201 ff.) is a photocopy of poor quality, which adds to the difficulties posed by bad handwriting. Access to the original manuscript is presently impossible.
 See MacEoin, Sources, p. 151.
 For a comprehensive review of these, see D. MacEoin, The Sources for Early Babi Doctrine and History: A Survey, Leiden, 1992.
 See [Sayyid `Ali Muhammad the Bab] and [Sayyid Husayn Katib-i Yazdi], Qismati az alwah-i khatt-i Nuqta-yi Ula wa Sayyid Husayn-i Katib, [Tehran], n.d., p. 13 (awwal man baya`a bi Muhammad Rasul Allah, thumma `Ali) and p. 17 (awwal man baya`a bi 'l-Qa'im Muhammad Rasul Allah ). The first of the Bab's disciples, Mulla Muhammad Husayn Bushru'i, is often referred to in Babi texts as Awwal man amana. For a little more on this theme, see D. MacEoin, 'Hierarchy, Authority, and Eschatology in Early Babi Thought', in P. Smith (ed.), In Iran: Studies in Babi and Baha'i History 3, Los Angeles, 1986, pp. 105-105.
 [Tehran], n.d., p. 14. See also Zarandi, Dawnbreakers, p. 253.
 Qayyum al-asma', Cambridge University Library, Browne Or. Ms. F.11, f. 66b.
 Ibid, f. 99a.
 Ibid f. 65a. Cf. ff. 35a, 67b, 72b, 75a, 141b, 167b.
 A copy of the Qayyum al-asma' was used in that trial as a point of reference for the charges against the Bab's emissary.
 See D. MacEoin, 'The Babi Concept of Holy War', Religion (1982) 12:93-129.
 See Amanat, Resurrection, p. 375 ff. On the development of the Bab's claims and other Babi theophanic ideas, see MacEoin, 'Hierarchy', pp. 97-113.
48 Miftah, p. 138.
 Rawdat al-safa, p. 424.
 Qayyum al-asma' ff. 40a, 89b, 133a ('I am he who spoke from the fire'), 147b ('I am the fire that spoke on Mount Tur').
 See Bayan-i Farsi, 2:1, p. 13 and p. 17 (1000 verses in 5 hours); Tafsir Surat al-kawthar, CUL, Browne Or. Ms. F.10, f.5a (1000 verses in 6 hours); letter to Manuchihr Khan, Browne Or. Ms. F.2w1, p. 91 (ditto); Risala-yi dhahabiyya II, Iran National Baha'i Manuscript Collection 53, p. 164 (a complete sahifa in 1 hour).
 Zarandi, Dawn-Breakers, pp. 61, 202; Nuqtat al-kaf, pp. 108, 121.
53 See, for example, his letter to Muhammad Shah in Muntakhabat-i ayat, p. 14.
54 For generall accounts of state-`ulama relations in this period, consult Hamid. Algar, Religion and State in Iran 1785-1906, Berkeley/Los Angeles, 1969; Said Amir Arjomand, The Shadow of God and the Hidden Imam, Chicago, 1984, Part Three.
55 On this theme in general, see MacEoin, 'From Shaykhism to Babism', chapter 1.
 For a very good account of some of these alternatives to orthodoxy, see Amanat, Resurrection, chapter 2.
 For details, see D. MacEoin, 'Divisions and Authority Claims in the Babi Community, 1850-1866', Studia Iranica, 18 (1989): 93-129.