Footnote and Endnote Citations

Basic citation components and punctuation

Note number. Author's First name and Last name, <author's internet address, if available>, "Title of Work" or "title line of message," in "Title of Complete Work" or title of list/site as appropriate, <internet address>, [menu path, if appropriate], date if available, archived at if appropriate.

The examples below indicate how citations of particular electronic sources might be made:

Listserv Messages

  • Phillip Curtin, <>, "Goree and the Slave Trade," in H-AFRICA, <>, 31 July 1995, archived at <>, [path: H-NET E-Mail Discussion Groups/H-AFRICA/Discussion Threads/Goree and the Atlantic Slave Trade--item number 465].

  • Richard Lobban, <>, "REPLY: African Muslim Slaves in America," in H-AFRICA, <>, 4 August 1995, archived at <>.

  • Gretchen Walsh, "REPLY: Using African newspapers in teaching," in H-AFRICA, <>, 18 October 1995.

World Wide Web

Peter Limb, "Relationships between Labour & African Nationalist/Liberation Movements in Southern Africa," <>, May1992.

FTP Site

Gregor Heinrich, <">, "Where There Is Beauty, There is Hope: Sao Tome e Principe," <>, [path: pub/local/FAQ/african/gen/saoep.txt], July 1994.

Gopher Site

  • "Democratic Party Platform, 1860," <>, [path: Wiretap Online Library/Civic & Historical/Political Platforms of the U.S.], 18 June 1860.

  • David Graeber, <>, "Epilogue to *The Disastrous Ordeal of 1987*," <gopher://>.

Usenet Group Messages

  • Thomas Dell, <>, "[EDTECH] EMG: Sacred Texts (Networked Electronic Versions)," in <alt.etext>, 4 February 1993.

  • Sonya Legg, <>, "African history book list," in <soc.culture.african>, 5 September 1995, archived at <>.

E-Mail Messages

Mel Page, <>, "African dance...and Malawi," private e-mail message to Masankho Banda, 28 November 1994.