Colloquium in World History: The Atlantic
Colloquium in World History: The Atlantic Fall, 1994
Instructor: Allen Howard, Van Dyck 007A (2-7142); Thurs. 9:00-9:45 and after class. Other offices hours will be arranged. Home phone: 463-0388 (8:30-10:00 p.m.)
This course is designed to provide participants with a foundation in some of the more important theoretical, comparative, and integrative issues in World History, and also with an understanding of particular aspects of the history of Western Africa, the Caribbean, and to a lesser extent other areas of the Atlantic. Thus while class members are debating general questions, they will be supporting and illustrating their analysis with regional cases. The course is designed for people who will be minoring in World/Comparative History, teaching a course in World History, or expanding a regional or topical course. For some, it may also prove relevant substantively or conceptually for dissertation research.
Atlantic history involves the flow of people, culture, ideas, commodities, and diseases; it looks at the many ways in which the regions have been interconnected and affected one another. The course examines the large systemic forces--particularly economic--that have shaped the Atlantic. but also looks at how people have challenged structures of economic, racial, and sexual domination and have "made" history. Much of the problematic in world history involves the-tensions between the local, regional, and global, and the comparison of variations on common patterns. We do not approach the big questions of Atlantic history in only one mode: during some weeks we take a more historiographic approach, looking at how the literature has changed over time; in other weeks we try to construct themes and variations by looking at cases; in other weeks we mainly consider how to teach key issues. Topical bibliographies will be handed out during the course. Because of its sweep, no one person can encompass all the relevant cases or theoretical material. We will be most successful if each member brings her or his own knowledge of particular places and readings to bear upon the big questions. Please suggest additional readings for the course and for the bibliographies.
Beginning September 8th, class members are asked to write a short paper each week reponding to the readings; some guide questions will be handed out in advance. In most weeks three or four people will serve as discussion leaders; ideally, discussants will meet in advance to prepare presentations. Each class member will lead discussion three times during the semester and will write a longer analytic paper based on a topic relevant to the week's theme. Finally, everyone will write a broad, integrative paper focusing on problems of conceptualizing and teaching Atlantic History and will present a draft of that paper during the exam period session. Someone choosing to write a paper evaluating world history texts could also make such assessments when leading discussion of particular weekly topics.
Most readings used in the course are on reserve at Alexander, or are found in the periodical stacks at Alexander. A few are on reserve at KAL. Articles and chapters marked with ** are available in a pink crate in VD 308. (They are arranged in sequence.)
Books available for purchase at the Rutgers Bookstore: Abu-Lughod, J. Before European Hegemony. The World-Systm A.D. 1250-1350. (purchase optional) Adas, M., ed., Islamic and European Expansion. The Forging of a Global Order.
Berger. I. Threads of Solidarity. Women in South African Industry 1900-1980.
Blaut, J. M. 1492. The Debate on Colonialism, Eurocentrism and History.
Bush, B. Slave Women in Caribbean Society, 1650-1838. Cooper, F. etal, Confronting Historical Paradigns. Peasants, Labor, and the Capitalist World System in Africa and Latin America.
Curtin, P. D. The Rise and Fall of the Plantation Complex. Essays in Atlantic History.
Hecht, S. and A. Cockburn. The Fate of the Forest. Developers, Destroyers and Defenders of the Amazon. Manning, P. Slavery and African Life. Occidental, Oriental, and African Slave Trades.
Murphy, J. M. Working with the Spirit. Ceremonies of the African Diaspora.
Spitzer, L. Lives in Between. Assimilation and Marginality in Austria, Brazil, West Africa 1780-1945. Thornton, J. Africa and Africans in the Making of the Atlantic World, 1400-1680.
(Most of these books are held in the graduate reserve at Alexander)
Sept. 1. WORLD SYSTEMS PRE-1500; ISLAMIC HISTORY AS GLOBAL HISTORY
- G. Frank, "A Plea for World System History," Journal of World History 2:1 (1991), 1-28.**
- M. Eaton, "Islamic History as World History," in Adas, Expansion, 1-36.
- Abu-Lughod, "The World System in the Thirteenth Century: Dead-End or Precursor," in Adas, Expansion, 75-102.
Sept. 8. CONTINUATION OF Sept. 1; WEST AFRICA BEFORE 1500
In this week we: 1) examine Abu-Lughod's approach more fully: 2) assess the reasons for including parts of West (and East) Africa in the 13th and 14th-century system; and 3) begin to build detailed knowledge of sub-regions in West Africa, as preparation for studying the Atlantic slave trade and the carry-over of culture to the Americas. Stern's chapter helps to contextualize much of the new scholarship that is read in this course.
S. Stern, "Africa, Latin America, and the Splinering of Historical Knowlege: From Fragmentation to Reverberation," in Cooper, etal Paradigms, 3-20.
J. Abu-Lughod, Before European Hegemony. The World-System A.D. 1250-1350. All should skim ch. 1, read 102-134, 212-247, 312373. Discussion leaders could read additional sections.
N. Levtzion, "The Early States of the Western Sudan," in J. F.
- Ajayi and M. Crowder, eds., History of West Africa Vol I. 3rd ed., 129-166.**
- Kaba, "Archers, Musketeers, and Mosquitoes: The Moroccan Invasion of the Sudan and the Songhay Resistance (1591- 1612)," JAH (Journal of African History) 22 (1981), 457-475.* *
We need discussion leaders who will:
- Present some of the criticisms of Abu-Lughod's project from the commentaries accompanying her early article:
- Abu-Lughod, "The Shape of the World System in the Thirteenth Century," and commentaries, Studies in Comparative International Development 22:4 (1987-88), 3-53.**
- Present more of the texture of her argument using some regional examples from her book.
Select readings from one of the four groups; you will read about the same area in connection with the slave trade and the carryover of culture to the Americas. Complete by Sept. 29:
Group 1) Senegambia and Upper Guinea Coast
G. Connah, "An Optimal Zone: The West African Savanna," African Civilizations, 97-120.**
G. Brooks, "Social and Cultural Paradigms," in Landlords and Strangers. Ecology, Society and Trade in Western Africa, 1000163t, 33-57.**
P. McNaughton, The Mande Blacksmiths, 11-21.**
Group 2) Akan and neighboring areas
G. Connah, "Brilliance Beneath the Trees: the West African Forest and its Fringes," African Civilizations, 121-149.**
I. Wilks, "The Early Southern Akan States," in J. F. A. Ajayi and M. Crowder, eds., History of West Africa, vol. 1 (3rd edition), 484-502.**
K. Opaku, "The World View of the Akan," Tarikh 7:2 (1982), 61
Group 3) Yoruba and neighboring areas
G. Connah, "Brilliance Beneath the Trees: the West African Forest and its Fringes," African Civilizations, 121-149.**
R. Smith, Kingdoms of the Yoruba (3rd ed.), 13-41, 87-98.**
R. F. Thompson, "Black Saints Go Marching In," Flash of the Spirit, 3-18.**
Group 4) Bakongo and neighboring areas
D. Birmingham, "Society and Economy before A. D. 1400," in D. Birmingham and P. Martin, eds., History of Central Africa, 1-29.**
J. Vansina, "The Southwest: The Growth of States," in Paths in the Rainforest, 146-_
R. F. Thompson, "The Sign of the the Four Moments of the Sun," Flash of the Spirit, 103-127.**
Sept. 15. QUESTIONS ABOUT THE "TRANSITION TO CAPITALISM," THE ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT OF EUROPE, AND EUROPEAN EXPANSION ABROAD
R. Brenner, "Agrarian Class Structure and Economic Development in Pre-Industrial Europe" (skim for main points) **
(We will divide the following three articles. All are from Past and Present; see T. Aston and C. H. E. Philpin, The Brenner Debate.)
M. M. Postan and J. Hatcher, "Population and Class Relations in Feudal Society"**
E. LeR. Ladurie, "A Reply to Robert Brenner"**
R. H. Hilton, "A Crisis of Feudalism"**
I. Wallerstein, The Modern World System I: Capitalist Agriculture and the Origins of the European World-Economy in the Sixteenth Century, read 15-63, read 85-104, skim 105-129, read 165-221, skim 225-297, read 325-344. (Alex)
S. Stern, "Feudalism, Capitalism, and the World-System in the Perspective of Latin America and the Caribbean," in Cooper, etal, Paradigms, 23-83. For Stern's original article and critical comments on it, see AHR 93:4 (1988), 829-897.**
J. M. Blaut, 1492, vii-35 (Some sections of the commentaries are also relevant for this week's debates; skim 65-119.)
(NB: Wallerstein, Stern, and Blaut carry forward to Sept. 22 and beyond) ^
Sept. 22. TEACHING THE DEBATES ABOUT 1492, 1519, AND THEREAFTER:
I. Clendinnen, Aztecs. An Interpretation, 15-44, 68-83, 111-140; optional 236-263. (Alex)
- Crosby, "The Columbian Voyages, the Columbian Exchange, and Their Historians," in Adas, Expansion, 141-164.
- Bigelow, "Two Myths Are Not Better Than One," Monthly Review (July-Aug., 1992), 28-48.** A discussion leader should review Viola and Margolis, Seeds of Change and Rethinking Columbus.
- Shafer, "Exchange\Encounter Theory and the Myths of America" and "A Response," Monthly Review (Dec., 1992), 40-51.**
- Stannard, American Holocaust. The Conquest of the New World, 195-258. (Alex)
Leon-Portilla, The Broken Spears. (copies in Van Dyck; also KAL)
Discussion leaders may wish to draw upon the many primary sources useful for teaching, e.g. P. Hulme and N. L. Whitehead, Wild Majesty. Encounters with Caribs from Columbus to the Present Day.
Someone may wish to compare the arguments in the readings of Sept. l-Sept. 22 (or later weeks) with those in a teaching survey or textbook: See Stearns, Adas, and Schwartz, World Civilization: The Global Experience, 472-542, Wolf, Europe and the People without History, 24-225; or Strayer, etal, The Making of the Modern World. Connected Histories, Divergent Worlds (1500 to the Present!, 1-81.
Sept. 29. AFRICAN INVOLVEMENT IN THE SLAVE TRADE AND IMPACTS UPON AFRICA; QUESTIONS OF TRANSFORMATION AND UNDERDEVELOPMENT
P. D. Curtin, Plantation Complex, 3-45, 113-143. Those without a background in the material of Sept. 29-Oct. 20 will find in beneficial to read all of Curtin as soon as possible.
J. Thornton, Africa and the Africans, skim xi-xxxviii, read 1-125.
P. Manning, Slavery and African Life, 1-148.
P. Lovejoy, Transformations in Slavery, 115-122 (groups 1-3), 122128 (group 4). (Alex)
W. Rodney, How Europe Underdeveloped Africa, 95-113.**
D. Henige, "Measuring the Immeasurable: The Atlantic Slave Trade, West African Population and the Pyrrihonian Critic," JAH 27
(1986), 295-313.** ~
We will debate the arguments in the following articles and their implications for teaching about the complexities and variations of African involvement in the Atlantic slave trade: Group 1: B. Barry, "The Subordination of Power and the Mercantile Economy," in R. Cruise O'Brien, ed. The Political Economy of Underdevelopment. Dependence in Senegal, 39-64.
Group 2: W. Rodney, "African Slavery and Other Forms of Social Oppression on the Upper Guinea Coast in the Context of the Atlantic Slave-Trade," JAH 7 (1966), 431-43.
Group 3: J. D. Fage, "Slavery and the Slave Trade in the Context of West African History," JAH 10 (1969), 393-404. For Rodney, Fage, and other articles: J. Inikori, Forced Migration. (Alex)
Group 4: J. Miller, Way of Death, 379-442, 657-692. (Alex)
During this week or in one of the next two weeks, review and discuss documents for use in teaching: See P. D. Curtin, Africa Remembered, R. E. Conrad, Children of God's Fire. A Documentary History of Black Slavery in Brazil, and other collections.
Oct. 6. GENDER, CLASS, AND RACE IN THE ERA OF SLAVERY
Curtin, Plantation Complex, 46-110. Provides a follow-up on Sept. 22 and illustrates the range of new societies in Americas.
Thornton, Africa and Africans, 162-182.
Manning, Slavery and African Life, 60-85.
M. Klein and C. Robertson, eds., Women and Slavery in Africa, 3-48, skim 49-66. Select either ch. 5, 10, 14, 15, 16, depending on your African area. (Discussion leader will do several chapters.) (Alex)
D. Eltis and S. Engerman, "Was the Slave Trade Dominated by Men," The Journal of Interdisciplinary History XXIII:2 Autumn, 1992), 237-258.**
R. Dunn, Sugar and Slaves: The Rise of the Planter Class in the English West Indies, 1624-1713, 84-116, 263-281. (Alex)
B. Bush, Slave Women in Caribbean Society, xi-50.
D. G. White, Aren't I a Woman. Female Slaves in the Plantation South, 119-141** (Discussion leaders should compare Bush and White in general.)
Oct. 13. AFRICAN, AFRICAN-AMERICAN,
AFRO-EUROPEAN, AND NATIVE AMERICAN CO W NITY AND RELIGION
Thornton, Africa and Africans, 183-271.
H. S. Klein, "Creation of a Slave Community and Afro-American Culture" African Slavery in Latin America and the Caribbean, 163-187.**
Bush, Slave Women, 83-161
J. M. Murphy, Working the Spirit.
(Anyone unfamiliar with the Frasier-Herskovits debate may wish to read a summary; see J. Raboteau, Slave Religion, 44-92.) Discussion leaders may wish to use various readings that draw explicit connections between African and African-America culture; see for example, S. Barnes, ed. Africa's Ogun. Old World and New and J. E. Holloway ed., Africanisms in American Culture. (both in Alex) Groups may wish to pursue questions about religious change in West Africa, especially the impact of the Islamic reform movements and of Crhistianity introduced by missionaries in the 19th and 20th centuries. This could include study syncretism and African revivalism.
Group 1: G. M. Hall, Africans in Colonial Louisiana, 97-118~~ 237274. (KAL)
Group 2: K. A. Opaku, "Religion in Africa during the Colonial Period," in A. Boahen, ed. African Under European Domination, 217-228.**
Group 3: M. Drewall, "Dancing for Ogun in Yorubaland and in Brazil," in S. Barnes, ed. Africa's Ogun. Old World and New, 199-234.**
Group 4: W. MacGaffey, Religion and Society in Central Africa. The BaKongo of Lower Zaire, 191-246.**
Oct. 20. IDEOLOGIES AND STRUGGLES FOR LIBERTY; ABOLITION AND ITS AFTERMATH
Curtin, Plantation Complex, 144-206
Thornton, Africa and Africans, 272-303.
Bush, Slave Women, 51-82, 162-167
S. W deGroot, "A Comparison between the History of Maroon Communities in Surinam and Jamaica," in Heuman, Out of the House of Bondage, 173-184.**
M. Craton, "The Baptist War: The Jamaican Rebellion of 1831-1832," in Testing the Chains, 291-334.**
P. Lovejoy, "Fugitive Slaves: Resistance to Slavery in the Sokoto Caliphate," in G. Y. Okihiro, ed., In Resistance. Studies in African, Caribbean, and Afro-American History, 71-95. (Alex)
Group 1: J. J. Reis, Slave Rebellion in Brazil: The Muslim Uprising of 1835 in Bahia, 73-136.**
Group 2: J. Thornton, "The Coromantees: An African Cultural Group in Colonial America," unpub. paper **
Group 3: K. McC. Brown, "Systematic Remembering, Systematic Forgetting: Ogou in Haiti," in S. Barnes, ed., Africa's Ogun. Old World and New, 65-89.**
Group 4: S. Schwartz, "Rethinking Palmares: Slave Resistance in Colonial Brazil" in Schwartz, Slaves, Peasants, and Rebels. Reconsidering Brazilian Slavery, 103-136.**, OR
R. Thornton, "I Am the Subject of the King of Congo': African Political Ideology and the Haitian Revolution," Journal of World History 4:2 (Fall, 1993), 181-214.** (read with Geggus)
M. Craton, "From Caribs to Black Caribs," in G. Y. Okihiro, ed., In Resistance, 96-116.**
P. Linebaugh and M. Rediker, "The Many-headed Hydra: Sailors, Slaves, and the Atlantic Working Class in the 18th Century," Journal of Historical Sociology 3:3 (1990), 225-252.**
E. Williams, Capitalism and Slavery, 135-153, 169-212. (Alex)
D, Eltis, Economic Growth and the Ending of the Transatlantic Slave Trade, 3-28.**
D. Geggus, "The Haitian Revolution" in F. Knight and C. Palmer, eds., The Modern Caribbean, 21-50.**
J. Peterson, Province of Freedom, 27-44, 45-48, 81-85, 189-226.**
Manning, Slavery and African Life, 149-163.
P. H. Wood, "'The Dream Deferred': Black Freedom Struggles on the Eve of White Independence," in G. Y. Okihiro, ed. In Resistance, 166-187.**
(Discussion leaders may wish to review the thesis of E. Genovese in From Rebellion to Revolution.)
Oct. 27. FROM MERCANTILE CAPITAL TO INDUSTRIAL CAPITAL:
"ARTICULATION" QUESTIONS 1600-1990
Blaut, 1492, 36-119.
W. H. McNeill, "The Age of Gunpowder Empires, 1450-1800, in Adas, Expansion, 103-139.
- K. Smith, "Where was the Periphery?: The Wider World and the Core of the World-Economy," Radical History Review 39 (1987), 28-48.**
- Williams, Capitalism and Slavery, 51-84, 98-107. (Alex)
- O'Brien, "European Economic Development: The Contribution of the Periphery," The Economic History Review 35 (1982) 1-18.
- Solow,"Capitalism and Slavery in the Exceedingly Long Run," in B. L. Solow and S. L. Engerman, British Capitalism and Caribbean Slavery, The Legacy of Eric Williams, 1-77.** (Other chapters in this book are relevant also.1
- Bailey, "The Slave(ry) Trade and the Development of Capitalism in the United States: The Textile Industry in New England," in J. E. Inikori and S. L. Engerman, eds. The Atlantic Slave Trade, 205-246. (Alex) (Chs. 6, 7, and 9 are also relevant.)
- Mintz, Sweetness and Power, 151-186.
Manning, Slavery and African Life, 163-176.
F. Cooper, "Africa and the World Economy," in Cooper etal, Paradigms, 84-201.
Nov. 3. PEASANTS AND CAPITALISM, COLONIALISM, NATIONAL DOMINATION
We will divide into two groups; the Africanists will teach the Latin Americanists, and vice versa. All read Kulikoff and Mallon. We will also use this week to discuss use of life histories for teaching l9th and 20th century history and to catch up on any unfinished discussions.
- Kulikoff, "The Transition to Capitalism in Rural America," William and Mary Ouarterly 46 (1989), 120-144.**
- F. Isaacman, "Peasants and Rural Social Protest in Africa," in Cooper etal, Paradigms, 205-313. (Cases to be selected).
- Roseberry, "Beyond the Agrarian Question in Latin America," in Cooper etal, Paradigms, 318-368.
- Nash, "The Revindiation of Indigenous Identity: Mayan Responses to State Intervention in Mexico," unpubl. paper **.
E.Z.L.N. Manifesto, 2 MarchS 1994 **
F. E. Mallon, "Dialogues Among the Fragments: Retrospect and Prospect," in Cooperwetal, Paradigms, 371-401.
Who would be willing to assess the significance for Atlantic history of revolutionary movements in the Atlantic--Cuba, Nicaragua, Angola, Namibia, or elsewhere--and their limitations?
Nov. 10. CAPITALISM AND ENVIRONMENTAL CHANGES IN THE ATLANTIC
Hecht, S. and A. Cockburn, The Fate of the Forest.
T. Silver, A New Face on the Countryside. Indians Colonists and Slaves in the South Atlantic Forests, 1500-1800, 104-138, 186198.** (or read Watts)
D. Watts, The West Indies. Patterns of Development, Culture and Environmental Change since 1492, 382-405, 484-539. (Alex)
K. Reilly, "Energy and Environment," in The West and the World. A History of Civilization, 145-161. (Alex)
G. M. Ostrander, "The Mechanization of American Society," in American Civilization in the First Machine Age, 199-225.**
E. R. Wolf, "The Movement of Commodities," in Europe and the People without History, 310-353. (Alex)
D. Worster, Dust Bowl. The Southern Plains in the 1930s, 80-117, 210-243.**
B. Rau, From Feast to Famine, 35-66.**
Nov. 17. RACE, GENDER, AND ETHNICITY IN THE IMPERIAL ERA & TODAY
L. Spitzer, Lives in Between. Assimilation and Marginality in Austria, Brazil, West Africa 1780-1945.
M. Adas, "'High' Imperialism and the 'New' History," in Adas, Expansion, 311-344.
M. Strobel, "Gender, Sex, and Empire," in Adas, Expansion, 345-375: skim J. Tucker, "Gender and Islamic History," in Adas, 37-73 Also select articles from N. Chaudhuri and M. Strobel, eds., Western Women and Imperialism. (Alex)
- Stoler, "Rethinking Colonial Categories: European Communities and the Boundaries of Rule," CSSH 31:1 (1989), 134-61.**
- Howard and D. E. Skinner, "Ethnic Leadership and Class Formation in Freetown, Sierra Leone," in N. W. and N. Z. Keith, eds., New Perspectives on Social Class and Socioeconomic Development in the Periphery, 83-118.**
- Hofmeyer, "Building a Nation from Words: Afrikaans Language, Literature, and Ethnic Identity, 1902-1924," in S. Marks and S. Trapido, eds., The Politics of Race. Class and Nationalism in 20th Century South Africa, 95-123.**
- Goldin, "The Reconstitution of Coloured Identity in the Western Cape," in S. Harks and S. Trapido, eds., The Politics of Race, Class and Nationalism in 20th Century South Africa, 156-187.**
- Nixon, "Of Balkans and Bantustans: Ethnic Cleansing and the Crisis in National Legitimation," in Transition 60: 4-32.**
- R. Haraksingh, "Structure and Process and Indian Culture in Trinidad," in H. Johnson, ed., After the Crossing. Immigrants and Minorities in Caribbean and Creole Society, 113-122.**
- Irele, "Negritude or Black Cultural Nationalism?" Journal of Modern African Studies, III (1965), 321-348.**
- Sollors, "Introduction: The Invention of Ethnicity, in Sollors, ed. The Invention of Ethnicity, ix-xx, and selected chapters. (Alex).
Nov. 24. INDUSTRIALIZATION: CLASS, GENDER, AND RACE
I. Berger, Threads of Solidarity.
P. Stearns, "Interpreting the Industrial Revolution," in Adas, Expansion, 199-242.
L. Tilly, "Industrialization and Gender Inequality," in Adas, Expansion, 243-310.
E. R. Wolf, "The New Laborers," in Europe and the People Without History, 254-283.**
V. A. Shepherd, "Indian Women in Jamaica, 1845-1945," in F. Birbalsingh, ed., Indenture and Exile. The Indo-Caribbean Experience, 100-107.**
J. Nash, "The Impact of the Changing International Division of Labor...," in J. Nash and M. P. Fernandez-Kelly, ed., Women, Men and the International Division of Labor, 3-38. (Alex)
H. I. Safa, "Women and Industrialisation in the Caribbean," in S. Stichter and J. L. Parpart, eds., Women, Employment and the Family in the International Division of Labour, 72-97.**
Dec. 8. RACE, ETHNIC, CLASS, AND GENDER IDENTITY AND POLITICS IN THE METROPOLE; CULTURE AND THE CHALLENGES TO RACISM AND WESTERN HEGEMONY
P. Gilroy, There Ain't No~Black in the Union Jack.
S. Hall, "Cultural Identity and Diaspora," in J. Rutherford, ed., Identity, 222-237.**
H. Campbell, "Rastafari: Culture of Resistance," Race and Class XXII:1 (1980), 1-22. **
N. Y. McKay, "Acknowledging Differences: Can Women Find Unity Through Diversity?" in S. M. James and A. P. A. Busia, eds., Theorizina Black Feminisms, 267-282.**
D. A. Hollinger, "How Wide the Circle of 'We'? American Intellectuals and the Problem of the Ethnos since World War II," AHR 98:2 (1993), 317-337.
Exam period: TEACHING ABOUT THE ATLANTIC: We will form groups based on final paper topics to discuss a) use of Stearns, Adas, and Schwartz; Reilly; Strayer etal; Wolf and perhaps other texts/ surveys for teaching undergraduate World History courses; b) the use of autobiographical and biographical material and primary sources in teaching; c) syllabi for World/Atlantic History courses.
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