History 395-08                          Professor Jacqueline deVries           
Spring 1994                                     Carleton College, Leighton 210 
MWF 1:50-3:00 pm                                phone x4212                    
                                                ofc. hours:  MW 3-4; F         

3:30-4:30

GENDER, RACE AND EMPIRE:
WESTERN TRAVELERS TO THE NON-WESTERN WORLD

REQUIRED TEXTS (available in Carleton's Bookstore)

Frantz Fanon, A Dying Colonialism Edward Said, Orientalism Margaret Strobel, European Women and the Second British Empire Margaret Strobel and Nupur Chadhuri, Western Women and Imperialism

(all other readings, as listed on the syllabus, are available on CLOSED RESERVE in Carleton's Library)

COURSE REQUIREMENTS

Discussion: (30%) Come to class ready to discuss, debate, and defend your opinions of the assigned readings. Each student will be responsible for initiating at least two (and potentially more) class discussions.

Research Paper: (50%) In addition to discussions, your other main task in this course will be to research and write a 20-25 page paper based on original source material. More information will be forthcoming. Start thinking early about possible topics you'd like to pursue -- this seminar is for you and your interests, so follow them! A proposal is due April 11; first drafts on May 16 final papers are due the day before your scheduled presentation. (These will be placed on closed reserve for others to read.) Throughout the semester, each of you will be called upon to give the class brief reports of your ongoing research.

Peer Critiques: Each student will serve as a reviewer of someone else's research project. This will require a brief (1-2 pp.) written critique, a copy of which is to be given to the author as well as the instructor.

Journals: (20%) Keep a journal of your responses to the course readings. These will be collected periodically. Also, make sure you record responses to at least five of the movies scheduled for the course.

Movies: Each week (time and place TBA) you will have the opportunity to view a movie which relates in some fashion to the week's discussion topic. You will be required to view at least > five of these. A full schedule will be released soon.

CLASS SCHEDULE

Gender and Race: Interpreting "the Other"

M Mar 28 In-class essay (Instructor out of town)

W Mar 30

Introduction

F Apr 1 Theorizing "Difference"

Readings: Henry Louis Gates, "Race, Writing and Difference"; Kwame Appiah and Henry Louis Gates, "Multiplying Identities," Critical Inquiry (18:4): 625-629;

M Apr 4 Orientalism as Discourse

Readings: Edward Said, Orientalism, pp. 1-28

Recommended: Michel Foucault, "Bio-power" in Foucault Reader, ed. Paul Rabinow; Pierre Bourdieu, Outline of a Theory of Practice (1977)

W Apr 6 The Scope of Orientalism

Readings: Edward Said, Orientalism, pp.31-110

Recommended: Edward Said, Culture and Empire (1993); Christopher Miller, Blank Darkness: Africanist Discourse in French (esp. pp.3-65 and 169-83);

F Apr 8 Reappraising Orientalism

Readings: Billie Melman, Women's Orients, 1-59

Recommended: Gayatri Spivak, "Can the Subaltern Speak?" in Marxism and the Interpretation of Culture, ed. L. Grossberg and C. Nelson; Xiaomei Chen, "Occidentalism as Counterdiscourse: 'He Shang' in Post-Mao China," Critical Inquiry 18 (Summer 1992): 686- 712;

Modes of Travel: the Early Modern Period

M Apr 11 Travel as Exploration

**PROPOSALS DUE**

Readings: John Mandeville, Travels (selections)

Recommended: Robin Hanbury-Tenison, ed., The Oxford Book of Exploration (1993); Jean de Lery, History of a Voyage to the Land of Brazil, Otherwise Called America (1578); Lynne Withey, Voyage of Discovery; James Axtell, The European and the Indian (1981);

W Apr 13 Travel as Conquest

Readings: Gananath Obeyesekere, "'British Cannibals': Contemplation of an Event in the Death and Resurrection of James Cook, Explorer," Critical Inquiry 18 (Summer 1992): 630-654;

Recommended: Stephen Greenblatt, Marvelous Possessions: the Wonder of the New World (1991); Kirkpatrick Sale, The Conquest of Paradise (1990);

F Apr 15 Travel as Education

Readings: selections from Lady Mary Wortley Montagu; Margaret Hunt, "Racism, Imperialism, and the Traveler's Gaze in Eighteenth-Century England," Journal of British Studies 32 (October 1993): 333-357;

Recommended: Jean-Jacques Rousseau, Discourse on Inequality (1755); Edward Chaney, The Grand Tour and the Great Rebellion: Richard Lassles and the Voyage to Italy (1986);

Nodes of Travel in the Age of Empire

NOTE: If your background in African, Asian or Middle Eastern history is weak, please consult the appropriate sections in Cheryl Johnson-Odim and Margaret Strobel, eds., Restoring Women to History (Third World volume) (Bloomington, IN: Organization of American Historians, 1990). A copy is kept in the History Department office; I also have an extra copy which I can lend out. Also, if you desire more general background in the historiography of imperialism and colonialism, check out the following (all are on closed reserve in the library):

Wolfgang Mommsen, Theories of Imperialism (1977) D.K. Fieldhouse, Economics and Empire, 1830-1914 (1973) Bernard Semmel, Imperialism and Social Reform: English Social- Imperial Thought, 1895-1914 (1963) Robinson and Gallagher, Africa and the Victorians (1961) Baumgart, Imperialism (1982) Cain and Hopkins, British Imperialism 2 vols. (1993)

M Apr 18 No Place for a White Woman

Reading: Margaret Strobel, European Women and the Second British Empire (all)

W Apr 20 Complicity and Resistance Readings: Chaudhuri and Strobel, Western Women and Imperialism (hereafter WWI), pp. 1-12 ; Ashis Nandy, "The Psychology of Colonialism," The Intimate Enemy: Loss and Recovery of Self under Colonialism (1983), pp.ix-63

Recommended: Kumkum Sangari and Sudesh Vaid, Recasting Women: Essays in Colonial History (1989)

F Apr 22 Does Gender Make a Difference?

Readings: Susan Blake, "A Woman's Trek," in WWI. Janaki Nair, "Uncovering the Zenana: Visions of Indian Womanhood in Englishwomen's Writings: 1813-1940," in Expanding the Boundaries of Women's History, ed. Cheryl Johnson-Odim and Margaret Strobel.

Recommended: Hatem, Clancy-Smith, Flemming, Jacobs in WWI;

Gender, Race and the Maintenance of Power

M Apr 25 Authority and Respectability

Readings: Bernard Cohn, "Representing Authority in Victorian India," in The Invention of Tradition, ed. Eric Hobsbawm (pp. 165-209);

Recommended: Ronald Hyam, "Empire and Sexual Opportunity," Journal of Imperial and Commonwealth History 14:2 (January 1986): 34-89; Mark T. Berger, "Imperialism and Sexual Exploitation: A Response to Ronald Hyam's 'Empire and Sexual Opportunity," JICH 17:1 (1988): 83-89; Ronald Hyam, "'Imperialism and Sexual Exploitation': A Reply," JICH 17:1 (1988): 90-98; Ronald Hyam, Empire and Sexuality (1990)

W Apr 27 Sexuality and Respectability in the Empire

Readings: Ann Stoller, "Making Empire Respectable: the Politics of Race and Sexual Morality in 20th c. Colonial Cultures," American Ethnologist (16:4): 634-660; Ann Stoller, "Rethinking Colonial Catgories: European Communities and the Boundaries of Rule," Comparative Studies in Society and History 31:1 (January 1989): 134-161

Recommended: Karen Tranberg Hansen, "Body Politics: Sexuality, Gender and Domestic Service in Zambia," Journal of Women's History 2:1 (Spring 1990): 120-142; Charles van Onselen, "The Witches of Suburbia," Studies in the Social and Economic History of the Witwatersrand, 1886-1914 (1982), 1-73.

F Apr 29 Maintaining Masculinity at Home and Abroad

Readings: Graham Dawson, "The Blond Bedouin," in Manful Assertions, eds. John Tosh and Michael Roper; selections from The Strand (1920);

Recommended: George Mosse, Nationalism and Sexuality;

M May 2 READING DAY

W May 4 RESEARCH REPORTS!!

Official Journeys: Gender, Race and Colonial Law

F May 6 State Regulation of Sexuality

Readings: Mrinalini Sinha, "Gender and Imperialism: Colonial Policy and the Ideology of Moral Imperialism in Late Nineteenth-Century Bengal," in Changing Men, ed. Michael Kimmel (1987): 217-231.

Recommended: Martin Chanock, "Making Customary Law: Men, Women and the Courts in Colonial Northern Rhodesia," in African Women and the Law: Historical Perspectives, eds. Margaret Jean Hay and Marcia Wright (1982): 53-67; Barbara Ramusack, "Embattled Advocates: The Debate over Birth Control in India, 1920-1940," Journal of Women's History 1:2 (1989): 34-64

M May 9 Prostitution

Readings: Veena Oldenburg, "Lifestyle as Resistance: The Case of the Courtesans of Lucknow, India," Feminist Studies 16:2 (Summer 1990): 259-287; Luise White, "Prostitutes, Reformers and Historians," Criminal Justice History 6 (1985): 201-227

Recommended: Luise White, The Comforts of Home: Prostitution in Colonial Nairobi (1990);

W May 11 Sati

Readings: Anand Yang, "Whose Sati?" in Expanding the Boundaries of Women's History; Lata Mani, "Contentious Traditions: The Debate on Sati in Colonial India," Cultural Critique 7 (Fall 1987): 119-156 (SKIM).

Recommended: Kumkum Sangari and Sudesh Vaid, Recasting Women: Essays in Indian Colonial History (1990), essays by Chakravarti and Mani; Anand A. Yang, "Whose Sati? Widow Burning in Early 19th Century India," Journal of Women's History 1:2 (1989): 8-33; Ania Loomba, "Dead Women Tell No Tales: Issues of Female Subjectivity, Subaltern Agency and Tradition in Colonial and Post- colonial Writings on Widow Immolation in India," History Workshop Journal 36 (Autumn 1993): 209-227; Lata Mani, "Cultural Theory, Colonial Texts: Reading Eyewitness Accounts of Widow Burning," in Cultural Studies, ed. Lawrence Grossberg, Cary Nelson and Paula Treichler (1992).

F May 13 Clitoridectomy

Readings: Jocelyn Murray, "The Church Missionary Society and the 'Female Circumcision' Issue in Kenya, 1929-1932," Journal of Religion in Africa 8:2 (1976): 92-104;

Recommended: Deborah Pellow, "Sexuality in Africa," Trends in History 4:4 (1990): 71-96; Nawal el Saadawi, Hidden Face of Eve; Fran Hosken, The Hosken Report: Genital and Sexual Mutilation of Females; Nahid Toubia, Female Genital Mutilation: A Call for Global Action; Jomo Kenyatta, Facing Mount Kenya.

The Journey Out: Nationalism and Decolonization

M May 16 Feminism and Nationalism

**FIRST DRAFTS DUE**

Readings: Antoinette Burton and Barbara Ramusack in Chaudhuri and Strobel, WWI; Cynthia Nelson "The Voices of Doria Shafik" in Expanding the Boundaries

Recommended: Luise White, "Separating the Men from the Boys: Constructions of Gender, Sexuality and Terrorism in Central Kenya, 1939-1959," International Journal of African Historical Studies 23:1 (1990): 1-25; E. Francis White, "Africa on My Mind: Gender, Counter Discourse and African-American Nationalism," Journal of Women's History 2:1 (1990): 73-97.

W May 18 Nationalism and Gender Politics: the Case of Algeria

Readings: Frantz Fanon, A Dying Colonialism

F May 20 Contemporary Issues

Readings: Scott L. Montgomery, "The World as Ornament: Thoughts on National Geographic" in Central Park 13 (Spring 1988).

Trying Your Own Hand at Writing the "Other"

M May 23 PAPER PRESENTATIONS

W May 25 PAPER PRESENTATIONS

F May 27 PAPER PRESENTATIONS

M May 30 PAPER PRESENTATIONS

W June 1 Wrap-up Movies:

Aguirre, Wrath of God

Mountains of the Moon

Passage to India

Jewel in the Crown (first two segments)

Maasai Women

Battle for Algiers

Indochine

Chocolat

Articles

Christopher Gogwilt, "The Charm of Empire: Joseph Conrad's 'Karain: a Memory," Mosaic (24:1)

M. Hunt, "Racism, Imperialism and the Traveler's Gaze in Eighteenth Century England," Journal of British Studies 32:4 (October 1993)

Jenny Sharpe, "The Unspeakable Limits of Rape: Colonial Violence and Counter Insurgency" Genders 10 (Spring 1991) [analyzes the rape scene in Passage to India within gendered colonial relations]

Secondary Books Dea Birkett, Mary Kingsley: Imperial Adventuress (1992)

Shirley Foster, Across New Worlds: Nineteenth Century Women Travellers and Their Writings (1990)

Ronald Hyam, Sexuality and Empire: The British Experience (1990)

Judy Mabro, Veiled Half-Truths: Western Travellers' Perceptions of Middle Eastern Women (1991)

Billie Melman, Women's Orients: English Women and the Middle East, 1718-1918: Sexuality, Religion and Work (1992)

Sara Mills, Discourses of Difference: An Analysis of Women's Travel Writing and Colonialism (1991)

Mary Louise Pratt, Imperial Eyes: Travel Writing and Transculturation (1992)

Luise White, The Comforts of Home: Prostitution in Colonial Nairobi (1990)

Novels (some suggestions)

Daniel Defoe, Robinson Crusoe

Travel Accounts (some suggestions)


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