SOURCES FOR NATIONAL ASSOCIATION OF COLORED WOMEN AND AFRICAN-AMERICAN CLUBWOMEN, RACE, AND REFORM 1996

Nancy Marie Robertson (compiler)

Alexander, A. "How I discovered my Grandmother and the Truth about Black Women and the Suffrage Movement," *Ms.* (Nov. 1983), pp.29-37 [Carlson, v.1]

Alexander, William T., *History of the Colored Race in America* (Palmetto Pub., 1887; rpt. New York: Negro University Press, 1968)

Allen, Robert & Pamela P., *Reluctant Reformers: Racism and Social Reform Movements in the Unites States* (rev. ed.) (Washington, DC: Howard, 1983)

Aptheker, Bettina, *Woman's Legacy: Essays on Race, Sex, and Class in American History* (Amherst: University of Massachusetts, 1982)

Aptheker, Herbert, *A Documentary History of the Negro People in the United States,* v.1-3 (New York: Citadel, 1951, 1968, 1973)

Armitage, Susan, Theresa Banfield, & Sarah Jacobus, "Black Women and their Communities in Colorado," *Frontiers,* v.2 #2 (Summer 1977), pp.35-40 [Carlson, v.9]

Berkeley, Kathleen C., "Colored Ladies Also Contributed: Black Women's Activities from Benevolence to Social Welfare, 1866-1896," in Walter J. Fraser, Jr. (ed.), *Web of Southern Social Relations: Women, Family, & Education* (Athens, GA: University of GA Press, 1985), pp.181-203 [Carlson, v.1]

Blair, Karen J. *The Clubwoman as Feminist: True Womanhood Redefined, 1868-1914* (New York: Holmes & Meier, 1980)

Blauvelt, Mary Taylor. [identified as having "no negro blood"]. "The Race Problem as Discussed by Negro Women," *American Journal of Sociology* v.6 (1901), pp.662-672

Boris, Eileen, "The Power of Motherhood: Black and White Activist Women Redefine the 'Political,'" *Yale Journal of Law and Feminism* v.2 (1989), pp.25-49

Brady, Marilyn Dell, "Organizing Afro-American Girls' Clubs in Kansas in the 1920's," *Frontiers,* v.9 #2 (1987), pp.69-73 [Carlson, v.5]

"Kansas Federation of Colored Women's Clubs, 1900-1930," *Kansas History,* v.9 #1 (Spring 1986), pp.19-30 [Carlson, v.5]

Breckinridge, Sophonisba P., *Women in the Twentieth Century: A Study of their Political, Social, and Economic Activities* (New York: McGraw Hill, 1933; rep. NY: Arno Press, 1972)

Breen, "Black Women and the Great War: Mobilization and Reform in the South," in J. Friedman & W. Shade (eds.), *Our American Sisters* [3rd ed.] (Lexington, MA: Heath, 1982) [Carlson, v.5]

Bruce, Josephine [Mrs Blanche K.], "Colored Women's Clubs," *The Crisis,* v.10 #4 (August 1915); rep. in Aptheker, *Documentary History*

Bullock, Penelope I., *The Afro-American Periodical Press, 1838-1909* (Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1981)

Carby, Hazel V., "The Politics of Difference," *Ms.* Sept./Oct. 1990, pp.84-85

Carson, Emmett D., *A Hand Up: Black Philanthropy and Self-Help in America* (Washington DC: Joint Center for Political and Economic Studies, 1993)

++Cash, Floris Loretta Barnett, "Womanhood and Protest: The Club Movement Among Black Women, 1892-1922," Ph.D. dissertation, SUNY/Stony Brook, 1986

Caulfield, Mina Davis, "Imperialism, the Family, and Cultures of Resistance," *Socialist Revolution* #20 (Oct. 1974), pp.67-85

++Coleman, Willie Mae, "Keeping the Faith and Disturbing the Peace: Black Women from Anti-slavery to Women's Suffrage," Ph.D. dissertation, University of CA/Irvine, 1982

Davis, Allen F. *Spearheads for Reform: The Social Settlements and the Progressive Movement, 1890-1914* (New York: Oxford, 1967)

Davis, Angela, *Women, Race, & Class* (New York: Random, 1981)

Davis, Elizabeth Lindsay (comp.), *Lifting as They Climb: An Historical Record of the National Association of Colored Women* ([Washington: NACW], 1933) {possibly Ann Arbor, University Microfilms, photocopy, 1976}

*Story of the Illinois Federation of Colored Women's Clubs: 1900-1922* (Chicago: n.p., 1922)

Dickson, Lynda F., "Toward a Broader Angle of Vision in Uncovering Women's History: Black Women's Clubs Revisited," *Frontiers,* v.9 #2 (1987), pp.62-8 [Carlson, v.9] ++ "The Early Club Movement Among Black Women in Denver, 1890-1925," Ph.D. dissertation, University of Colorado, 1982

DuBois, E. & V. Ruiz (eds.), *Unequal Sisters: A Multi-Cultural Reader in U.S. Women's History* (Routledge, Chapman, & Heath, 1990):

Elsa Barkley Brown, "Womanist Consciousness: Maggie Lena Walker And the Independent Order of Saint Luke" {2nd ed., too} [Carlson, v.5]

Darline Clark Hine, "Rape and the Inner Lives of Black Women in the Middle-West: Preliminary Thoughts on the Culture of Dissemblance" {2nd ed.}

Jessie M. Rodrique, "The Black Community and the Birth Control Movement" {not in 2nd ed.}

Chana Kai Lee, "Selected Bibliography: Black Women" {2nd ed.}

DuBois, W.E.B. (ed.), *Efforts for Social Betterment Among Negro Americans* [Atlanta University Publications, #14] (Atlanta: Atlanta University Press, 1909), Section 10, "Women's Clubs," pp.47-64, Section 15, "Refuges and Rescue Homes for Women," pp.100-3; and "Conclusions," p.133

Ferguson, Earline Rae, "The Women's Improvement Club of Indianapolis: Black Women Pioneers in Tuberculosis Work, 1903-1938," *Indiana Magazine of History,* v.84 #3 (Sept. 1988), pp.237-61 [Carlson, v.6]

Fields, Emma L., "The Women's [or Woman's] Club Movement in the United States, 1877-1900," M.A. thesis, Howard, 1948

Flexner, Eleanor, *Century of Struggle: The Woman's Rights Movement in the United States* (New York: Atheneum, 1970)

Gaines, Kevin Kelly, *Uplifting the Race: Black Leadership, Politics, and Culture in the Twentieth Century* (Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina, 1996)

Gibson, John William & William Henry Crogman (eds.), *Progress of a Race; or, The Remarkable advancement of the American Negro from the bondage of Slavery, Ignorance, and Poverty, to the Freedom of Citizenship, Intelligence, Affluence, Honor, & Trust* (Atlanta: J.L. Nichols & Co., 1902; rpt. Miami: Mnemosyne, 1969) includes Fannie Barrier Williams, "Club Movement Among Negro Women," [apparently revised edition of 1901 *The Colored American from Slavery to Honorable Citizenship* or possibly *Colored America*] {Gerda Lerner gives a citation as Atlanta, 1903}

Giddings, Paula, *When and Where I Enter: The Impact of Black Women on Race and Sex in America* (New York: Wm. Morrow, 1984)

Gilkes, Cheryl Townsend, "Successful Rebellious Professional: The Black Woman's Professional Identity and Community Commitment," [Carlson, v.6]

Gordon, Linda, "Black and White Visions of Welfare: Women's Welfare Activism, 1890-1945," *Journal of American History* v.78 #2 (September 1991), pp.559-590 {also in DuBois & Ruiz, 2nd ed.}

Haber, Samuel, *Efficiency and Uplift: Scientific Management in the Progressive Era, 1890-1920* (Chicago: University of Chicago, 1964)

Hall, Jacquelyn Dowd, *Revolt Against Chivalry: Jessie Daniel Ames and the Women's Campaign Against Lynching* (NY: Columbia, 1979)

++Hamilton, Tullia Kay Brown, "The National Association of Colored Women, 1896-1920," Ph.D. dissertation, Emory University, 1978

Harley, S. & R. Terborg-Penn (eds.), *The Afro American Woman's Struggles and Images* (Pt. Washington, NY: Kennikat, 1978):

Evelyn Brooks Barnett [Higginbotham], "Nannie Burroughs and the Education of Black Women," pp.97-108

Cynthia Neverdon-Morton, "The Black Woman's Struggle for Equality in the South, 1895-1925," pp.43-57

Roslyn Terborg-Penn, "Discrimination Against Afro-American Women in the Women's Movement, 1830-1920," pp.17-27

"Black Male Perspectives on the Nineteenth Century Woman," pp.28-42

Hedgeman, Anna Arnold, *The Trumpet Sounds: A Memoir of Negro Leadership* (New York: Holt Rinehart, 1964)

Higginbotham, Evelyn Brooks, "In Politics to Stay: Black Women Leaders and Party Politics in the 1920s," in Louise Tilly and Patricia Gurin, *Women, Politics, and Change* (1990)

*Righteous Discontent: The Woman's Movement in the Black Baptist Church* (Cambridge: Harvard, 1993)

Hine, Darlene Clark, *When the Truth is Told: A History of Black Women's Culture and Community in Indiana, 1875-1950* (National Council of Negro Women, 1981)

"Lifting the Veil, Shattering the Silence: Black Women's History in Slavery and Freedom," in Hine, (ed.), *The State of Afro-American History: Past, Present and Future* (Baton Rouge: LSU, 1986) [Carlson, v.9]

"'We Specialize in the Wholly Impossible': The Philanthropic Work of Black Women," in Kathleen D. McCarthy, (ed.), *Lady Bountiful Revisited: Women, Philanthropy, and Power* (New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 1990)

Hine, Darlene Clark, Wilma King, & Linda Reed (eds.), *"We Specialize in the Wholly Impossible: A Reader in Black Women's History* (Brooklyn: Carlson, 1995)

Hooks, Bell, *Ain't I a Woman: Black Women and Feminism* (Boston: South End Press, 1981)

Hull, G., P. Scott, & B. Smith (eds.), *But Some of Us Are Brave: Black Women's Studies* (Feminist Press, 1982)

Hunton, Addie W. [Mrs. W.A.] pieces on club movement in several journals including *The Crisis*

++Hutton, Mary Magdelene Boone, "The Rhetoric of Ida B. Wells: The Genesis of the Anti-lynch Movement," Ph.D. dissertation, Indiana University, 1975

++Jenkins, Maude Thomas, "The History of the Black Woman's Club Movement in America," Ph.D. dissertation, Columbia University/Teachers College, 1984

Jones, Adrienne Lash, *Jane Edna Hunter: A Case Study of Black Leadership, 1910-1950* (Brooklyn: Carlson [v.12], 1990)

++Jones, Beverly Washington, "Quest for Equality: The Life of Mary Eliza Church Terrell, 1863-1954," Ph.D. dissertation, University of NC, 1980

*Quest for Equality: The Life and Writings of Mary Eliza Church Terrell, 1863-1954* (Brooklyn: Carlson [v.13], 1990)

Jones, Jacqueline, *Labor of Love, Labor of Sorrow: Black Women, Work, and the Family, From Slavery to Present* (New York: Basic Books, 1985)

Katzman, D. M. & W. M. Tuttle, Jr. (eds.), *Plain Folk: The Life Stories of Undistinguished Americans* (Urbana, IL, University of IL, 1982); [pieces from *The Independent*; see appendix in book for additional essays]

Kendrick, Ruby M. "They Also Serve: The National Association of Colored Women, Inc., 1895-1954," *The Negro History Bulletin*, v.17 (March 1954), pp.171-5 [Carlson, v.7]

Kletzing, Henry F. & William Henry Crogman (eds.), *Progress of a Race: or, The Remarkable advancement of the Afro- American from the bondage of Slavery, Ignorance, and Poverty, to the Freedom of Citizenship, Intelligence, Affluence, Honor, and Trust* (Atlanta: J.L. Nichols, 1897; rpt. New York: Negro University Press, 1969)

Lasch-Quinn, Elisabeth, *Black Neighbors: Race and the Limits of Reform in the American Settlement House Movement, 1890-1945* (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina, 1993)

Lerner, Gerda (ed.), *Black Women in White America: A Documentary History* (New York: Vintage, 1973)

*The Majority Finds its Past: Placing Women in History* (New York: Oxford, 1979)

Loewenberg, Bert James and Ruth Bogin (eds.), *Black Women in Nineteenth Century America: Their Works, Their Thoughts, Their Feelings* (University Park: Penn State University Press, 1976)

Logan, Rayford W., *The Betrayal of the Negro: from Rutherford B. Hayes to Woodrow Wilson* (rev. ed.) (New York, Collier, 1965)

[MacBrady, John E.--sometimes listed as Booker T. Washington] (ed.), *A New Negro for a New Century* (Chicago: American Publishing House, 1900; rpt. Miami: Mnemosyne, 1969), includes Fannie Barrier Williams, "The Colored Woman and Her Part in Race Regeneration."

McBride, Genevieve G., *On Wisconsin Women: Working for their Rights from Settlement to Suffrage* (Madison, WI: University of Wisconsin Press, 1994)

Majors, M.A., *Noted Negro Women: Their Triumphs and Activities* (Chicago: Donohue & Henneberry, 1893)

Moses, Wilson Jeremiah, "Domestic Feminism Conservatism, Sex Roles, and Black Women's Clubs," *Journal of Social and Behavioral Studies,* v.24 #4 (Fall 1987), pp.166-77 [Carlson, v.3]

"Black Feminist versus Peasant Values" in his *The Golden Age of Black Nationalism* (Hamden, CT: Archon Books, 1978), pp.103-31

Mossell, Gertrude Bustill (Mrs. Nathan F.), *The Work of the Afro-American Woman* (Philadelphia: Geo. S. Ferguson Co., 1908; reprinted by: Freeport, NY: Books for Libraries Press, 1971 [although that edition indicates copyright is 1894] and NY: Oxford, 1988 which includes intro. by Joanne Braxton)

Neverdon-Morton, Cynthia, *Afro-American Women of the South and the Advancement of the Race, 1895-1925* (Knoxville: University of TN, 1989)

Nichols, J.L. & William H. Crogman, (eds.), *Progress of a Race; or the Remarkable advancement of the American Negro from the bondage of Slavery, Ignorance, & Poverty, to the Freedom of Citizenship, Intelligence, Affluence, Honor, & Trust* (Naperville, IL: J.L. Nichols & Co., 1929) [cover reads *The New Progress of a Race]*; entry on club women by Mrs. Booker T. Washington. There is a 1920 edition which was reprinted by Arno/NY Times in 1969--it seems pretty much the same.

Omolade, Barbara "Hearts of Darkness," in A. Snitow, et al. (eds.), *Powers of Desire: The Politics of Sexuality* (New York: Monthly Review, 1983)

Osofsky, Gilbert, "Progressivism and the Negro: New York, 1900-1915," *American Quarterly*, v.16 (Summer 1964), pp.153-168

Peebles-Wilkins, Wilma and E. Aracelis Francis, "Two Outstanding Black Women in Social Welfare History: Mary Church Terrell and Ida B. Wells-Barnett," *Affilia,* v.5 #4 (Winter 1990), pp 87-100

Perkins, Linda, *Black Feminism and 'Race Uplift,' 1890-1900* (Cambridge, MA, 1981) Bunting Institute Working Paper

"Black Women and Racial 'Uplift' Prior to Emancipation," in F. C. Steady (ed.), *The Black Woman Cross-Culturally* (Cambridge MA: Schenkman, 1981), pp.317-334 [Carlson, v.3]

"Impact of the 'Cult of True Womanhood' on the Education of Black Women," *Journal of Social Issues*, v.39 #3 (Sept. 1983), pp.17-28 [Carlson, v.3]

Render, Sylvia Lyons, "Afro-American Women: The Outstanding and the Obscure," *Quarterly Journal of the Library of Congress*, v.32 (Oct. 1975), pp.306-321 [Carlson, v.10]

++Roth, Darlene Rebecca, "Matronage Patterns in Women's Organizations, Atlanta, Georgia, 1890-1940," Ph.D. dissertation, George Washington University, 1978

*Matronage: Patterns in Women's Organizations, Atlanta, Georgia, 1890-1940* (Brooklyn, NY: Carlson, 1994)

Rouse, Jacqueline Anne, *Lugenia Burns Hope: Black Southern Reformer* (Atlanta: University of GA, 1989)

Ryan, Mary P., *Womanhood in America: From Colonial Times to the Present* [3rd ed.] (New York: Franklin Watts, 1983)

++Salem, Dorothy C., "To Better Our World: Black Women in Organized Reform, 1890-1920," Ph.D. dissertation, Kent State University, 1986

*To Better Our World: Black Women in Organized Reform, 1890-1920* (Brooklyn: Carlson [v.14], 1990)

"National Association of Colored Women" in Hine, et al. (eds.), *Black Women in America: An Historical Encyclopedia,* pp.842-851

Scott, Anne Firor, *The Southern Lady: From Pedestal to Politics, 1830-1930* (Chicago: University of Chicago, 1970)

"Most Invisible of All: Black Women's Voluntary Associations," *Journal of Southern History,* v.56 #1 (Feb. 1990), pp.3-22

*Natural Allies: Women's Associations in American History* (Urbana, IL: University of Illinois Press, 1991)

Scruggs, L.A., *Women of Distinction: Remarkable in Works and Invincible in Character* (Raleigh: LA Scruggs, 1892)

Shaw, Stephanie, "Black Club Women and the Creation of the National Association of Colored Women," *Journal of Women's History*, v.3, #2 (Fall 1991), pp.10-25

Smith, Daniel Scott, "Family Limitation, Sexual Control, and Domestic Feminism in Victorian America," in N. F. Cott and E. H. Pleck (eds.), *A Heritage of Her Own: Toward New Social History of American Women* (New York: Touchstone, 1979), pp.222-245

Smith, Susan Lynn, "The Black Women's Club Movement: Self-Improvement and Sisterhood, 1890-1915," M.A. thesis, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 1986

Steinschneider, Janice C., *An Improved Woman: The Wisconsin Federation of Women's Clubs: 1895-1920* (Brooklyn, NY: Carlson, 1994)

Sterling, Dorothy (ed.), *We Are Your Sisters: Black Women in the Nineteenth Century* (NY: Norton, 1984)

++Strong, Willa Allegra, "The Origin, Development, and Current Status of the Oklahoma Federation of Colored Women's Clubs," Ph.D. dissertation, University of OK, 1957

Swerdlow & Lessinger, (ed.) *Class, Race, & Sex: The Dynamics of Control*:

Brooks [Higginbotham], "The Feminist Theology of the Black Baptist Church, 1880-1900," pp.31-59 [Carlson, v.1]

Dill, "'On the Hem of Life': Race, Class, and the Prospects for Sisterhood," pp.173-188

Gilkes, "From Slavery to Social Welfare: Racism and the Control of Black Women," pp.288-300

Higginbotham, Eliz., "Laid Bare By the System: Work and Survival in Black and Hispanic Women," pp.200-215

Terborg-Penn, Roslyn "Survival Strategies among African-American Women Workers: A Continuing Process," in R. Milkman (ed.), *Women, Work & Protest*

"Discontented Black Feminists: Prelude and Postscript to the Passage of the Nineteenth Amendment," in L. Scharf & J. Jensen (eds.), *Decades of Discontent* [Carlson, v.8]

"Historical Treatment of Afro-Americans in the Woman's Movement, 1900-1920, A Bibliographical Essay," [Carlson, v.10]

Terrell, Mary Church, *A Colored Woman in a White World* (Washington: Ransdell, 1940)

++Thompson, Mildred, "Ida B. Wells-Barnett: An Exploratory Study of an American Black Woman, 1893-1930," Ph.D. dissertation, G.W. University, 1979

*Ida B. Wells-Barnett: An Exploratory Study of American Woman, 1893-1930,* (Brooklyn: Carlson [v.15], 1990?)

Trotter, Jr., Joe William, *Black Milwaukee: The Making of an Industrial Proletariat, 1915-1945* (Urbana: University of Illinois, 1984)

*Voice of the Negro,* v.1 #7 (July 1904) ["Our Women's Number"]

Washington, Margaret Murray (Mrs. Booker T.), see Nichols & Crogman.

Watts, Margit Misangyi, *High Tea at Halekulani: Feminist Theory and American Clubwomen* (Brooklyn, NY: Carlson, 1994)

Wells, Ida B., *Crusade for Justice: The Autobiography of Ida B. Wells* [ed. by Alfreda M. Duster] (Chicago: University of Chicago, 1970)

Welter, Barbara, "The Cult of True Womanhood, 1820-1860," *American Quarterly,* v.18 (Summer 1966), pp.151-174

Wesley, Charles Harris, *The History of the National Association of Colored Women's Clubs: A Legacy of Service* (Washington, DC: NACWC?, 1984)

White, Deborah Gray, "The Cost of Club Work, The Price of Black Feminism," in Nancy Hewitt and Suzanne Lebsock (eds.), *Visible Women: New Essays on American Activism* (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1993), pp.247-269

Wiebe, Robert H. *The Search for Order, 1877-1920* (New York: Hill & Wang, 1967)

Williams, Fannie, "The Club Movement Among the Colored Women," *Voice of the Negro,* v.1, #3 (1904), p.102; see also Gibson & Crogman and MacBrady.

Wood, Mary I. (Stevens), *The History of the General Federation of Women's Clubs: for the First Twenty-two Years of its Organization* (NY: History Department, GFWC, 1912) {rep. Farmingdale, NY: Dabor Social Science Publications, 1978--with an intro by Sheila Rothman)

Woodward, C. Vann, *The Strange Career of Jim Crow* [3rd rev. ed.] (New York, Oxford, 1974)

Yellin, Jean Fagan, "Afro-American Women, 1800-1910: A Selected Bibliography," in G.T. Hull, et al. (eds.), *But Some of Us Are Brave* (Old Westbury: Feminist Press, 1982) pp.221-244 [Carlson, v.10 esp. pp.690-2]

[Carlson, v.__] means the piece appears in the Carlson series on "Black Women in United States History"

++ Check *Dissertation Abstracts International* for abstract

REFERENCE BOOKS:

*Notable American Women* - entries for Mary McLeod Bethune, Charlotte Hawkins Brown, Hallie Quinn Brown, Nannie Burroughs, Addie D. Waites Hunton, Daisy Lampkin, Elizabeth Ross Haynes, Josephine St. Pierre Ruffin, Mary Church Terrell, Ida Bell Wells-Barnett, Fannie Barrier Williams

*Notable Black American Women* ed. by Jessie Carney Smith (Detroit: Gale, 1992)

Blair, Karen J., *The History of American Women's Voluntary Organizations, 1810-1960: A Guide to Sources* (Boston: G.K. Hall, 1989)

Brown, Hallie Quinn (comp.), *Homespun Heroines and other Women of Distinction* (Xenia, Ohio: Aldine Pub. Co., 1926; rpt. Freeport, NY: Books for Libraries Press, 1971 and New York: Oxford, 1988)

Dannett, Sylvia G.L. (ed.), *Profiles of Negro Womanhood, 1619-1900*, v.1 (New York: M.W. Lads, 1964), esp. p.211 on M. C. Terrell

Hine, Darline Clark, et al., (eds.), *Black Women in America: An Historical Encyclopedia* (Brooklyn: Carlson, 1993)-- includes individuals, organizations, and topics

Sims, Janet, *The Progress of Afro-American Women: A Selected Bibliography and Resource Guide* (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1980)

Trattner, Walter I. (ed.), *Biographical Dictionary of Social Work in America* (New York: Greenwood, 1986)

Dr. Nancy Marie Robertson
Director of Women's Studies Indiana University,
Purdue University, Indianapolis
nmrobert@iupui.edu


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