H-Risk-and-Safety - Bibliography



This bibliography is a work in progress. We welcome additions and further suggestions. We have tried to include items that are broadly ‘on topic’ – so, including things that relate indirectly to the history of safety, accidents and risk, and including work from disciplines beyond history


Initially compiled by Mike Esbester, Amy Gangloff, Bill Luckin, and Jameson Wetmore.



Indicative Bibliography



Aldrich, M., Safety First. Technology, Labor, and Business History in the Building of American Work Safety, 1870-1939 (Baltimore, MD, 1997).

Aldrich, M., Death Rode the Rails. American Railroad Accidents and Safety, 1828-1965 (Baltimore, MD, 2006).

Armstrong, J., and Williams, D.M., ‘The Steamboat, Safety and the State: Government Reaction to New Technology in a Period of Laissez-Faire’, Mariner’s Mirror, 89, 2 (May 2003), 167-84.

Austin, M., Accident Black Spot. A Critical Study of Road Safety and Practice (Harmondsworth, 1966).

Barry, A., Osborne, T., and Rose, N. (eds.), Foucault and Political Reason: Liberalism, Neo-Liberalism and Rationalities of Government (Chicago, 1996).

Bartrip, P., ‘British Government Inspection, 1832-75: Some Observations’, The Historical Journal, 25, 3 (September 1982), 605-26.

Bartrip, P., ‘State Intervention in Mid-Nineteenth Century Britain: Fact or Fiction?’, Journal of British Studies, 23, 1 (Autumn 1983), 63-83.

Bartrip, P., The way from dusty death: Turner and Newall and the regulation of occupational health in the British asbestos industry, 1890s-1970 (London, 2001).

Bartrip, P., The Home Office and the Dangerous Trades. Regulating Occupational Disease in Victorian and Edwardian Britain (Amsterdam, 2002).

Bartrip, P., and Burman, S., The Wounded Soldiers of Industry, Industrial Compensation Policy 1833-1897 (Oxford, 1983).

Bartrip, P., and Fenn, P., ‘The Conventionalization of Factory Crime – A Reassessment’, International Journal of the Sociology of Law, 8 (1980), 175-86.

Bartrip, P., and Fenn, P., ‘Factory Fatalities and Regulation in Britain, 1878-1913’, Explorations in Economic History, 25, 1 (January 1988), 60-74.

Bartrip, P., and Fenn, P., ‘The Measurement of Safety: Factory Accident Statistics in Victorian and Edwardian Britain’, Historical Research, LXIII, 150 (February 1990), 58-72.

Beck, U., Risk Society: Towards a New Modernity (trans. M. Ritter; London, 1992).

Beckmann, J., ‘Mobility and Safety’, Theory, Culture & Society, 21, 4/5 (2004), 81-100.

Bennett, D., and Graebner, W., ‘Safety First. Slogan and Symbol of the Industrial Safety Movement’, Journal of the Illinois State Historical Society, 68 (June 1975), 243-56.

Berger, P.L., and Luckmann, T., The Social Construction of Reality. A Treatise in the Sociology of Knowledge (London, 1967).

Berridge, V., ‘Medicine, public health and the media in Britain from the nineteen-fifties to the nineteen-seventies’, Historical Research, 82, 216 (May 2009), 360-73.

Berridge, V., ‘The art of medicine. Thinking in time: does health policy need history as evidence?’ The Lancet, 375 (6 March 2010), 798-99.

Berridge, V., and Loughlin, K. (eds.), Medicine, the Market and Mass Media: Producing Health in the Twentieth Century (London, 2005).

Bingham, A., ‘The British Popular Press and Venereal Disease during the Second World War’, The Historical Journal, 48, 4 (December 2005), 1055-1076.

Blanke, D., Hell on Wheels. The Promise and Peril of America’s Car Culture, 1900-1940 (Lawrence, Kansas, 2007).

Bloor, M., ‘No longer dying for a living: collective responses to injury risks in South Wales mining communities, 1900-47’, Sociology, 36, 1 (February 2002), 89-105.

Boon, T., ‘Films and the Contestation of Public Health in Interwar Britain’ (unpublished Ph.D. thesis, University of London, 1999).

Borde, C., ‘The French State and Safety at Sea: Co-operation and Conventions, 1839-1914’, in Starkey, D., and Hahn-Pederson, M. (eds.), Bridging Troubled Waters: Conflict and Cooperation in the North Sea Region since 1550 (Esbjerg, 2005), 199-219.

Boudia, S., and Jas, N. (eds.), ‘Introduction: Risk and “Risk Society” in Historical Perspective’, History and Technology, 23, 4 (December 2007): special issue.

Bourke, J., Fear: A Cultural History (2007).

Bronstein, J., Caught in the Machinery. Workplace Accidents and Injured Workers in Nineteenth-Century Britain (Stanford, 2008).

Bu, L., ‘Public Health and Modernisation: The First Campaigns in China, 1915-1916’, Social History of Medicine, 22, 2 (August 2009), 305-319.

Burney, I., Bodies of Evidence: Medicine and the Politics of the English Inquest, 1830-1926 (Baltimore, MD, 2000).

Burnham, J., ‘Why Did the Infants and Toddlers Die? Shifts in Americans’ Ideas of Responsibility for Accidents: From Blaming Mom to Engineering’, Journal of Social History, 29, 4 (Summer 1996), 817-37.

Burnham, J., Accident Proneness. A History of Technology, Psychology and Misfits of the Machine Age (Chicago, 2009).

Castel, R., ‘From Dangerousness to Risk’, in G. Burchell, C. Gordon, and P. Miller (eds.), The Foucault Effect. Studies in Governmentality (Hemel Hempstead, 1991), 281-98.

Cawthon, E.A., Job Accidents and the Law in England’s Early Railway Age. Origins of Employer Liability and Workmen’s Compensation (Lampeter, 1997).

Cherry, S., ‘Medicine and Public Health, 1900-1939’, in C. Wrigley (ed.), The Blackwell Companion to Early Twentieth-Century Britain (Oxford, 2003), 405-423.

Clark, C., ‘The Railroad Safety Problem in the United States, 1900-1930’, Transport History, 8, 1 (Spring 1977), 54-74.

Clarke, L., Mission Improbable: Using Fantasy Documents to Tame Disaster, (Chicago, 2001).

Clarke, L., Worst Cases: Terror and Catastrophe in the Popular Imagination, (Chicago, 2005).

Clarke, L., Acceptable Risk? Making Decisions in a Toxic Environment (Berkeley, 1991).

Cooter, R., and Luckin, B. (eds.), Accidents in History: Injuries, Fatalities and Social Relations (Atlanta, GA, 1997).

Cornish, W.R., and Clark, G. de N., Law and Society in England 1750-1950 (London, 1989), chapter 7, ‘Accidents.’

Cox, P., ‘Compulsion, Voluntarism, and Venereal Disease: Governing Sexual Health in England after the Contagious Diseases Acts’, Journal of British Studies, 46 (January 2007), 91-115.

Creighton, B., and Gunningham, N. (eds.), The Industrial Relations of Occupational Health and Safety (Sydney, New South Wales, 1985), 60-78.

Daedalus, 119, 4 (Fall 1990): special issue on risk.

Davies, C., ‘The Health Visitor as Mother’s Friend: A woman’s place in public health, 1900-14’, Social History of Medicine, 1, 1 (1988), 39-59.

Davis, R., Death on the Streets. Cars and the Mythology of Road Safety (Hawes, North Yorkshire, 1993).

De Haven, H., “Accident Survival—Airplane and Passenger Automobile,” Annual Meeting of the Society of Automotive Engineers (January 1952).

Doran, N., ‘From embodied “health” to official “accidents”: Class, codification and British factory legislation 1831-1844’, Social & Legal Studies, 5 (1996), 523-46.

Douglas, M., Risk and blame: essays in cultural theory (London, 1992).

Esbester, M., ‘“Dead on the Point of ‘Safety’”: Occupational Safety Education on the Great Western Railway, c.1913-1939’ (Unpublished PhD thesis, University of York, 2007).

Esbester, M., ‘Organizing work: Company magazines and the discipline of safety’, Management and Organizational History, 3, 3 (2008), 217-37.

Esbester, M., ‘Administration, Technology & Workplace Safety in the early Twentieth Century’, Jahrbuch für europäische Verwaltungsgeschichte (Yearbook of European Administrative History), 20 (2008), 95-117.

Evans, L., Traffic Safety and the Driver (New York, 1991).

Ewald, F., ‘Norms, Discipline and the Law’, Representations, 30 (1990), 138-61.

Fahrni, M., ‘“La lutte contre l’accident”. Risque et accidents dans un context de modernite industrielle’ (forthcoming book chapter).

Figlio, K., ‘What is an Accident?’, in P. Weindling (ed.), The Social History of Occupational Health (London, 1985), 180-206.

Foreman-Peck, J., ‘Death on the Roads: Changing National Responses to Motor Accidents’, in Barker, T. (ed.), The Economic and Social Effects of the Spread of Motor Vehicles (Basingstoke, 1987), 264-90.

Foucault, M., Discipline and punish: the birth of the prison (trans. A. Sheridan; New York, 1995).

Gangloff, A., ‘Safety in Accidents,’Technology & Culture, 54, 1 (January 2013), 40-61.

Geary, A., ‘Culture as an Object of Ethical Governance in AIDS Prevention’, Cultural Studies, 21, 4 (2007), 672-94.

Gikas, P.W., “Crashworthiness as a Cultural Ideal,” in The Automobile in American Culture, David L. Lewis and Laurence Goldstein, eds. (Ann Arbor, 1983), 327–339.

Gillespie, R., ‘Accounting for Lead Poisoning: The Medical Politics of Occupational Heath’, Social History, 15, 3 (October 1990), 303-33.

Glassner, B., The Culture of Fear: Why Americans are Afraid of the Wrong Things (New York, 2010).

Gleeson, M., ‘From “Disgraceful Carelessness” to “Intelligent Precaution”: Accidents and the Public Child in English Canada, 1900-1950’, Journal of Family History, 30, 2 (April 2005), 230-41.

Gordon, C., ‘Governmentality: an introduction’, in G. Burchell, C. Gordon, and P. Miller (eds.), The Foucault Effect: Studies in Governmentality (Chicago, 1991), 1-51.

Gorski, R., ‘Employers’ Liability and the Victorian Seaman’, Mariner’s Mirror, 95, 1 (February 2009), 62-75.

Gostin, L.O., and Gostin, K.G., ‘A broader liberty: J.S. Mill, paternalism and the public’s health’, Public Health, 123, 3 (March 2009), 214-21.

Graham, J.D., Auto Safety: Assessing America’s Performance (Dover, Mass., 1989).

Green, J., ‘Accidents and the Risk Society. Some Problems with Prevention’, in R. Burrows, R. Bunton, and S. Nettleton (eds.), A Sociology of Health Promotion and the New Public Health (London, 1995), 116-32.

Green, J., Risk and Misfortune. The Social Construction of Accidents (London, 1997).

Green, J., ‘Accidents: The Remnants of a Modern Classifactory System’, in R. Cooter, and B. Luckin (eds.), Accidents in History: Injuries, Fatalities and Social Relations (Atlanta, GA, 1997), 35-58.

Green, J., ‘From accidents to risk: public health and preventable injury’, Health, Risk and Society, 1, 1 (March 1999), 25-39.

Green, J., ‘Is it time for the sociology of health to abandon “risk”?’, Health, Risk and Society, 11, 6 (December 2009), 493-508.

Gunn, S., ‘Archery practice in early Tudor England’, Past and Present, 209 (November 2010), 53-81.

Gusfield, J.R., The Culture of Public Problems: Drinking-Driving and the Symbolic Order (Chicago, 1981).

Haddon, W., Jr., Suchman, E.A., and Klein, D., Accident Research: Methods and Approaches (New York/Evanston, 1964).

Hamilton, R., Accident. A philosophical and literary history (Chicago, 2007).

Harrington, R., ‘The railway accident: trains, trauma and technological crisis in nineteenth-century Britain’ in M. Micale and P. Lerner (eds.), Traumatic Pasts. History, Psychiatry, and Trauma in the Modern Age, 1870-1930 (Cambridge, 2001), 31-56.

Harrington, R., ‘Railway Safety and Railway Slaughter: Railway Accidents, Government and Public in Victorian Britain’, Journal of Victorian Culture, 8, 2 (Autumn 2003), 187-207.

Hecht, G., ‘Enacting Cultural Identity: Risk and Ritual in the French Nuclea Workplace’, Journal of Contemporary History, 32, 4 (October 1997), 483-507.

Howarth, G., ‘Death on the road. The role of the English coroner’s court in the social construction of an accident’, in M. Mitchell (ed.), The Aftermath of Road Accidents. Psychological, social and legal consequences of an everyday trauma (London, 1997), 145-55.

Howell, D., ‘Railway Safety and Labour Unrest: The Aisgill Railway Disaster of 1913’, in Wrigley, C., and Shepherd, J. (eds.), On the Move: Essays in Labour and Transport History Presented to Philip Bagwell (London, 1991), 123-54.

Ishaque, M., and Noland, R., ‘Making roads safe for pedestrians or keeping them out of the way? An historical perspective on pedestrian policies in Britain’, Journal of Transport History, 3rd series, 27, 1 (March 2006), 115-37.

Johnston, R., and McIvor, A., ‘Marginalising the Body at Work? Employers’ Occupational Health Strategies and Occupational Medicine in Scotland c.1930-1974’, Social History of Medicine, 21, 1 (2008), 127-44.

Jones, A.V., ‘Towards Safety Working: The Hazards and the Risks of Introducing Electrical Equipment in British Coal Mines up to About 1930’, Transactions of the Newcomen Society, 76, 1 (2006), 115-26.

Jones, H., ‘Employers’ Welfare Schemes and Industrial Relations in Inter-War Britain’, Business History, XXV, 1 (March 1983), 61-75.

Jones, H., ‘An Inspector Calls: Health and Safety at Work in Inter-War Britain’, in P. Weindling (ed.), The Social History of Occupational Health (London, 1985), 223-39.

Jones, H., Health and Society in Twentieth Century Britain (London, 1994).

Joyce, P., The Rule of Freedom: Liberalism and the Modern City (London, 2003).

Knowles, S., The Disaster Experts: Mastering Risk in Modern America (2011).

Knox, E., ‘Blood on the Tracks: Railway Employers and Safety in Late-Victorian and Edwardian Britain’, Historical Studies in Industrial Relations, 12 (Autumn 2001), 1-26.

Lakoff , A., Disaster and the Politics of Intervention (New York, 2010).

Leichter, H.M., Free to Be Foolish: Politics and Health Promotion in the United States and Great Britain (Princeton, 1991).

Leneman, L., ‘Lives and Limbs: Company Records as a Source for the History of Industrial Injury, 6, 3 (1997), 405-427.

Lengwiler, M., ‘Between war propaganda and advertising: the visual style of accident prevention as a precursor to post-war health education in Switzerland’ in V. Berridge, and K. Loughlin (eds.), Medicine, the Market and Mass Media: Producing Health in the Twentieth Century (London, 2005), 98-132.

Lewenstein, B.V., ‘Industrial life insurance, public health campaigns, and public communication of science, 1908-1951’, Public Understanding of Science, 1, 4 (October 1992), 347-65.

Long, V., and Marland, H., ‘From Danger and Motherhood to Health and Beauty: Health Advice for the Factory Girl in Early Twentieth-Century Britain’, Twentieth Century British History, 20, 4 (2009), 454-81.

Luckin, B., ‘Accidents, disasters and cities’, Urban History, 20, 2 (October 1993), 177-90.

Luckin, B., ‘A Kind of Consensus on the Roads? Drink Driving Policy in Britain 1945-1970’, Twentieth-Century British History, 21, 3 (2010), 350-74.

Luckin, B., and Sheen, D., ‘Defining early modern automobility. The road traffic accident crisis in Manchester, 1939-45’, Cultural and Social History, 6, 2 (June 2009), 211-30.

Luckin, B., ‘Anti-drink driving reform in Britain, c.1920-80’, Addiction, 105, 9 (2010), 1538-44.

Luckin, B., ‘A Never-Ending Passing of the Buck? The Failure of Drink-Driving Reform in Interwar Britain’, Contemporary British History, 24, 3 (2010), 363-84.

Lupton, D, and Petersen, A., The New Public Health: Health and Self in an Age of Risk (London, 1996).

McIvor, A., ‘Employers, the Government, and Industrial Fatigue in Britain, 1890-1918’, British Journal of Industrial Medicine, 44 (1987), 724-32.

McIvor, A., ‘State Intervention and Work Intensification. The Politics of Occupational Health and Safety in the British Cotton Industry, c.1880-1914’, in A. Knotter, B. Altena and D. Damsma (eds.), Labour, Social Policy and the Welfare State (Amsterdam,1997), 125-39.

McIvor, A., and Johnston, R., Miners’ Lung: a history of dust disease in British coal mining (Aldershot, 2007).

McKenna, C.D., ‘“Better living through chemistry?” Industrial accidents and masculinity at Du Pont, 1890-1930’, Entreprises et Histoire, 17 (1997), 9-21.

McKinlay, A., and Starkey, K. (eds.), Foucault, Management and Organization Theory. From Panopticon to Technologies of Self (London, 1998).

McLean, I., and Johnes, M., ‘“Regulation run mad”: the Board of Trade and the loss of the Titanic’, Public Administration, 78, 4 (2000), 729-49.

Menéndez-Navarro, A., and Rodríguez-Ocaña, E., ‘From “Accident Medicine” to “Factory Medicine”: Spanish Occupational Medicine in the Twentieth Century’, in A. Grieco, D. Fano, T. Carter and S. Iavicoli (eds.), Origins of Occupational Health Associations in the World (Amsterdam, 2003), 207-216.

Mills, C., Regulating Health and Safety in the British Mining Industries, 1800-1914 (Aldershot, 2009).

Moeller, S., Compassion Fatigue: How the Media Sell Disease, Famine, War and Death, (New York, 1999).

Mohun, A., ‘On the Frontier of The Empire of Chance: Statistics, Accidents, and Risk in Industrializing America’, Science in Context, 18, 3 (2005), 337-57.

Mohun, A., ‘Designed for Thrills and Safety: Gender, Technology, and the Commodification of Risk in the Amusement Park Industry’, Journal of Design History, 14 (Fall 2001), 291-306.

Moses, J., ‘Risk, humanity and injuries to the body politic. Governmental representations of ‘the industrial accident problem’ in Britain, Germany and Italy, 1870-1900’, in van den Broek, I., Smit, C., and Wolffram, D.J. (eds.), Imagination and Commitment: Representations of the Social Question (Leuven, 2010).

Nader, R., Unsafe at Any Speed: The Designed-In Dangers of the American Automobile (New York, 1965).

Nichols, T., The Sociology of Industrial Injury (London, 1997).

Norton, P., ‘Street Rivals: Jaywalking and the Invention of the Motor Age Street’, Technology and Culture, 48, 2 (April 2007), 331-59.

Norton, P., Fighting Traffic. The Dawn of the Motor Age in the American City (Cambridge, MA, 2008).

O’Connell, S., The Car and British Motoring. Class, Gender and Motoring, 1896-1939 (Manchester, 1998).

Packer, J., Mobility without Mayhem. Safety, Cars, and Citizenship (Durham, North Carolina, 2008).

Perrow, C., Normal Accidents. Living with High-Risk Technologies (Princeton, 1999; first edition 1984).

Perrow, C., The Next Catastrophe: Reducing our Vulnerabilities to Natural, Industrial, and Terrorist Disasters (Princeton, 2011).

Quarantelli, E.L., What is a disaster? Perspectives on the Question (London, 1998).

Rabinbach, A., The Human Motor. Energy, Fatigue, and the Origins of Modernity (Berkeley, CA, 1990).

Reid, D., ‘The role of mine safety in the development of working-class consciousness and organization: The case of the Aubin Coal Basin, 1867-1914’, French Historical Studies, 12 (1981), 98-119.

Rees, J., ‘“I Did Not Know ... Any Danger Was Attached”: Safety Consciousness in the Early American Ice and Refrigeration Industries’, Technology and Culture, 46, 3 (July 2005), 541-60.

Rhodes, G., Inspectorates in British Government. Law Enforcement and Standards of Efficiency (London, 1981).

Rieger, B., Technology and the Culture of Modernity in Britain and Germany 1890-1945 (Cambridge, 2005).

Rinefort, F.C., and Van Fleet, D.D., ‘The United States safety movement and Howard Pyle’, Journal of Management History, 6 (2000), 127-37.

Robinson, J.C., ‘The Rising Long-Term Trend in Occupational Injury Rates’, American Journal of Public Health, 78, 3 (March 1988), 276-81.

Rose, N., Powers of freedom: reframing political thought (Cambridge, 1999).

Rosental, P. (ed.), ‘Health and Safety at Work: An Issue in Transnational History – Introduction’, Journal of Modern History, 7, 2 (2009): special issue.

Rosner, D., and Markowitz, G. (eds.), Dying for Work: Workers’ Safety and Health in Twentieth Century America (Bloomington, IN, 1987).

Rothstein, W.G., Public Health and the Risk Factor: A History of an Uneven Medical Revolution (Rochester, 2008).

Sanders, M., ‘Manufacturing Accident: Industrialism and the Worker’s Body in Early Victorian Fiction’, Victorian Literature and Culture, 28, 2 (2000), 313-29.

Sellers, C., ‘Cross-nationalizing the History of Industrial Hazard’, Medical History (forthcoming, 2010).

Silvestre, J., ‘Workplace Accidents and Early Safety Policies in Spain, 1900-1932’, Social History of Medicine, 21, 1 (2008), 67-86.

Silvestre, J., ‘Improving Workplace Safety in the Ontario Manufacturing Industry, 1914-1939’, Busines History Review, 84 (Autumn 2010), 527-50.

Sinnema, P.W., ‘Representing the Railway: Train Accidents and Trauma in the Illustrated London News’, Victorian Periodicals Review, 31, 2 (Summer 1998), 142-68.

Stabile, D.R., ‘The Du Pont Experiments in Scientific Management: Efficiency and Safety, 1911-1919’, Business History Review, 61 (Autumn 1987), 365-86.

Sturdy, S., ‘The Industrial Body’ in R. Cooter (ed.), Medicine in the Twentieth Century (Amsterdam, 2000), 217-34.

Tarr, J., and Tebeau, M., ‘Housewives as Home Safety Managers: The Changing Perception of the Home as a Place of Hazard and Risk, 1870-1940’ in R. Cooter, and B. Luckin (eds.), Accidents in History: Injuries, Fatalities and Social Relations (Atlanta, GA, 1997), 196-233.

Taksa, L., ‘The Cultural Diffusion of Scientific Management: the United States and South Wales’, Journal of Industrial Relations, 37, 3 (September 1995), 427-61.

Tierney, K.J., ‘Toward a Critical Sociology of Risk’, Sociological Forum, 14, 2 (June 1999), 215-42.

Tucker, E., Administering Danger in the Workplace. The Law and Politics of Occupational Health and Safety Regulation in Ontario, 1850-1914 (Toronto, 1990).

Tucker, E., Working Disasters: The Politics of Recognition and Response (New York, 2006).

Turner, T., and Gray, C. (eds.), ‘Socially constructing safety’, Human Relations, 62, 9 (2009): special issue on occupational safety.

Tweedale, G., Magic Mineral to Killer Dust. Turner and Newall and the Asbestos Hazard (Oxford, 2000).

Usselman, S., Regulating Railroad Innovation: Business, Technology, and Politics in America, 1840-1920 (Cambridge, 2002).

Virilio, P., The Original Accident (trans. J. Rose, Cambridge, 2007).

Waller, J., ‘Injury as disease’, Accident Analysis and Prevention, 19, 1 (1987), 13-20.

Watterson, A., ‘Occupational health education in the United Kingdom workplace: looking backwards and going forwards? The Industrial Health Education Society at work 1922-40’, British Journal of Industrial Medicine, 47, 6 (1990), 366-71.

Weindling, P. (ed.), The Social History of Occupational Health (London, 1985).

Welke, B., Recasting American Liberty. Gender, Race, Law, and the Railroad Revolution, 1865-1920 (Cambridge, 2001).

Wetmore, J., ‘Redefining Risks and Redistributing Responsibilities: Building Networks to Increase Automobile Safety’, Science, Technology and Human Values, 28, 3 (Summer 2004), 377-405.

Wetmore, J., ‘Engineering with Uncertainty: Monitoring Air Bag Performance’, Science and Engineering Ethics, 14, 2 (June 2008), 201-218.

Wetmore, J., ‘Implementing Restraint: Automobile Safety and the U.S. Debate over Technological and Social Fixes’, in Jim Conley and Arlene Tigar McLaren (eds.), Car Troubles: Critical Studies of Automobility and Auto-Mobility (Aldershot, 2009), 111-126.

Williams, D.M., ‘Advances in Safety at Sea in the Nineteenth Century: The British Experience and Influence’, in Starkey, D., and Hahn-Pederson, M. (eds.), Bridging Troubled Waters: Conflict and Cooperation in the North Sea Region since 1550 (Esbjerg, 2005), 177-97.