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  • Department of Political Science                                    Mr. Klesner  
    Spring 1994                                                    Horwitz House 3  
                                                                  PBX 5311, 427-2274
                                                                                    
                                       PSCI 48:                                     
                                                                                    
                              REVOLUTION AND DEVELOPMENT                            
                                                                                    
                             IN MEXICO AND CENTRAL AMERICA                          
                                                                                    
          In Latin America, all major political upheavals, especially extra-        
    

    constitutional changes of power, are revoluciones. These include right-wing military coups as well as the more familiar guerrilla-based insurrections. Does revolution have analytical value in this context? This course assumes that it does because there have been significant revolutionary upheavals in some Latin American countries in this century. Indeed, the continuing appeal of revolution to Latin Americans owes much to the successes of the revolutions we will study during this semester, or to their near successes. National development, defined economically, politically, and culturally, has been the goal of most twentieth-century Latin American revolutionaries, hence the joining of the themes of revolution and development in this course.

    This course explores the political histories of Mexico, the countries of Central America, and Cuba since their independence in the nineteenth century, examining in particular the revolutions in Mexico (1910), Guatemala (1944), Cuba (1958), and Nicaragua (1979). The causes of these revolutions, the process of revolution, and the consequences of these revolutions for politics, society, and culture will be major topics. Where relevant, we will cover U.S. foreign policy toward the revolutionaries (and it is nearly always relevant). We will explore post-revolutionary politics, especially as it bears on economic development and socioeconomic reform, for each country in question. Finally, we will ask whether revolution remains an efficacious means to promote national development as Latin America approaches the twenty-first century.

    Requirements. This course will make ample use of video resources and will expect student participation in class discussions, so attendance and class participation are critical. Fifteen (15) percent of the final course grade will depend on class participation. Students with excessive absences may be asked to leave the course. Students will have three writing assignments for the course, two of which will be critical reviews of books related to issues being studied in the course. A separate handout will explain how to write such reviews, each of which will be of about seven pages in length and count toward 25 percent of the final grade. One critical review will be due on March 4, the other on April 29. The third writing assignment will be a final take-home exam of about ten pages' length due at the time scheduled for the final exam. It will count toward 35 percent of the course grade.

    The schedule of topics and readings includes both required and recommended readings. The required readings are available for purchase at the bookstore and will be on reserve at Olin Library. The recommended readings are listed as suggestions for further study or for the critical reviews.

    AGENDA

    January 17 Introduction to the Course

    Part I: The Colonial Heritage of Latin America

    January 19 The Conquest in Mexico and Central America

    Video: The Age of Gold, part 3 of The Buried Mirror.

    January 21 The Colonial State and Economy

                      Read:  Stanley Stein and Barbara Stein, The Colonial          
                      Heritage of Latin America (New York:  Oxford University       
                      Press, 1970).                                                 
                                                                                    
                                   Part II:  Mexico                                 
    

    I. Mexico in the Nineteenth Century

    January 24 The Struggle to Establish Order

                      Recommended:  Eric R. Wolf and Edward C. Hansen, "Caudillo    
                      Politics:  A Structural Analysis," Comparative Studies in     
                      Society and History, 9 (1966-67), pp. 168-179.                
                                                                                    
    January 26        Liberalism and Reform                                         
                                                                                    
    January 28        The Porfiriato and the Coming of Revolution                   
                                                                                    
                      Read:  John Womack, Zapata and the Mexican Revolution (New    
                      York:  Random House, 1970), Prologue & Ch. 1, pp. 3-36.       
    

    II. The Mexican Revolution

    January 31 Revolutionary Beginnings

                      Read:  Hector Aguilar Camin and Lorenzo Meyer, In the Shadow  
                      of the Mexican Revolution (Austin:  University of Texas       
                      Press, 1993), Ch. 1, pp. 1-35.                                
                                                                                    
                      Recommended:  Charles Cumberland, Mexican Revolution:         
                      Genesis Under Madero (Austin:  University of Texas Press,     
                      1954).                                                        
                                                                                    
                      Recommended:  John M. Hart, Revolutionary Mexico:  The        
                      Coming and Process of the Mexican Revolution (Austin:         
                      University of Texas Press, 1987).                             
                                                                                    
    February 2        Contending Forces                                             
                                                                                    
                      Read:  Aguilar Camin  and Meyer, In the Shadow of the Mexican 
                      Revolution, Ch. 2, pp. 36-70.                                 
                                                                                    
                      Recommended:  Alan Knight, The Mexican Revolution, 2 vols.    
                      (Cambridge:  Cambridge University Press, 1986).               
                                                                                    
    February 4        The Zapatistas:  Revolutionaries or Reactionaries?            
                                                                                    
                      Read for discussion:  Womack, Zapata and the Mexican          
                      Revolution, remainder of book.                                
                                                                                    
                      Recommended:  Manuel Azuela, The Underdogs.                   
    

    III. Implementing the Revolution

    February 7 The Constitution of 1917; the Revolution and the Church

                      Recommended:  Peter H. Smith, "The Making of the Mexican      
                      Constitution," in The History of Parliamentary Behavior,      
                      edited by William O. Aydelotte (Princeton:  Princeton         
                      University Press, 1977).                                      
                                                                                    
    February 9        Agrarian Reform; Populism and the Mexican Revolution          
                                                                                    
                      Read:  Aguilar Camin and Meyer, In the Shadow of the Mexican  
                      Revolution, Chs. 3-4, pp. 71-158.                             
                                                                                    
                      Recommended:  Nora Hamilton, The Limits of State Autonomy:    
                      Post-Revolutionary Mexico (Princeton:  Princeton University   
                      Press, 1982).                                                 
                                                                                    
                      Recommended:  Wayne A. Cornelius, "Nation-building,           
                      Participation, and Distribution:  The Politics of Social      
                      Reform under Cardenas," in Crisis, Choice, and Change:        
                      Historical Studies of Political Development, edited by        
                      Gabriel Almond et al. (Boston:  Little, Brown, 1973).         
                                                                                    
    February 11       The Revolution:  Who Really Benefitted?                       
                                                                                    
                      Read for Discussion:  Carlos Fuentes, The Death of Artemio    
                      Cruz.                                                         
                                                                                    
                      Recommended:  Peter H. Smith, Labyrinths of Power:            
                      Political Recruitment in Twentieth-Century Mexico             
                      (Princeton:  Princeton University Press, 1978).               
                                                                                    
                      Recommended:  Frank Tannenbaum, Mexico:  The Struggle for     
                      Peace and Bread (New York:  Knopf, 1950).                     
    

    IV. Institutionalizing the Revolution: The System of One-Party Rule

    February 14 The Creation and Operation of the PRI

                      Recommended:  Roger D. Hansen, The Politics of Mexican        
                      Development (Baltimore:  Johns Hopkins University Press,      
                      1971).                                                        
                                                                                    
    February 16       The PRI and its Opposition                                    
                                                                                    
                      Recommended:  Evelyn P. Stevens, Protest and Response in      
                      Mexico (Cambridge:  MIT Press, 1974).                         
    

    V. Development in Mexico: Desarrollo Estabilizador, 1946-1970

    February 18 Import-Substituting Industrialization

    Video: First half of From Boom to Bust, part two of Mexico.

                      Read:  Aguilar Camin and Meyer, In the Shadow of the Mexican  
                      Revolution, Ch. 5, pp. 159-198.                               
                                                                                    
                      Recommended:  Roderic A. Camp, Entrepreneurs and Politics in  
                      Twentieth-Century Mexico (New York:  Oxford University        
                      Press, 1989).                                                 
                                                                                    
                      Recommended:  Douglas Bennett and Kenneth Sharpe, "The State  
                      as Banker and Entrepreneur:  The Last Resort Character of     
                      the Mexican State's Economic Interventions, 1917-1970,"       
                      Comparative Politics, 12, 2 (January 1980), pp. 165-189.      
                                                                                    
    February 21       Consequences of Industrialization:  Migration and             
                      Urbanization                                                  
                                                                                    
                      Video:  Continent on the Move, part 3 of Americas.            
                                                                                    
                      Recommended:  Wayne A. Cornelius, Politics and the Migrant    
                      Poor in Mexico City (Stanford:  Stanford University Press,    
                      1975).                                                        
                                                                                    
                      Recommended:  Susan Eckstein, The Poverty of Revolution:      
                      The State and the Urban Poor in Mexico (Princeton:            
                      Princeton University Press, 1988).                            
    

    VI. Crisis and Reform, 1968-1992

    February 23 Failure of the Development Model and the Rise of Dissent

                      Video:  Second half of From Boom to Bust, part two of         
                      Mexico.                                                       
                                                                                    
                      Read:  Aguilar Camin and Meyer, In the Shadow of the Mexican  
                      Revolution, Ch. 6, pp. 199-250.                               
                                                                                    
                      Recommended:  Pablo Gonzalez Casanova, Democracy in Mexico    
                      (New York:  Oxford University Press, 1970).                   
                                                                                    
    February 25       The End of the Revolution?  Economic and Political            
                      Liberalization in the 1980s and 1990s                         
                                                                                    
                      Video:  End of an Era, part three of Mexico.                  
                                                                                    
                      Read:  Aguilar Camin and Meyer, In the Shadow of the Mexican  
                      Revolution, Ch. 7, pp. 251-267.                               
                                                                                    
                      Recommended:  John J. Bailey, Governing Mexico:  The          
                      Statecraft of Crisis Management (London:  Macmillan, 1988).   
                                                                                    
                      Recommended:  Judith Gentleman (ed.), Mexican Politics in     
                      Transition (Boulder:  Westview, 1987).                        
    

    VII. Contemporary Issues

    February 28 NAFTA: Panacea for Mexico's Problems?

                      Recommended:  Riordan Roett (ed.), Political and Economic     
                      Liberalization in Mexico:  At a Critical Juncture? (Boulder:  
                      Lynne Rienner, 1993).                                         
                                                                                    
    March 2           Change in the Countryside:  Revolutionary Potential?  The     
                      Situation in Chiapas and the South                            
                                                                                    
                      Recommended:  Roger Bartra, Agrarian Structure and Political  
                      Power in Mexico, trans. by Stephen K. Ault (Baltimore:        
                      Johns Hopkins University Press, 1993).                        
                                                                                    
    March 4           Mexican Cultural Politics in the 1990s:  The Women's          
                      Movement and the Return of the Church to Political            
                      Respectability                                                
                                                                                    
                      Recommended:  Joe Foweraker and Ann L. Craig (eds.), Popular  
                      Movements and Political Change in Mexico (Boulder:  Lynne     
                      Rienner, 1990).                                               
                                                                                    
                          Part III:  Central America and Cuba                       
    

    VIII. Reform and Reaction Guatemala

    March 21 The Revolution of 1944

                      Read:  Piero Gliejses, Shattered Hope:  The Guatemalan        
                      Revolution and the United States, 1944-1954 (Princeton:       
                      Princeton University Press, 1991), Prologue and Chs. 1-6,     
                      pp. 3-133.                                                    
                                                                                    
    March 23          Arbenz Comes to Power                                         
                                                                                    
                      Read:  Gliejses, Shattered Hope, Chs. 7-10, pp. 134-222.      
                                                                                    
    March 25          The U.S. and the Guatemalan Reformers                         
                                                                                    
                      Read:  Gliejses, Shattered Hope, Chs. 11-15 and Epilogue,     
                      pp. 223-394.                                                  
                                                                                    
                      Recommended:  Richard H. Immerman, The CIA in Guatemala:      
                      The Foreign Policy of Intervention (Austin:  University of    
                      Texas Press, 1982).                                           
                                                                                    
                      Recommended:  Stephen Schlesinger and Stephen Kinzer, Bitter  
                      Fruit:  The Untold Story of the American Coup in Guatemala    
                      (Garden City, New York:  Doubleday, 1981).                    
    March 28          Consequences of the Coup:  Political Reaction and the         
                      Indigenous Population                                         
                                                                                    
                      Video:  Rigoberta Menchu.                                     
                                                                                    
                      Recommended:  Richard N. Adams, Crucifixion by Power:         
                      Essays on the Guatemalan National Social Structure, 1944-     
                      1966 (Austin:  University of Texas Press, 1970).              
                                                                                    
                      Recommended:  George Black, with Milton Jamail and Norma      
                      Stoltz Chinchilla, Garrison Guatemala (New York:  Monthly     
                      Review Press, 1984).                                          
                                                                                    
    March 30          Guatemalan Politics Today:  The Continuing Civil War          
                                                                                    
                      Read for Discussion:  Rigoberta Menchu, I, Rigoberta Menchu:  
                                                                                    
                      An Indian Woman in Guatemala (London:  Verso, 1984).          
                                                                                    
                      Recommended:  Susanne Jonas, The Battle for Guatemala:        
                      Rebels, Death Squads, and U.S. Power (Boulder:  Westview,     
                      1991).                                                        
    

    IX. The Cuban Revolution

    April 1 Cuban "Independence" and the United States

                      Recommended:  Jorge I. Dominguez, Cuba:  Order and            
                      Revolution (Cambridge:  Harvard University Press, 1978).      
                                                                                    
    April 4           Castro's Revolution:  The Overthrow of Batista                
                                                                                    
                      Recommended:  Ernesto "Che" Guevara, Guerrilla Warfare        
                      (Lincoln:  University of Nebraska Press, 1985).               
                                                                                    
                      Recommended:  Ramon Eduardo Ruiz, Cuba:  The Making of a      
                      Revolution (Amherst:  University of Massachusetts Press,      
                      1968).                                                        
                                                                                    
    April 6           The U.S. and Castro in the 1960s                              
                                                                                    
                      Recommended:  Tad Szulc, Fidel:  A Critical Portrait (New     
                      York:  Morrow, 1986).                                         
                                                                                    
    April 8           The Cuban Revolution and Socioeconomic Change                 
                                                                                    
                      Video:  Portrait of Castro's Cuba.                            
                                                                                    
                      Recommended:  Carmelo Mesa-Lago (ed.), Revolutionary Change   
                      in Cuba (Pittsburgh:  University of Pittsburgh Press, 1971).  
                                                                                    
    April 11          Cuban Communism:  The Political Model                         
                                                                                    
                      Read:  Richard R. Fagen, The Transformation of Political      
                      Culture in Cuba                                               
                                                                                    
    April 13          The Future of Cuba                                            
    

    X. The Nicaraguan Revolution

    April 15 The Marines in Nicaragua, 1909-1934

    April 18 Sandino, Somoza, and the U.S.

                      Recommended:  John Booth, The End and the Beginning:  The     
                      Nicaraguan Revolution (Boulder:  Westview, 1982).             
                                                                                    
    April 20          Somocismo and its Collapse                                    
                                                                                    
                      Read:  Stephen Kinzer, Blood of Brothers: Life and War in     
                      Nicaragua, Chs. 1-4, pp. 13-55.                               
                                                                                    
                      Recommended:  Robert Pastor, Condemned to Repetition          
                      (Princeton:  Princeton University Press, 1987).               
                                                                                    
    April 22          The Sandinistas Take Power:  Political Consequences           
                                                                                    
                      Read:  Stephen Kinzer, Blood of Brothers, Chs. 5-7, pp. 56-   
                      93.                                                           
                                                                                    
                      Recommended:  Shirley Christian, Nicaragua:  Revolution in    
                      the Family (New York:  Random House, 1985).                   
                                                                                    
    April 25          The Sandinistas and the Economy                               
                                                                                    
                      Recommended:  Forest D. Colburn, Post-Revolutionary           
                      Nicaragua:  State, Class, and the Dilemmas of Agrarian        
                      Policy (Berkeley:  University of California Press, 1986).     
                                                                                    
                      Recommended:  Carlos M. Vilas, The Sandinista Revolution:     
                      National Liberation and Social Transformation in Nicaragua    
                      (New York:  Monthly Review Press, 1986).                      
                                                                                    
    April 27          Contras and Sandinistas                                       
                                                                                    
                      Read:  Stephen Kinzer, Blood of Brothers, Chs. 8-20, pp. 94-  
                      340.                                                          
                                                                                    
    April 29          Contemporary Nicaragua                                        
                                                                                    
                      Read:  Stephen Kinzer, Blood of Brothers, Chs. 21-22, pp.     
                      341-394.                                                      
                                                                                    
                      Video:  Did They Buy It?  Nicaragua's 1990 Elections.         
    

    XI. Revolution and Its Alternatives as Models of Development in Latin America

    May 2 The Future of Revolution?

    May 4 Immigration as a Safety Valve for Revolutionary Societies?

    May 6 Economic Integration and Development

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    Unit: H-Net program at UIC History Department Email: H-Net@uicvm.uic.edu
    Posted: 21 Jun 1995

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