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  •                                     Florida Gulf Coast University
                                        HIS 3930: Women and Gender in Latin America
                                        Spring 2006
    Class times: Tuesday and Thursday 12.30-1.45pm
    Class location: Academic Building Three, 107.

    Instructor: Dr Nicola Foote                Office: Mod 1, Rm 36.
    Telephone: 590 7368                           Email: nfoote@fgcu.edu
    Fax: 590 7445                                     Office hours: Monday 3.30-4.45 pm
                                                                                      Tuesday 2.15 – 3.15 pm
                                                                                      Thursday 2.15-3.15 pm
                                                                Other times by appointment.

    The aim of this course is to assess the continuities and changes in the lives of Latin American women over 500 years of history through the lens of gender. From the time when native and European peoples met in the era of conquest, cultural ideas about appropriate behaviour for men and women played a critical role in the negotiation of social and political life.  Despite the attempts of the colonial ruling elite to prescribe gender roles, most people resisted elite notions of gender propriety and instead created their own codes of conduct.  This course assesses the relationship between gender ideals and behavioural and social realities.  If the course is primarily centred around women, it is not solely about women, for we must understand "womanhood" as a relational category. Thus we will explore how gender ideologies affected meaning and experiences of "manhood" as well as "womanhood."  The course aims to compare and contrast the experiences of different groups of women according to factors such as race and class.  The course will focus on changes over time in how women were subordinated, and on how gender related to broader political, economic and social changes.  The course asks what does gender mean, and how does it motivate women to become politically involved?  How were different regimes informed by gender ideology? What was their impact on women, and what were women's responses? How have class, ethnicity/race, and national politics and international opportunities influenced women's organising? It is hoped that by the end of the course students will have a clearer understanding of how gender influences historical change and historical continuity. 

    Please note that this is an upper-division class and as such will rely on weekly reading-based student discussion and initiative.  I will provide introductory lectures for each component or theme, but for the most part I will be eliciting and orienting class discussion by posing questions and suggesting themes and perspectives.  Class debate should not centre on presentation of facts, but rather on discussion of issues, questions, relationships, concepts and approaches. Every week we will analyse and discuss secondary and primary sources, which are available either in your text books, or will be distributed before hand. We use a range of secondary sources, as opposed to a single text book, in order to develop an appreciation of the complexities of the historiography of gender in Latin America. Using primary sources will provide us with a first-hand insight into Latin American realities, while allowing us to experience and construct history as historians do, and to gain an understanding of the strengths and shortcomings of different types of sources.  It is imperative that you prepare for each class by doing AT THE MINIMIUM the required reading for that week.  You should aim to spend at least three hours doing preparatory reading for each class.  Please do not sign up for this course unless you are interested in the close, critical reading and discussion of assigned materials. Failure to prepare for the class will result in a very low participation grade and can affect your overall mark for this class.  Student attendance is required at all course meetings and events. 

     Learning Outcomes:

    By the end of this course you will:

    • Understand the role of gender in the development of modern Latin America.
    • Be familiar with a range of historiographical and interdisciplinary approaches to the study of gender in Latin America. 
    • Express yourself in oral and written communication with greater fluency and coherence.
    • Have improved your ability to analyze and assess historical argument.
    • Have improved your ability to work with and interpret primary sources.


    Key Readings:

    The following books are the required readings for this class.  You may purchase them at the FGCU Bookstore.  They are also available on reserve in the library.  Additional readings will also be suggested for each week: these are available in the library, either in general holdings or on reserve. They may also be purchased on Amazon.com.  Each week additional required readings, including primary sources and book chapters and articles will be distributed for discussion in class. If you miss a class it is your responsibility to contact me to collect these documents. 

    Sarah C. Chambers, From Subjects to Citizens: Honor, Gender and Politics in Arequipa, Peru, 1780-1854. Pennsylvania State University Press, 1999.
    Nikki Crakse, Women and Politics in Latin America. Polity Press, 1999.
    Maria de los Reyes Castillo Bueno, Reyita: The Life of a Black Cuban Women in the Twentieth Century. Duke University Press, 2003.
    Elizabeth Dore and Maxine Molyneux (eds.) Hidden Histories of Gender and the State in Latin America. Duke University Press, 2000. 
    Marguerite Guzman Bouvard, Revolutionising Motherhood: The Mothers of the Plaza de Mayo. SR Books, 2004.
    Susan Kellogg, Weaving the Past: A History of Latin America’s Indigenous Women from the Prehispanic Period to the Present. Oxford University Press, 2005.
    Susan Midgen Socolow, The Women of Colonial Latin America Cambridge University Press, 2000.

    If you are not familiar with the history of Latin America you may also wish to purchase one of the following general introductory texts:
    John Charles Chasteen, Born in Blood and Fire: A Concise History of Latin America. 2nd edition. W. W. Norton & Company, 2006.
    Tulio Halperín Donghi, The Contemporary History of Latin America. Duke University Press, 1993.
    Edwin Williamson, The Penguin history of Latin America. Penguin books, 1993.


     Coursework and Grading:

    Short response papers: 25%.

    Two Critical Book Reviews: 20% each (total 40%)

    Final exam: 25%.

    Attendance and participation: 10%.

    Short response papers.  You will be required to prepare weekly response papers based on the set reading of approximately 250-300 words. These do not need to be typewritten. You are required to write eleven response papers; the best ten will count towards your final grade. A list of topics and questions for these response papers are provided at the back of the syllabus. Each week you can choose from two topics, and may either answer a discussion question on one of the week’s classes, or analyse and evaluate a primary source. The aim is for you to improve your writing and critical thinking skills, and to gain an in-depth understanding of each of the topics discussed on this course.  

    In responding to a primary source you should explore the aims and motivations of the person writing the source, and outline clearly what this source illustrates about the particular historical theme. In answering one of the discussion questions you should aim to develop an argument based on the readings and class debate. Introduce elements from the reading into your paper. See the study guide for further suggestions on how to approach response papers.

    Critical Book Reviews:
    You are required to write two critical book reviews: one on Sarah Chambers, From Subjects to Citizens, and one on Marguerite Guzman Bouvard, Revolutionising Motherhood. Your review should explore the historical context of the book: when it was written, why, who was it intended for? You should outline the arguments made by the book, and state your opinion of the strengths and weakness of the argument, and the degree of balance it provides. You should explain how useful it is for understanding a particular theme, how it relates to wider reading on this and other topics, and what you think we can learn from it. For more tips, see the study and essay writing guide for this course. Specific issues related to each book will be discussed in class. Each book review must be at least 1500 words long (6 pages).

    Papers should be submitted to me by midnight on the due date. Late papers will be penalised for each day of lateness at the rate of a third of a grade per day. (B to B-, B- to C+ etc.) Papers submitted at 12.01 on the day following the due date will be counted as late.

     Final exam: There will be a two hour comprehensive in-class exam scheduled during exam period.  You will be required to answer four essay questions from a choice of ten, encompassing the themes covered in the course.

    Exam make-ups will be given only for a verifiable medical emergency occurring on the scheduled test day. There will be no exceptions to this policy.

     Attendance and Participation: Attendance will be taken each class period and you will be required to attend the entire class session to receive full credit.  If you arrive late to class, you will receive only half credit for the class period.  If you leave before the end of class without having informed me of your intentions before you will be marked as absent for that period. In case of sickness or other legitimate reason for absence it is your responsibility to inform me in advance, or as soon as possible after the class.  Any student with perfect attendance at the end of the semester will receive extra credit points. To earn full participation points, you must come to class prepared to discuss the readings assigned for that class period.

     Grading scale:

    92.6 and up = A                      82.5 to 87.4 = B                      70 to 78.4 = C
    91 to 92.5 = A-                       80 to 82.4 = B-                        60 to 69.9 = D
    87.5 to 90.9 = B+                    78.5 to 79.9 = C+                    0 to 59.9 = F

     I consider all students equally capable of successfully completing the requirements for this class. I therefore do not grade students in a class on the basis of a “natural” curve which presumes that there will and should be a “normal” distribution of grades. I evaluate a student’s work solely on their individual performance, and I do not assume that there can be “too many” A’s (or C’s, for that matter) in any class section.  In borderline cases improvement and dynamic class participation will be decisive factors. 

    Every student must participate in class discussions, write the assigned papers, and complete the examinations in order to receive a final grade and pass the course.  This means that if you do not turn in all the assignments, you will automatically fail the course.  Students are expected to attend all classes and to finish the assigned readings by the dates indicated. 

    Response papers: Every Tuesday, except when a book review is due, at beginning of class.
    1st book review:  Tuesday February 21st, 12 midnight.
    2nd book review: Tuesday April 11th, 12 midnight.



    The academic integrity of the university requires all students to be honest in the representation of their work.  This means that you must not copy from other students during exams, that your written assignments should be properly cited and represent your own work.  FGCU keeps an archive of submitted essays, thus anyone attempting to pass off a previous students work as their own will be caught. Likewise I regularly check the internet for essays on the themes discussed here.  Anyone caught cheating will automatically fail the course, and will place their entire university career in jeopardy. This is not a theoretical issue: every year at least one person is caught cheating and thus fails the course. See the student resources centre for help on clear and correct citation.  Contact me if you require further help.

    Disability Policy

    Students with disabilities or other issues that may impact their performance in the class should speak with me at the start of the course in order to work out strategies regarding note-taking, reading the assigned books and taking the exams.
    Academic Freedom

    I guarantee your right to freely express your ideas, no matter what they are and how unpopular they may be.  I will endeavour to present a variety of perspectives in the classroom, and to share my own personal beliefs with the class when appropriate.  If you feel intimidated or are reluctant about expressing your ideas in class please talk to me about it, or send me an anonymous message if you feel more comfortable.  You have complete freedom with one important exception: attacking or harassing individuals in the class will not be permitted. 

    Consulting Your Instructor
    My goal is to assist you in developing a meaningful understanding of history and to help you achieve the highest grade you are capable of.  A constructive, mutually respectful attitude in all matters will greatly facilitate this process. I will be available to discuss your questions and concerns during the office hours stated at the top of this syllabus. You can also make an appointment to see me at a different time by consulting me at the end of class, or by phone or email.  Please note: I will not open any email that does not show a recognizable name in the send field, nor will I open any attachments to emails that do not show recognizable names in the email containing the attachment.  I will need to receive all email attachments as word documents.  Therefore, you will not be able to send me emails under names or nicknames other than your name on the class role for this course.  Please note also that you will not receive a grade for any paper submitted via an email attachment that does not show your name on the first page. 

    Web Links

    www.lanic.utexas.edu The LANIC database at the University of Texas at Austin is one of the most comprehensive data bases on all aspects of Latin America.
    www.globetrotter.berkley.edu/GlobalGender/latampage.html This web site has links to other web sites that look at women in Latin America.
    http://www.historicaltextarchive.com/sections.php?op=listarticles&secid=14 has text articles on various Latin American topics. There is also a link to further articles and texts on various country histories and thematic issues. You can also find ebooks on this site. 
    http://www.iisg.nl/~womhist/vivalink.html This web site offers links to sites about women’s history in Latin America and other places in the world. 
    http://www.evitaperon.org/ provides information on the life of Argentine Evita Perón.
    http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/mod/modsbook32.html offers an internet sourcebook on 19th century Latin America, as well as on aspects of women’s and gender history.
    http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/mod/modsbook55.html provides information and documents for 20th century Latin America. 
    http://w3.unece.org/stat/scriptsdb/variables.asp provides statistics on gender in Latin America.  
    http://www.popact.org/ tracks reproductive rights and policies. 
    http://www.bbk.ac.uk/ibamuseum/library.html For those interested in cultural history, this source offers full text articles on cultural topics in Latin America.  
    http://www-sul.stanford.edu/depts/hasrg/latinam/balder.html provides an extensive bibliography on sex and sexuality topics in Latin America. 
    http://www.iisg.nl/~womhist/specialtopics.html This is the virtual library on women’s history topics. 
    http://www.latinamericanstudies.org/ has lots of links for most countries.


    Course Schedule and Readings

    Week beginning January 9th.
    1a: Introduction –Women’s History and the Study of Gender.
    Socolow, pp.1-5.
    Craske, pp.1-9
    Kellogg, pp.3-17.
    Joan Wallach Scott, "Women's History", and "Gender: A Useful Category of Historical Analysis" in Gender and the Politics of History (1988), pp.15-27, pp.28-50. (Class handout)

    1b: Theories of Gender in Latin America: Machismo and Marianismo.
    Craske, pp. 9-14.
    Matthew C. Gutmann, “Machismo”, in The Meanings of Macho: Being a Man in Mexico City (1996) (Class handout)
    Evelyn Stevens, "Marianismo: The Other Face of Machismo", in Gertrude M. Yeager (ed.) Confronting Change, Challenging Tradition: Women in Latin American History.  (1994) (Class handout)
    T. Barach Ehlers, "Debunking Marianismo: Economic Vulnerability and Survival Strategies among Guatemalan Wives", in Ethnology, Vol. 30, no. 1,1991, pp.1-28. (online resource, available through library catalog.)

    Week beginning January 16th
    2a: Gender in Pre-Colombian Societies
    1st response essay due.
    Kellogg, pp.19-50.
    Socolow, pp.16-27.

    Suggested Reading:
    June Nash, "The Aztecs and the Ideology of Male Dominance", Signs, Vol. 4, no.21, 1978, pp.349-362.
    Irene Silverblatt, Moon, Sun and Witches: Gender Ideologies and Class in Inca and Colonial Peru (1987)

    2b: Gender in the Age of Exploration: Early Modern Iberia and Africa.
    Socolow, pp. 5-15; pp.28-31.

    Suggested Reading: Mary Elizabeth Perry, Gender and Disorder in Early Modern Seville (1990)

    Week beginning January 23rd
    3a: Conquest and the Establishment of Colonial Societies.
    2nd Response essay due.
    Socolow, pp.32-51.
    Kellogg, pp. 53-62

    Suggested Reading:
    Irene Silverblatt, "'The Universe has Turned Inside Out...There is No Justice for Us Here': Andean Women Under Spanish Rule", in Mona Etienne (ed.) Women and Colonization: Anthropological Perspectives,  pp.149-160.
    June Nash, "Aztec Women: The Transition from Status to Class in Empire and Colony", in Etienne (ed.)Women and Colonisation pp.134-148.

    3b: Marriage and the Family in Colonial Society
    Reading: Socolow, pp.51-90
    Eugenia Rodriguez, “Civilizing Domestic Life in the Central Valley of Costa Rica, 1750-1850”, in Dore and Molyneux, pp. 85-108

    Primary Sources: Documents 1, 2, 6, 7, 9, 10 and 11 from Socolow.

    Suggested Reading:
    Ramon Guttierez, When Jesus Came, the Corn Mothers Went Away: Marriage, Sexuality and Power in New Mexico, 1500-1846 (1991)
    Asunción Lavrin (ed.) Sexuality and Marriage in Colonial Latin America (1989)
    Patricia Seed, To Love, Honor and Obey in Colonial Mexico: Conflicts Over Marriage Choice, 1574-1821 (1988)


    Week beginning January 30th
    4a The Brides of Christ: Religious Women in Colonial Society.
    3rd response essay due.
    Reading: Socolow, pp. 91-111.

    Primary Source: Writings of Sor Juana Ines de la Cruz (Class handout).
    Document #8, Socolow.

    Suggested Reading:
    Kathryn Burns, Colonial Habits: Convents and the Spiritual Economy of Cuzco, Peru (1999)
    Kathleen Myers, Neither Saints nor sinners. “The Tenth Muse: Sor Juana Ines de la Cruz”.
    Margaret Sayers Peden (ed.) A Woman of Genius: The Intellectual Autobiography of Sor Juana Inez de la Cruz (1982), pp.26-35, pp.58-99. 


    4b: Men, Masculinity and Honor in Colonial Society.
    Catalina de Erauso, Lieutenant Nun: Memoir of a Basque Transvestite in the New World. (Class handout).

    Suggested Reading:
    Pete Sigal, Infamous Desire: Male Homosexuality in Colonial Latin America
    Steve J. Stern, The Secret History of Gender: Women, Men and Power in Late Colonial Mexico (1995)
    Lyman Johnson and Sonya Lipsett-Rivera (eds.) The Faces of Honour: Sex, Shame and Violence in Colonial Latin America (1998)

    Week beginning February 6th
    5a: Indigenous Women in Colonial Society.
    4th response essay due.
    Reading: Kellogg, pp. 63-86

    Primary Source: Colonial drawings of indigenous women (Class handout)

    Suggested Reading:
    Ana Maria Presta, “Doña Isabel Sisa: A Sixteenth Century Indian Women Resisting Gender Inequalities”, in Kenneth Andrien (ed.) The Human Tradition in Colonial Latin America (2002), pp.35-50
    Susan Schroeder, Stephanie Wood and Robert Haskett (eds.) Indian Women of Early Mexico (1997)

    5b: The Gendered Dynamics of Slave Society in Colonial Latin America.
    Reading: Socolow, pp.130-146.
    Maria Eugenia Chaves, “Slave Women’s Strategies for Freedom and the Late Spanish Colonial State”, Dore and Molyneux, pp. 108-126.

    Primary Source: Extract from Cateana Says No: Women’s Stories from a Brazilian Slave Society (Class handout).

    Suggested Reading:
    Mary C. Karasch, Slave Life and Culture in Rio de Janeiro, 1808-1850 (1986)
    Sandra Lauderdale Graham, House and Street: The Domestic Worlds of Servants and Masters in Nineteeth Century Rio de Janeiro (1992).


    Week beginning February 13th.
    6a: War, Revolution and Independence Struggles: National Heroes and Republican Motherhood.
    5th response essay due.
    Reading: Rebecca Earle, "Rape and the Anxious Republic: Revolutionary Colombia, 1810-1830", in Dore and Molyneux, pp. 127-146.

    Suggested Reading:
    E. Cherpak, "The Participation of Women in the Independence Movement of Gran Colombia, 1780-1830", in Asuncion Lavrin (ed.) Latin American Women (1978)
    Sarah Radcliffe and Sallie Westwood, Remaking the Nation: Place, Identity and Politics in Latin America. Chapter 6, 'Gender and National Identities'.
    Jean Stubbs, "Social and Political Motherhood", in Verene Sheperd and Bridget Brereton (eds.) Engendering History: Caribbean Women in Historical Perspective (1995)

    6b: Status and Citizenship in the New Republics: Currents of Social and Economic Change.
    Reading:  Elizabeth Dore, "One Step Foward, Two Steps Back: Gender and the Long Nineteenth Century", in Dore and Molyneux, pp.3-32.
    Sarah Chambers, From Subjects to Citizens: Honour, Gender and Politics in Arequipa, Peru, 1786-1854 (1999) esp. Chapter 6.

    Suggested Reading: Elizabeth Dore, “Property, Households, and Public Regulation of Domestic Life: Diriomo, Nicaragua, 1840-1900”, Dore and Molyneux, pp. 147-171.
    Donna J. Guy, “Parents before the Tribunals: The Legal Construction of Patriarchy in Argentina”, Dore and Molyneux, pp. 172-193.

    ------ 1st book review due, Sarah Chamber, From Subjects to Citizens, Tuesday February 21st, 12 midnight --------------
    Week beginning February 20th.
    7a: First-Wave Feminism and The Struggle for Female Suffrage.
    Reading: Craske, pp. 162-171.
    Dore and Molyneux, pp. 42-50, “Early Twentieth Century Liberalism”.
    Extract from Asuncion Lavrin, Women, Feminism and Social Change in Argentina, Chile and Uruguay, 1890-1940 (1995) (Class handout).

    Primary Source: Extract from The Cuba Reader (class handout)

    Suggested Reading:
    Susan Besse, Restructuring Patriarchy: The Modernisation of Gender Inequality in Brazil, 1914-1940. (1996)
    K. Lynne Stoner, From the House to the Streets: The Cuban Women's Movement for Legal Reform, 1898-1940.  (1991)

    7b: Women and Revolution Part One: The Mexican Revolution.
    Craske, pp. 139-143.
    Dore and Molyneux, pp. 50-53, “The Birth of Corporate Populism”.
    Mary Kay Vaughn, “Modernizing Patriarchy: State Policies, Rural Households and Women in Mexico, 1930-1940”, Dore and Molyneux, pp. 194-214.

    Primary Source: Extract from The Mexico Reader

    Suggested Reading:
    D. M Bush, "Gender and the Mexican Revolution", in Mary Ann Tetrault (ed.) Women and Revolution in Africa, Asia and the New World (1994
    E. Salas, Soldaderas in the Mexican Military: Myth and History (1990)
    Mary Kay Vaughn, Cultural Politics in Revolution: Teachers, Peasants, and Schools in Mexico, 1930-1940 (1997)

    Week beginning February 27th.
    8a: The Life and Work of Frida Khalo
    6th response paper due.
    Reading: Class handout.

    8b: Women and Work in the Early Twentieth Century
    Craske, pp. 88-111.
    Extract from Daniel James and John French (eds.) The Gendered World of Latin American Women Workers (1997) (class handout)

    Suggested Reading:
    Sandra McGee Deutsch, “The Catholic Church, Work and Womanhood in Argentina 1890-1930”, in Gertrude Yeager (ed.) Confronting Change, Challenging Tradition: Women in Latin American History (1994)
    Thomas Miller Klubock, Contested Communities: Class, Gender, and Politics in Chile's El Teniente Copper Mine, 1904-1951 (1998)
    Kathleen J. Higgins, Licentious Libery in a Brazilian Gold-Mining Region (1999)

    ----------- Spring Break March 6th – 11th. No classes this week!!!-------------------

    Week beginning March 13th.
    7th response paper due.
    9a: Evita Peron: Gender, Populism and Power.
    Reading: Dore and Molyneux, pp. 53-59, “Corporatism and Populism: A New Ethos of Authority”.
    Alberto Ciria,‘Flesh and Fantasy:  The Many Faces of Evita (and Juan Peron)', Latin American Research Review, 18 (1983), pp. 150-65. (Class handout)

    Primary Source: Extract from In My Own Words: The Autobiography of Eva Peron. (class handout).

    Suggested Reading:
    Nicholas Fraser and Marysa Narvarro, Evita: The Real Life of Eva Peron.  
    J. M Taylor., Evita Peron:  The Myths of a Woman, 1979.


    9b: Women and Revolution Part Two: Cuba
    Reading: Craske, pp. 144-149.
    Maxine Molyneux, “State, Gender and Institutional Change: The Federacion de Mujeres Cubanas”, in Dore and Molyneux, pp. 291-321.

    Primary Source: Speeches of Fidel Castro (class handout).

    Suggested Reading:
    L. Smith and A. Padula, Sex and Revolution: Women in Socialist Cuba (1996)
    S. Lutjens, "Remaking the Public Sphere: Women and Revolution in Cuba", in Mary Ann Tetrault (ed.) Women and Revolution in Africa, Asia and the New World.  

    Week beginning March 20th.
    8th response paper due.
    10a: Women and Revolution Part Three: Nicaragua.
    Craske, pp. 150-155.
    Maxine Molyneux, "Mobilisation Without Emancipation?: Women's Interests, the State and Revolution in Nicaragua", in Feminist Studies, Vol. 11, no.2, 1985, pp.227-254. (Class handout)

    Primary Sources:
    Extracts from
    Margaret Randall, Sandino's Daughters, pp.59-79, pp129-137.
    Denis Lynn Daley Heyek, Life Stories of the Nicaraguan Revolution pp.217-226, pp.272-284. (Class handouts).

    10b: Religion, Gender and Politics
    Elizabeth Brusco,  “The Reformation of Machismo: Asceticism and Masculinity among Colombian Evangelicals” in Virginia Garrard-Burnett and David Stoll (eds.)  Rethinking Protestantism in Latin America (1993) (Class handout).

    Suggested Reading:
    John Burdick, "Rethinking the Study of Social Movements: Christian Base Communities in Brazil", in Sonia Alvarez and Escobar (eds. ) The Making of Social Movements in Latin America.
    E. Tamez, Through Her Eyes: Women's Theology from Latin America.

    Week beginning March 27th
    9th response paper due.
    11a: Family Planning and Reproductive Rights.
    Reading: Class handouts.

    11b: Race, Class and Gender: Intersecting Identities – Perspectives from the Twentieth Century.
    Reading: Maria de los Reyes Castillo Bueno, Reyita: The Life of a Black Cuban Woman in the Twentieth Century.

    Suggested Reading:
    Marisol de la Cadena, “Women are more Indian: Ethnicity and Gender in a Community near Cuzco," in Brooke Larson and Olivia Harris, eds., Ethnicity, Markets and Migration in the Andes: At the Crossroads of History and Anthropology (1995)
    Nicola Foote, “Rethinking Race, Gender and Citizenship: Black West Indian Women on the Atlantic Coast of Costa Rica, c.1920-1940”, Bulletin of Latin American Research, Vol. 23, no.2, April 2004, pp.198-212.
    Frances Negrón-Mantaner, “Jennifer’s Butt”, from Matthew C. Gutmann et al, Perspectives on Las Americas: A Reader in Culture, History and Representation. Article on representations of Jennifer Lopez’s bum.

    Week beginning April 3rd
    10th response paper due.
    12a: Authoritarianism and Resistance.
    Dore and Molyneux, pp. 60-64, “Military Rule and State Terror”.
    Marguerite Guzman Bouvard, Revolutionising motherhood: The Mothers of the Plaza del Mayo

    Primary Source: Interviews with women activists.

    Suggested Reading:
    D. Taylor, Disappearing Acts: Spectacles of Gender and Nationalism in Argentina's 'Dirty War' (1997)
    Jo Fisher, Mothers of the Disappeared (1989)
    Ximena Bunster-Burotto, "Surviving Beyond Fear: Women and Torture in Latin America", in June Nash and Helen Ifa Safa (eds.) Women and Change in Latin America (1996)
    Lynn Stephen, “The Construction of Indigenous suspects: Militarisation and the Gendered and Ethnic Dynamics of Human Rights Abuses in Southern Mexico”, in Gutman et al, Perspectives on Las Americas.

    12b: The New Feminisms.
    Craske, pp.172-212.
    Chapters by Jo Fisher and Fiona Macaulay in Dore and Molyneux, pp. 322-369.

    Primary Source: extract from Domitila Barrios de Chungara Let Me Speak!

    Suggested Reading:
    Sonia Alvarez, Engendering Democracy in Brazil: Women's Movements in Transition Politics
    Lynne Stephen, Women and Social Movements in Latin America: Power from Below
    Sarah Radcliffe and Sallie Westwood, Viva! Women and Popular Protest in Latin America

    -------Book Review Due, Marguerite Guzman Bouvard, Revolutionising Motherhood, Tuesday April 11th, 12 midnight--------

    Week beginning April 10th
    13a: Women and Ethnic Movements
    Reading: Kellogg, pp. 127-167.

    Primary Sources: Interviews with Brazilian and Ecuadorian indigenous women leaders.

    Suggested Reading:
    Rigoberta Menchu, I, Rigoberta Menchu and the Story of all Poor Guatemalans.
    Sarah Radcliffe and Sallie Westwood, Viva! Women and Popular Protest in Latin America, Ch 1, “Gender, Racism and the Politics of Identities in Latin America”.
    France Widdannce Twine, “Antiracist Activism in Ecuador: Black-Indian Community Alliances”, Race and Class, Vol 42, no. 2, 2000.

    13b: Changing Masculinities: New Roles for Men?
    Reading: Extract from Matthew C. Gutmann (ed.) Changing Men and Masculinities in Latin America (2003) (Class handout).

    Primary source: Extract from Ray Gonzalez, Muy Macho (Class handout).

    Suggested Reading:
    Matthew C. Guttman, The Meanings of Macho: Being a Man in Mexico City
    Ian Harris, Messages Men Hear: Constructing Masculinites Chapter Nine on 'Hispanics'.
    Robert McKee Irwin, , Mexican Masculinities, University of Minnesota Press (Minneapolis and London, 2003). 
    Americo Paredes, “The US, Mexico and Machismo”, in Gutmann et al, Perspectives on Las Americas pp. 329-341.

    Week beginning April 17th
    14a: Escape from the labyrinth? Homosexuality in contemporary Latin America
    11th response paper due.

    Alfred Padula, ‘Gender, Sexuality, and Revolution in Cuba’, Latin American Research Review, 31 (1996), pp. 226-235. (Class handout)

    Primary Sources: Extracts from Emilie L. Bergmannand Paul Julian Smith, eds., Entiendes?: Queer Readings, Hispanic Writings, Duke University Press (Durham and London, 1995). 

    Suggested Reading:
    Rob Buffington, ‘Los Jotos: Contested Visions of Homosexuality in Modern Mexico’, in Sex and Sexuality in Latin America, eds. Daniel Balderston and Donna Guy, New York University Press (New York and London, 1997). 
    Silvia Molloy and Robert Irwin, eds., Hispanisms and Homosexualities, Duke University Press (Durham, 1998). 
    José Quiroga, ‘Homosexualities in the Tropic of Revolution’, in Sex and Sexuality in Latin America, eds. Daniel Balderston and Donna Guy, New York University Press (New York and London, 1997).


    14b: Exam Preparation and Revision.


    April 24th-28th, Finals Week. Exam date and time to be announced.

    List of Response paper topics:

    Week One:
    Discuss the ideas of Joan Scott on the use of gender as a historical category.
    What do the concepts machismo and marianismo mean? What are the strengths and limitations of these classifications?

    Week Two:
    Discuss the role of gender in either pre-Colombian indigenous societies OR early modern Iberia.

    Week Three:
    How did indigenous women experience the conquest?
    Respond to the primary documents on marriage and the family found in Socolow.

    Week Four:
    Respond to the writings of Sor Juana Ines de la Cruz
    Respond to Lieutenant Nun

    Week Five
    Discuss the status of either indigenous women OR slave women in colonial society.

    Week Six
    No response paper, read Chambers book, review due Feb 21st.

    Week Seven
    What strategies did women use to push for the vote in the early 20th century?
    What impact did the Mexican Revolution have on the lives of women?

    Week Eight
    Discuss the significance of the work of Frida Khalo.
    Respond to the Daniel James article on women workers.

    Week Nine
    Respond to the autobiography of Evita.
    Do you agree with the argument that the Cuban Revolution produced only limited changes in women’s status?

    Week Ten
    Discuss Maxine Molyneux’s classification of women’s movements as based on strategic and practical interests.
    Respond to the primary sources on the Sandinista Revolution
    Respond to Eliza Brusco’s argument on Protestantism and the reformation of machismo in Colombia.

    Week Eleven
    Respond to the life story presented by Maria de los Reyes Castillo Bueno in Reyita.

    Week Twelve
    No response paper  - 2nd book review due.

    Week Thirteen
    What role have women played in contemporary ethnic movements and why?
    Can we speak of “changing masculinities” in contemporary Latin America?
    Respond to the primary sources related to masculinity, new feminism or homosexuality.

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