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  •                                     Florida Gulf Coast University
                                        LAH 3200 Modern Latin America
                                        Spring 2006
    Class times: Tuesday and Thursday  3.30-4.45pm.
    Class location: Academic Three, Room 111

    Instructor: Dr Nicola Foote                Office: Mod 1, Rm 36.
    Telephone: 590 7368                           Office Hours:  Monday 3.30- 4.30 pm
    Fax: 590 7445                                                              Tuesday 2.15-3.15 pm
    Email: nfoote@fgcu.edu                                             Thursday 2.15-3.15 pm
                                                                Other times by appointment.

    Course Description

    This course explores the vibrant and complex history of Latin America after independence, in the “modern period” of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. We will find that modernity looks somewhat different from the perspective of Latin Americans than from that of the United States or Europe. The class is organized around the concept of a dialogue between "national" political histories--that is, the formation of independent states after centuries of Spanish colonial rule -- and the heterogeneous experiences and histories of workers, farmers, peasants, artisans, and slaves: the ordinary people that made up these societies.  Within this framework we will examine aspects of the social history and economic development of the region, including the study of land and labor systems, gender relations, race and ethnicity, community and class formation, and state formation. The study of Latin America is extremely complex and challenging. We are dealing with twenty-one separate and individual nations, spanning a vast geographic region, and encompassing a multiplicity of languages, ethnicities and religious beliefs. This course is structured thematically around a loose chronological framework. We will look at issues and themes common to the region as a whole, focusing in on individual countries as case studies to illuminate these themes. If you are interested in one or more specific countries, you can adapt your reading to focus specifically on this area, using the suggested and optional works from each week’s bibliography.

    This is an exciting time to be learning about Latin America, as presidential elections are to be held in various countries including Chile, Bolivia, Ecuador and Mexico which stand to potentially reshape the political standing and future of the continent. You are encouraged to keep abreast of contemporary developments by reading the international section of major newspapers.

    Please note that this is an upper-division class and as such will rely on weekly reading-based student discussion and initiative.  I will provide introductory lectures for each component or theme, but for the most part I will be eliciting and orienting class discussion by posing questions and suggesting themes and perspectives.  Class debate should not centre on presentation of facts, but rather on discussion of issues, questions, relationships, concepts and approaches. Every week we will analyse and discuss a range of secondary and primary sources, which are either available in your text books, or will be distributed before hand. Using range of secondary sources as opposed to a single text book will allow us to develop an appreciation of the complexities of the historiography of gender in Latin America. Using primary sources will provide us with a first-hand insight into Latin American realities, while allowing us to experience and construct history as historians do, and to gain an understanding of the strengths and shortcomings of different types of sources.  It is imperative that you prepare for each class by doing AT THE MINIMIUM the required reading for that week.  You should aim to spend at least three hours doing preparatory reading for each class.  As preparation for writing essays you should read at least four additional sources. Please do not sign up for this course unless you are interested in the close, critical reading and discussion of assigned materials. Failure to prepare for the class will result in a very low participation grade and can affect your overall mark for this class.  Student attendance is required at all course meetings and events. 

     Learning Outcomes:

    By the end of this course you will:

    • Understand the key themes and issues that contributed to the development of modern Latin American societies.
    • Be familiar with a range of historiographical and interdisciplinary approaches to the study of modern Latin America. 
    • Express yourself in oral and written communication with greater fluency and coherence.
    • Have improved your ability to analyze and assess historical argument.
    • Have improved your ability to work with and interpret primary sources.


    Key Readings:

    The following books are the required readings for this class.  You may purchase them at the FGCU Bookstore.  They are also available on reserve in the library.  Additional readings will also be suggested (occasionally required!) for each week: these are available in the library, either in general holdings or on reserve. They may also be purchased on Amazon.com.  You will need to read some of these for your discussion papers, which cannot be written from the textbooks alone. Each week one or more primary sources will be distributed for discussion in class. If you miss a class it is your responsibility to contact me to collect these documents.  

    Mariano Azuela, The Underdogs: A Novel of the Mexican Revolution. The Modern Library, 2002.
    John Charles Chasteen, Born in Blood and Fire: A Concise History of Latin America. 2nd edition. W. W. Norton & Company, 2006.
    Ada Ferrer, Insurgent Cuba: Race, Nation and Revolution, 1868-1898. University of North Carolina Press, 1999.
    Tulio Halperín Donghi, The Contemporary History of Latin America. Duke University Press, 1993.
    Greg Grandin, The Last Colonial Massacre: Latin America in the Cold War. University of Chicago Press, 2004.


     Coursework and Grading:

    Short response papers: 25%.

    One Critical Book Review: 20%.

    One Discussion Paper: 20%

    Final exam: 25%.

    Attendance and participation: 10%.

    Short response papers.  You will be required to prepare weekly response papers based on primary sources of about one page in length. These do not need to be typewritten. They will be based on issues to be discussed in the first class of each week, and must be submitted to me AT THE START of that class. You are required to write eleven response papers; the best ten will count towards your final grade. See study guide for advice on how to approach these papers.

    Critical Book Review: You are required to write one critical book reviews on EITHER Ada Ferrer, Insurgent Cuba OR Greg Grandin, The Last Colonial Massacre. Your review should explore the historical context of the book: when it was written, why, and for whom. You should outline the arguments made by the book, and state your opinion of the strengths and weakness of the argument, and the degree of balance it provides. You should explain how useful it is for understanding a particular theme, how it relates to wider reading on this and other topics, and what you think we can learn from it. For more tips, see the study and essay writing guide for this course. Specific issues related to each book will be discussed in class. The book review must be at least 1500 words long (6 pages).

    Discussion paper: Each student is required to write one essay from the list of topics at the back of the reading list. They will be based on class readings and discussion. These papers will be 6-7 pages (1500-2000 words) in length and reflect your analysis of materials discussed in the readings.  All papers must be properly footnoted and formatted, and include page numbers, citations and a bibliography. (See essay-writing guide.) They should be based on a minimum of four scholarly sources (books and journal articles). This is a chance to demonstrate critical thinking, and to develop your skills in producing well-structured and coherent pieces of writing.  Marks will be given for clarity of argument, engagement with sources and ability to present different sides of the debate.  Please note that the stringing together of fragments of notes taken from the reading materials does not constitute paper-writing! Students are required to be familiar with FGCU guidelines on plagiarism and the submission of written work. Papers should be submitted to me by midnight on the due date. Late papers will be penalised for each day of lateness at the rate of a third of a grade per day. (B to B-, B- to C+ etc.) Papers submitted at 12.01 on the day following the due date will be counted as late.

     Final exam: There will be a two hour comprehensive in-class exam scheduled during exam period.  You will be required to answer three essay questions from a choice of eight, encompassing the themes covered in the course.

    Exam make-ups will be given only for a verifiable medical emergency occurring on the scheduled test day. There will be no exceptions to this policy.

    Attendance and Participation: Attendance will be taken each class period and you will be required to attend the entire class session to receive full credit.  If you arrive late to class, you will receive only half credit for the class period.  In case of sickness or other legitimate reason for absence it is your responsibility to inform me in advance, or as soon as possible after the class.  Any student with perfect attendance at the end of the semester will receive extra credit points. To earn full participation points, you must come to class prepared to discuss the readings assigned for that class period.

    Grading scale:

    92.6 and up = A                      82.5 to 87.4 = B                      70 to 78.4 = C
    91 to 92.5 = A-                       80 to 82.4 = B-                        60 to 69.9 = D
    87.5 to 90.9 = B+                    78.5 to 79.9 = C+                    0 to 59.9 = F

     I consider all students equally capable of successfully completing the requirements for this class. I therefore do not grade students in a class on the basis of a “natural” curve which presumes that there will and should be a “normal” distribution of grades. I evaluate a student’s work solely on their individual performance, and I do not assume that there can be “too many” A’s (or C’s, for that matter) in any class section.  In borderline cases improvement and dynamic class participation will be decisive factors. 

    Every student must participate in class discussions, write the assigned papers, and complete the examinations in order to receive a final grade and pass the course.  This means that if you do not turn in all the assignments, you will automatically fail the course.  Students are expected to attend all classes and to finish the assigned readings by the dates indicated. 

    First Paper Due: Thursday 24th February, 12 midnight.
    Second Paper Due: Thursday 14th April, 12 midnight.
    Extra Credit (up to 5%): For extra credit you may write critiques of articles which relate to some aspect of Latin America published in one of the following leading mainstream newspapers: The Miami Herald, The New York Times, The Washington Post, The Chicago Tribune, The Los Angeles Times, or The Dallas Morning News.  These newspapers are available either in the library or online. If you want to use another newspaper (particularly one from Latin America or an alternative news source) please check with me first.  The critique can be typed or handwritten, and should be approximately 250 words long. Include one paragraph describing the social content of the article, and a second analysing its historical and social significance. Please include a copy of the article along with your written critique. You may submit a total of five critiques for the course.  I will add one percentage point to your course grade for each acceptable critique.


    The academic integrity of the university requires all students to be honest in the representation of their work.  This means that you must not copy from other students during exams, that your written assignments should be properly cited and represent your own work.  FGCU keeps an archive of submitted essays, thus anyone attempting to pass off a previous students work as their own will be caught. Likewise I regularly check the internet for essays on the themes discussed here.  Anyone caught cheating will automatically fail the course, and will place their entire university career in jeopardy. This is not a theoretical issue: every year at least one person is caught cheating and thus fails the course. See the student resources centre for help on clear and correct citation.  Contact me if you require further help.

    Disability Policy

    Students with disabilities or other issues that may impact their performance in the class should speak with me at the start of the course in order to work out strategies regarding note-taking, reading the assigned books and taking the exams.
    Academic Freedom

    I guarantee your right to freely express your ideas, no matter what they are and how unpopular they may be.  I will endeavour to present a variety of perspectives in the classroom, and to share my own personal beliefs with the class when appropriate.  If you feel intimidated or are reluctant about expressing your ideas in class please talk to me about it, or send me an anonymous message if you feel more comfortable.  You have complete freedom with one important exception: attacking or harassing individuals in the class will not be permitted. 

    Consulting Your Instructor
    My goal is to assist you in developing a meaningful understanding of history and to help you achieve the highest grade you are capable of.  A constructive, mutually respectful attitude in all matters will greatly facilitate this process. I will be available to discuss your questions and concerns during the office hours stated at the top of this syllabus. You can also make an appointment to see me at a different time by consulting me at the end of class, or by phone or email.  Please note: I will not open any email that does not show a recognizable name in the send field, nor will I open any attachments to emails that do not show recognizable names in the email containing the attachment.  I will need to receive all email attachments as word documents.  Therefore, you will not be able to send me emails under names or nicknames other than your name on the class role for this course.  Please note also that you will not receive a grade for any paper submitted via an email attachment that does not show your name on the first page. 

    Web Links
    The following are not required reading, but you may find the material these sites contain useful and interesting.
    www.oberlin.edu/faculty/svolk/latinam.htm provides web sites on a series of countries.
    www.history.emory.edu/LatAm/ provides chronologies and other information on Argentina, Mexico and Brazil.
    www.lanic.utexas.edu The LANIC database at the University of Texas at Austin is one of the most comprehensive data bases on all aspects of Latin America.
    www.globetrotter.berkley.edu/GlobalGender/latampage.html This web site has links to other web sites that look at women in Latin America.
    http://www.historicaltextarchive.com/sections.php?op=listarticles&secid=14 has text articles on various Latin American topics. There is also a link to further articles and texts on various country histories and thematic issues. You can also find ebooks on this site. 
    http://lib.nmsu.edu/subject/bord/laguia/ - pub is another data base with links to interesting sites about Latin America.
    http://lcweb2.loc.gov/hlas/mdbquery.html The Hispanic Division of the Library of Congress has been annotating books and articles on Latin American Studies since the 1930s.  Now you can get it online. 
    http://www.uoregon.edu/~caguirre/resources.html Here is another website of favorite resources compiled by Prof. Carlos Aguirre. 
    http://www.iisg.nl/~womhist/vivalink.html This web site offers links to sites about women’s history in Latin America and other places in the world. 
    http://www.georgetown.edu/pdba/Constitutions/constitutions.html provides English translations of all Latin American constitutions.  
    http://www.evitaperon.org/ provides information on the life of Argentine Evita Perón.  
    http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/mod/modsbook32.html offers an internet sourcebook on 19th century Latin America. 
    http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/mod/modsbook55.html provides information and documents for 20th century Latin America. 
    http://www.unl.edu/LatAmHis/LatAmLinks.html This web site offers thematic topic web links for Latin America. 
    http://w3.unece.org/stat/scriptsdb/variables.asp provides statistics on gender in Latin America.  
    http://www.popact.org/ tracks reproductive rights and policies. 
    http://www.bbk.ac.uk/ibamuseum/library.html For those interested in cultural history, this source offers full text articles on cultural topics in Latin America.  
    http://www-sul.stanford.edu/depts/hasrg/latinam/balder.html provides an extensive bibliography on sex and sexuality topics in Latin America. 
    http://www.iisg.nl/~womhist/specialtopics.html This is the virtual library on women’s history topics. 
    http://www.latinamericanstudies.org/ has lots of links for most countries.


    Course Schedule and Readings

    Week beginning January 9th
    1a: Introduction – What, When and Where is Modern Latin America?
    Reading: John Charles Chasteen, Born in Blood and Fire: A Concise History of Latin America, pp. 15-23.

    Primary Source: José Martí, Our America

    Suggested Reading: Duncan Green, Faces of Latin America (1997)

    Part I – From Colonies to Republics (1810-1850)

    1b: The Colonial Background
    Chasteen, Born in Blood and Fire, pp. 59-91
    Tulio Halperín Donghi, The Contemporary History of Latin America pp.1-42.

    Week beginning January 16th
    2a: The Wars of Independence
    Reading: Chasteen, pp.91-113
    Halperín Donghi, pp.42-73.

    Primary Sources: Simόn Bolívar, The Jamaica Letter.
    Pedro I, “Declaration of Brazilian Independence”, from The Brazil Reader. (Class handout)
                                 Jose Maria Morelos, “Sentiments of the Nation”, from Gilbert Joseph and Timothy Henderson, The Mexico Reader (Class handouts).

    Suggested Reading:
    Simón Bolívar, El Libertador: Writings of Simόn Bolívar
    John Lynch, The Spanish American Revolutions, 1808-1826


    2b: Postcolonial Politics – Liberals, Conservatives and Caudillos
    Reading: Chasteen, pp.119-134
                    Halperin, pp.74-115.
    Primary Source: Extract from Domingo Faustino Sarmiento, Facundo: Civilization and Barbarism (Class handout).

    Suggested Reading:
    Peter Bakewell, A History of Latin America: Empires and Sequels, 1450-1930 Ch. 15.
    Miguel Angel Centeno, Blood and Debt: War and the Nation-State in Latin America (2002).
    Fernando Lopez-Alves, State Formation and Democracy in Latin America, 1810-1900 (2000).
    Brian Loveman, “Inventing La Patria: Wars, Caudillismo, and Politics, 1810-1885”, in For la Patria: Politics and the Armed Forces in Latin America. (1999)

    Week beginning January 23rd
    3a: Postcolonial Society: Change and Continuity
    1st response paper due
    Reading: Chasteen, pp. 135-143, pp.113-116.

    Primary Source: Extract from travelers accounts (Class handouts).

    Suggested Reading: David Bushnell and Neill MacCaulay, The Emergence of Latin America in the Nineteenth Century, Ch. 3.

    Part II – Liberty, Liberalism and Progress  (1850-1910)

    3b: Latin America at mid-century: A Quickening Change of Pace.
    Reading: Chasteen, pp.149-152
    Halperin, pp. 115-124.
    Chapter on railroads and steam power from Cambridge History of Latin America  (Class handout)

    Suggested Reading:
    Bushnell and Macaulay, The Emergence of Latin America in the Nineteenth Century, Ch. 8.
    William Roseberry et al, Coffee, Society and Power in Latin America

    Week beginning January 30th
    4a: The Heyday of Liberal Reform, Order and Progress: Views from Mexico, Brazil and Ecuador.
    2nd response paper due
    Reading: Chasteen, pp.152-175, pp. 193-198.
                   Halperin, pp. 125-157.
    David Bushnell and Neil Macaulay, “The Liberal Legacy and the Quest for Development”, chapter in The Emergence of Latin America in the Nineteenth Century. (2nd edition, 1994) pp.286-299 (Class handout)

    Primary Sources: Channing Arnold and Frederick J. Tabor Frost “Pofirio Diaz Visits Yucatan”
    James Creelman “President Diaz, Hero of the Americas”, from The Mexico Reader. (Class handouts). 

    Suggested Reading:
    Dain Borges, “A Mirror of Progress”, from Robert Levine (ed.) The Brazil Reader
    James Creelman, “President Diaz: Hero of the Americas”, and John Kenneth Turner, “The Diaz System”, both in Lewis Hanke (ed.) History of Latin American Civilization: Sources and Interpretations, Vol. 2, pp. 293-310.
    Derek Williams, “Assembling the Empire of Morality: State Building Strategies in Catholic Ecuador”, Journal of Historical Sociology, Vol. 14, no.2, 2001, pp. 149-171. (Library Reserve)

    4b: Indian Communities, Liberalism and Land: Colombia and Bolivia.
    Reading: One of the following articles provided as class handouts.
    Tristan Platt, "Liberalism and Ethnocide in the Southern Andes", History Workshop Journal, Vol. 17, 1984, pp. 3-18.
    James Sanders, “Belonging to the Great Granadan Family: Partisan Struggle and the Construction of Indigenous Identity and Politics in Southwestern Colombia, 1849-1890”, in Nancy Appelbaum, Anne MacPherson and Karin Alejandra Rosemblatt (eds) Race and Nation in Modern Latin America (2003), pp.56-86.
    Frank Safford, “Race, Integration and Progress: Elite Attitudes and the Indian in Colombia, 1750-1870”, Hispanic American Historical Review, Vol. 71, 1991, pp.1-33.

    Suggested Reading:
    Nancy Appelbaum, Muddied Waters: Race, Region and Local History in Colombia, 1846-1948 (2003)
    Erick D. Langer, Economic Change and Resistance in Rural Bolivia, 1880-1930 (1989)
    Brooke Larson, Cochabamba 1550-1900: Colonialism and Agrarian Transformation in Bolivia (1998) Ch. 5.
    James Sanders, Popular Politics, Race and Class in Nineteenth Century Colombia (2004)

    Week beginning February 6th
    5a: Slave Societies and Emancipation: The Case of Brazil.
    3rd response paper due
    Reading: Emilia Viotti da Costa, “Masters and Slaves: From Slave Labour to Free Labour”, from The Brazilian Empire: Myths and Histories (2000)(Class handout)

    Primary Sources: Selection of extracts from The Brazil Reader (Class handout).

    Suggested Reading: Robert Conrad (ed) Children of God’s Fire
    Sandra Lauderdale Graham, House and Street: The Domestic Worlds of Servatns and Masters in Nineteenth Century Rio de Janeiro (1988)
     -do – Caetana Says No: Women’s Stories from Brazilian Slave Society (2005)

    Part III - Neocolonialism

    5b: US – Latin American Relations: Manifest Destiny, Caribbean Imperialism, and Rodó.  
    Reading: Chasteen, pp. 200-208
                    Halperin, pp.158-166
    Extract from Mark T. GilderhursThe Second Century:  US-Latin American Relations since 1889, 2000.

    Primary Source: Extract from José Enrique Rodό, Ariel.

    Suggested Reading:
    Joan Casanovas, Bread or Bullets: Urban Labour and Spanish Colonialism in Cuba, 1850-1898 (1998)
    Eliane J. Findlay, “Love in the Tropics: Marriage, Divorce and the Construction of Benevolent Colonialism in Puerto Rico, 1898-1910”, in Gilbert Joseph (ed.) Close Encounters of Empire: Writing the Cultural History of US-Latin American Relations (1998)


    Week beginning February 13th
    6a: Cuban Independence
    Fifth response paper due.
    Reading: Ada Ferrer, Insurgent Cuba: Race, Nation and Revolution, 1868-1898 (esp. Chs 1,2, 4, 6 and conclusion)

    Primary Source: Extracts from The Cuba Reader (class handouts).

    Suggested Readings: Leslie Bethell (ed.) Cuba: A Short History
    Jorge Ibarra, Prologue to Revolution: Cuba 1898-1958.

    6b: The Export Boom and Foreign Corporations – Bananas and Rubber.
    Reading: Chasteen, pp. 181-192
    Halperin, pp.169-180
    Marcelo Bucheli, “The United Fruit Company in Latin America”, in Steve Striffler (ed.) Banana Wars: Power, Production and History in the Americas (2003)(Class handout)

    Primary Sources: Extract from The Amazon Journal  of Sir Roger Casement. (Class handout)

    Suggested Reading: Aviva Chomsky, West Indian Workers and the United Fruit Company in Costa Rica 1870-1940 (1996)
    Marc Edelman, “A Central American Genocide: Rubber, Slavery, Nationalism and the Destruction of the Guatusos-Malekus”, in Matthew C. Gutmann et al Perspectives on Las Americas: A Reader in Culture, History and Representation. (2003)
    Dario Euraque, “The Threat of Blackness to the Mestizo Nation: Race and Ethnicity in the Honduran Banana Economy”, in Striffler (ed.) Banana Wars
    William Roseberry et al, Coffee, Society and Power in Latin America (1995)
    Michael Edward Stanfield, Red Rubber, Bleeding Trees: Violence, Slavery and Empire in Northwest Amazonia 1850-1933 (1998)
    Barbara Weinstein, The Amazon Rubber Boom, 1850-1920  (1983)

    --------- 1st Essay due, February 24th, 12 midnight ---------------
    Week beginning February 20th
    7a: Intellectual Currents: Positivism and Scientific Racism.
    Dain Borges, “Puffy, Slothful and Inert: Degeneration in Brazilian Social Thought, 1880-1940” in Journal of Latin American Studies, Vol. 25, 1993.
    Charles Hale, “Political and Social Ideas in Latin America, 1870-1930”, The Cambridge History of Latin America, Vol. 4, pp.367-411 (Class handouts).

    Primary Sources: Extract from Euclides da Cunha, Rebellion in the Backlands.
                                 Extract from Carlos O. Bunge, Nuestra America

    Suggested Reading:
    Nancy Stepan, The Hour of Eugenics: Race, Gender and Nation in Latin America (1991)

    Part IV – Pressures from Below: Nationalism and Populism

    7b: The Mexican Revolution
    Chasteen, pp. 221-225.
    Halperin, pp. 181-186.
    Mariano Azuela, The Underdogs: A Novel of the Mexican Revolution.

    Primary Source: Extracts from The Mexico Reader (Class handout).

    Suggested Reading:
    BETHELL, Leslie, ed., Mexico since Independence
    BECKER, Marjorie, Setting the Virgin on Fire: Lázaro Cárdenas, Michoacán Peasants and the
    Redemption of the Mexican Revolution, 1995.
    KNIGHT, Alan, ‘Cardenismo: Juggernaut or Jalopy?’, Journal of Latin American Studies, 1994, pp. 73-107.
    -do- The Mexican Revolution (1986)
    MARKIEWICZ, Dana, The Mexican Revolution and the Limits of Agrarian Reform, 1915-1946, 1993.
    MEYER, Lorenzo, The Mexican Reolution and the Anglo-American Powers, 1985.
    NIBLO, Stephen, Mexico in the 1940s:  Modernity, Politics and Corruption, 1999.


    Week beginning February 27th
    8a: ISI and economic nationalism.
    Sixth response paper due.
    Reading: Halperin, pp.247-255
    William H. Beezley and Colin MacLachlan, Latin America: The Peoples and their History. Ch 6 “Modern Economies”, pp. 133-140. (Class handout).

    Suggested Reading:
    Victor Bulmer-Thomas, The Economic History of Latin America since Independence, 1994. 
     Eliana Cardoso and Albert Fishlow, ‘Latin American Economic Development:1950-80’, Journal of Latin American Studies, vol. 24, special edition, 1992. 
    Rosemary Thorp, Progression, Poverty and Exclusion: An Economic History of Latin America in the Twentieth Century, 1998.


    8b: Populism I: Vargas and the Estado Novo
    Robert Levine, Vargas: Father of the Poor?, “Introduction: Vargas as Enigma”. (Class handout)

    Primary Sources: Extracts from The Brazil Reader (Class handout).

    Suggested Reading: Michael Conniff, Populism in Latin America (1999)
    Thomas Skidmore, Politics in Brazil 1930-64, 1967.  Still one of the best accounts of Vargas.


    -------- Spring Break March 6th – 12th ----- No classes this week!!! ----

    Week beginning March 13th
     9a: Peron and Evita.
    Seventh response paper due.
    Reading: Chasteen, pp. 253-255
    Extract from James P. Brennan, ed., Peronism and Argentina, 1998.  (class handout)


    Primary Sources: Extracts from Evita, In My Own Words (class handout).
                                Extracts from The Argentina Reader (class handout)

    Suggested Reading:
    Michael Conniff, Populism in Latin America (1999)
    Daniel James (ed.) The Gendered Worlds of Latin American Women Workers: From Household and Factory to the union hall and ballot box (1997)

    9b: Race, Gender, Nationalism and Popular Culture.
    Alan Knight, “Race, Revolution and Indigenismo: Mexico, 1910-1940”, in Richard Graham (ed.) The Idea of Race in Latin America (1990) (Class handout).

    Primary sources:

    Extract from Gilberto Freyre, The Masters and the Slaves
                          Jose Vasconcelos, The Cosmic Race
              Art of Diego Rivera and Frieda Khalo.

    Suggested Reading:
    Marisol de la Cadena, Indigenous Mestizos: The Politics of Race and Culture in Cuzco, Peru, 1919-1991
    David Craven, Art and Revolution in Latin America, 1910-1990 (2002)
    David William Foster, “Tango, Buenos Aries, Borges: Cultural Production and Urban Sexual Regulation”, in Eva Bueno (ed.) Imagination Beyond Nation: Latin American Popular Culture (1998).
    Richard Parker, “The Carnivalisation of the World”, in Gutmann et al, Perspectives on Las Americas pp. 213-228.
    Mark Rogers, “Spectacular Bodies: Folklorisation and the Politics of Identity in Ecuadorian Beauty Pageants”, in Gutmann et al, Perspectives on Las Americas
    Hermano Vianna, The Mystery of Samba: Popular Music and National Identity in Brazil (1999)
    Peter Wade, Music, Race and Nation: Musica Tropical in Colombia. (2000)

    Part V – The Cold War in Latin America

    Week beginning March 20th
    Eight response paper due
    10a: The Cuban Revolution.
    Reading: Chasteen, pp. 257-273.
    Halperin, pp.285-291; pp.301-307.
    Edwin Williamson, “Cuba”, in The Penguin History of Latin America (class handout).

    Primary Sources:  Extracts from The Cuba Reader (class handout).

    Suggested Reading:
    Max Azicri, Cuba today and tomorrow:  Reinventing socialism, 2000.
    Miguel Angel Centeno & Mauricio Font eds., Toward a New Cuba?: legacies of a revolution,
    Jorge Dominguez, To Make a World Safe for Revolution:  Cuba's Foreign Policy, 1989.
    Susan Eckstein, Back from the Future. Cuba under Castro, 1994 and 2nd edn. 2003
    Che Guevara, Guerrilla Warfare (1997)
    Fidel by Fidel: An Interview with Dr Fidel Castro Ruz, president of the Republic of Cuba.
    Sheldon Liss, Marxist Thought in Latin America (1984)
    Nicola Miller, Soviet Relations with Latin America, 1959-1987, 1989.  Chs. 3 and 4.

    Marifeli Perez-Stable, The Cuban Revolution: Origins, Cause and Legacy
    Hugh Thomas, The Cuban Revolution, 1986.

    10b: Authoritarianism and Dictatorship in South America
    Reading: Chasteen, pp. 279-296.
    Halperin, pp.292-300; pp.307-323.

    Primary Source: Extracts from The Argentina Reader (Class handout).

    Suggested Reading:
    Marguerite Feitlowitz, A Lexicon of Terror: Argentina and the Legacies of Torture
    Will Fowler, Authoritarianism in Latin America since independence (1996)
    Brian Loveman, For la Patria: Politics and the Armed Forces in Latin America (1999) Ch. 7.

    Week beginning March 27th
    11a: Guerilla Priests: Liberation Theology
    Ninth response paper due.
    Reading: Chasteen, pp. 274-277.
    Enrique Dussel,  ‘The Catholic Church in Latin America since 1930’, in CHLA, vol.VI, part 2, 1994, esp.  547-54 and 581-2. Class handout.  

    Primary Sources: Extracts from writing of Camillo Torres. (Class handout)

    Suggested Reading: Phillip Berryman, Liberation Theology: Essential Facts about the movement in Latin America and Beyond (1987)
    Daniel Levine and Stuart Mainwaring, “Religion and Popular Protest in Latin America:  Contrasting Experiences”, in Susan Eckstein (ed.), Power and Popular Protest
    Michael Novak, Will it Liberate?: Questions about Liberation Theology (1985)

    11b: Revolution and Intervention in Central America.
    Reading: Chasteen, pp. 296-305
    Greg Grandin, The Last Colonial Massacre: Latin America in the Cold War, esp. Intro, conclusion and chapter 4.

    Primary Sources: Extract from I, Rigoberta Menchu.
    U.S Policy Documents.  (Class handouts).

    Suggested Reading:
    Don Coerver, Tangled Destinies: Latin America and the United States (1999)
    Robert H. Holden, Armies Without Nations: Public Violence and State Formation in Central America (2005)
    Peter H. Smith, In the Talons of the Eagle: Dynamics of US-Latin American Relations (1999)


    Week beginning April 3rd
    12a: Social and Economic Pressures: Poverty, Modernization and Environmentalism.
    10th response paper due.
    Beezley and MacLachlan, “Development vs Environmentalism”, pp. 88-104; “Informal Economies”, pp.152-160. (Class handout).

    Primary Sources: Extract from Carolina Maria de Jesus, Child of the Dark: The Diary of Carolina Maria de Jesus.  
    Extract from Chico Mendes, Fight for the Forest: Chico Mendes in His Own Words. (Class handouts).  

    Suggested Reading:
    Sue Branford, Cutting the Wire: The Story of the Landless Movement in Brazil (2002)
    Kevin Hillstrom, Latin America and the Caribbean: A Continental Overview of environmental issues (2004)
    Alan Gilbert, The Latin American City (1998)
    Duncan Green, Hidden Faces: Voices of Children from Latin America and the Caribbean (1998).
    Norma Iglesias Prieto, Beautiful Flowers of the Maquiladora: Life Histories of Women workers in Tijuana (1997).
    Lucia Sá, Rainforest Literatures: Amazonian Texts and Latin American Culture (2004)

    Part VI – New Currents.

    12b: The 1980’s. Democratization and the Debt Crisis.
    Marysa Navarro, “The Personal is Political: Las Madres de la Plaza del Mayo” in Susan Eckstein (ed.) Power and Popular Protest: Latin American Social Movements (2001) (Class handout).

    Primary Source: Interviews with female activists.

    Suggested Reading:
    Jorge Dominguez, Democratic Politics in Latin America and the Caribbean (1998)
    Manuel Garretόn Merino, Incomplete Democracy: Political Democratization in Chile and Latin America (2003).
    Rosemary Thorp, Progress, Poverty and Exclusion: An Economic History of Latin America in the 20th Century (1998)

    Week beginning April 10th
    --------------- 12 midnight April 14th, 2nd essay due----------------
    13a: Neoliberalism and globalization.
    Reading: Chasteen, pp.321-326.
    Victor Bulmer-Thomas, The Economic History of Latin America Since Independence Ch. 11 (e-book available online through FGCU website).

    Suggested Reading:
    Arnold J Bauer, Goods, Power, History: Latin America’s Material Culture (2001) Ch. 7, pp.201-210.
    Duncan Green, Silent Revolution: The Rise and Crisis of Market Economics in Latin America (2003).
    Matthew C. Gutmann, “For Whom the Taco Bell Tolls: Popular Responses to NAFTA South of the border”, in Gutmann et al Perspectives on Las Americas pp. 404-417.
    Denis Heyck, Surviving Globalisation in Three Latin American Communities (2002)
    Ana Margheritis, Latin American Democracies in the new global economy (2003)
    José Antonio Ocampo, Globalization and Development: A Latin American and Caribbean Perspective (2003)


    13b: The Drug Wars.
    Reading: Chasteen, pp.306-309

    Primary Sources: Extract from Herbert Braun, Our Guerillas, Our Sidewalks: A Journey into the Violence of Colombia.
    Extract from Alonso J. Salazar, Born to Die in Medellin.

    Suggested Reading: Ted Carpenter, Bad Neighbor Policy: Washington’s Futile War on Drugs in Latin America (2003)
    Susana Rotker (ed.) Citizens of Fear: Urban Violence in Latin America (2002).

    Week beginning April 17th
    14a: New Social Movements and the Rise of Ethnic Politics.
    Eleventh response paper due.
    Donna Lee Van Cott, From Movements to Parties in Latin America: The Evolution of Ethnic Politics (2005). Chapters on Ecuador and Bolivia (Class handout).

    Primary Sources: Extracts from Subcomandante Marcos, Our Word is Our Weapon: Selected Writings
    Extract from founding document of CONAIE (Ecuadorian Federation of Indigenous Federations).

    Suggested Reading:
    Alyson Brysk, From tribal village to global village: Indian Rights and International Relations in Latin America (2000).
    Edward Cleary, Resurgent Voices in Latin America: Indigenous Peoples, Political Mobilization and Religious Change (2004)
    Susan Eckstein, Power and Popular Protest: Latin American Social Movements (2001)
    Erick D. Langer, Contemporary Indigenous Movements in Latin America (2003)
    Donna Lee Van Cott, The Friendly Liquidation of the Past: The Politics of Diversity in Latin America (2000) 
    David Maybury-Lewis, The Politics of Ethnicity: Indigenous Peoples in Latin American States (2002)
    Maxine Molyneux, Women’s Movements in International Perspective: Latin America and Beyond (2001)
    Sarah Radcliffe and Sallie Westwood, Viva! Women and Popular Protest in Latin America (1993)
    Orin Starn, Nightwatch: The Politics of Protest in the Andes (1999)
    Lynn Stephen, Women and Social Movements in Latin America: Power from Below (1997)
    Susan Stonich, Endangered Peoples of Latin America: Struggles to Survive and Thrive (2001)
    David Treece, Exiles, allies, rebels: Brazil’s Indianist Movement, indigenist politics and the imperial nation-state (2000)
    Jonathan Warren, Racial Revolutions: Anti-racism and Indian Resurgence in Brazil (2001)

    14b: Hugo Chavez and the New Left.
    Reading: Chasteen, pp. 326-329
    Extract from Richard Gott, In the Shadow of the Liberator (Class handout)

    Primary Source:  Extract from An Interview with Hugo Chavez.

    Suggested Reading:
    Jorge Casteñeda, Utopia Unarmed: The Latin American Left after the Cold War (1993)
    James Dunkerley, “Beyond Utopia: The State of the Left in Latin America”, in Warriors and Scribes: Essays on the History and Politics of Latin America (2000)
    Lance Taylor, After neoliberalism: What next for Latin America? (1999)


    Essay Topics

    • Discuss the nature of nineteenth century politics in Latin America.
    • What impact did US political, economic and territorial expansion have on Latin America in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries?
    • Account for the dominance of populism as a political phenomenon in mid-twentieth century South America.
    • What was the impact of the Cold War on Latin America?
    • How did race and gender affect national identities in modern Latin America? Discuss with reference to two or more countries. 

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