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  • Florida Gulf Coast University
                                        LAH 3130 Colonial Latin America
                                        Fall 2006
    Class times: T R  3.30-4.45pm.
    Class location: Academic Three, Rm 212

    Instructor: Dr Nicola Foote                Office: Mod 1, Rm 36.
    Telephone: 590 7368                           Office Hours: Monday 2.30-4.30pm
                                                                                        Tuesday 5.00-5.30pm
                                                                                        Wednesday 1.30-2.30pm
    Fax: 590 7445                                      Other times by appointment.
    Email: nfoote@fgcu.edu

    Course Description

    Latin America was born out of the complex, cataclysmic and often bloody encounter between Iberians (people from Spain and Portugal), Africans, and the indigenous peoples of the Americas.  This course will explore the multiple meanings and impacts of European conquest as well as tracing the development of these colonial societies until their national independence in the early nineteenth century. It covers the period roughly bounded by the rides of the Inca and Aztec empires in the fifteenth century to the independence struggles of the nineteenth century.  The readings and lectures have been structured to give you a broad outline of the major political, social, economic and biological trends of the early modern Latin American past.  We will pay particular attention in this course to the complex issues of religion, economy, and ethnic and race relations, both before and after conquest, along with issues of gender, sexuality and marriage.   It is hoped that by exploring these larger themes we may be able to understand the very different worlds faced by native Americas, Africans, Europeans and others during this long and complex period of social and economic transformation.  The course will focus primarily on the history of Mexico and Peru since these areas held the great indigenous state societies and mineral deposits that attracted Iberian interests, and became the principal colonial heartlands. These regions are also those best known to historians of the colonial period thanks to their unusually rich documentary record. We will compare developments in these regions with those in Brazil, centre of the Portuguese empire in the Americas. The Caribbean, Southern Cone, and Northern Andes will also be considered where appropriate.  We will end the course by exploring the legacy of the colonial period on contemporary Latin American societies.  Students are strongly encouraged to compare the features and effects of colonialism in other regions of the world, including British North America, with those discussed in this course.

    Please note that this is an upper-division class and as such will rely on weekly reading-based student discussion and initiative.  I will provide introductory lectures for each component or theme, but for the most part I will be eliciting and orienting class discussion by posing questions and suggesting themes and perspectives.  Class debate should not centre on presentation of facts, but rather on discussion of issues, questions, relationships, concepts and approaches. Every week we will analyse and discuss primary sources, which are available either in your text books, or will be distributed before hand. Using primary sources will provide us with a first-hand insight into colonial realities, while allowing us to experience and construct history as historians do, and to gain an understanding of the strengths and shortcomings of different types of sources.  It is imperative that you prepare for each class by doing AT THE MINIMIUM the required reading for that week.  You should aim to spend at least three hours doing preparatory reading for each class.  As preparation for writing essays you should read at least four additional sources. Please do not sign up for this course unless you are interested in the close, critical reading and discussion of assigned materials. Failure to prepare for the class will result in a very low participation grade and can affect your overall mark for this class.  Student attendance is required at all course meetings and events. 

     Learning Outcomes:

    By the end of this course you will:

    • Understand the key themes and issues that contributed to the development of colonial Latin American societies.
    • Be familiar with a range of historiographical approaches to the study of colonial Latin America. 
    • Express yourself in oral and written communication with greater fluency and coherence.
    • Have improved your ability to analyze and assess historical argument.
    • Have improved your ability to work with and interpret primary sources.


     Coursework and Grading:

    Short response papers: 25%.

    Two discussion papers: 20% each (for a total of 40%)

    Final exam: 25%.

    Attendance and participation: 10%.

    Short response papers.  You will be required to prepare weekly response papers based on primary sources of about one page in length. These do not need to be typewritten. They will be based on issues to be discussed in the first class of each week, and must be submitted to me AT THE START of that class. You are required to write twelve response papers; the best ten will count towards your final grade. See study guide for advice on how to approach these papers.

    Discussion papers: Each student is required to write two essays from the list of topics at the back of the reading list. They will be based on class readings and discussion. These papers will be 6-7 pages (1500-2000 words) in length and reflect your analysis of materials discussed in the readings.  All papers must be properly footnoted and formatted, and include page numbers, citations and a bibliography. (See essay-writing guide.) They should be based on a minimum of four scholarly sources (books and journal articles). This is a chance to demonstrate critical thinking, and to develop your skills in producing well-structured and coherent pieces of writing.  Marks will be given for clarity of argument, engagement with sources and ability to present different sides of the debate.  Please note that the stringing together of fragments of notes taken from the reading materials does not constitute paper-writing! Students are required to be familiar with FGCU guidelines on plagiarism and the submission of written work. Papers should be submitted to me by midnight on the due date. Late papers will be penalised for each day of lateness at the rate of a third of a grade per day. (B to B-, B- to C+ etc.) Papers submitted at 12.01 on the day following the due date will be counted as late.

     Final exam: There will be a two hour comprehensive in-class exam scheduled during exam period.  You will be required to answer three essay questions from a choice of eight, encompassing the themes covered in the course.

    Exam make-ups will be given only for a verifiable medical emergency occurring on the scheduled test day. There will be no exceptions to this policy.

     Attendance and Participation: Attendance will be taken each class period and you will be required to attend the entire class session to receive full credit.  If you arrive late to class, you will receive only half credit for the class period.  In case of sickness or other legitimate reason for absence it is your responsibility to inform me in advance, or as soon as possible after the class.  Any student with perfect attendance at the end of the semester will receive extra credit points. To earn full participation points, you must come to class prepared to discuss the readings assigned for that class period.

    Grading scale:

    92.5 and up = A                      82.5 to 87.4 = B                      70 to 78.4 = C
    90 to 92.4 = A-                       80 to 82.4 = B-                        60 to 69.9 = D
    87.5 to 89.9 = B+                    78.5 to 79.9 = C+                    0 to 59.9 = F

     I consider all students equally capable of successfully completing the requirements for this class. I therefore do not grade students in a class on the basis of a “natural” curve which presumes that there will and should be a “normal” distribution of grades. I evaluate a student’s work solely on their individual performance, and I do not assume that there can be “too many” A’s (or C’s, for that matter) in any class section.  In borderline cases improvement and dynamic class participation will be decisive factors. 

    Every student must participate in class discussions, write the assigned papers, and complete the examinations in order to receive a final grade and pass the course.  This means that if you do not turn in all the assignments, you will automatically fail the course.  Students are expected to attend all classes and to finish the assigned readings by the dates indicated. 

    Extra credit assignments will not be given in this course, nor will "incomplete" be awarded without extenuating circumstances.  I will not keep student grades or other materials relevant to this course for more than one term following the completion of all course work.

    Due dates: 1st essay October 19th
    2nd essay: November 28th

    Key Readings:

    The following books are the required readings for this class.  You may purchase them at the FGCU Bookstore.  They are also available on reserve in the library.  Additional readings will also be suggested (occasionally required!) for each week: these are available in the library, either in general holdings or on reserve. They may also be purchased on Amazon.com.  You will need to read some of these for your discussion papers, which cannot be written from the textbooks alone. Each week one or more primary sources will be distributed for discussion in class. If you miss a class it is your responsibility to contact me to collect these documents. 

    Mark Burkholder and Lyman L. Johnson, Colonial Latin America 5th ed. (Oxford University Press, 2003)
    Robert Edgar Conrad, Children of God’s Fire: A Documentary History of Black Slavery in Brazil (Penn State University Press, 1994)
    Catalina de Erauso, Lieutenant Nun (Beacon Press, 1997)
    Kenneth Mills, William B. Taylor and Sandra Lauderdale Graham, Colonial Latin America: A Documentary History (SR Books, 2002)
    Stuart Schwarz, Victors and Vanquished: Spanish and Nahua Views of Conquest. (St. Matin’s Press, 2000)
    Susan Midgen Socolow, The Women of Colonial Latin America (Cambridge University Press, 2000)
    Ward Stavig, The World of Tupac Amaru: Conflict, Community and Identity in Colonial Peru (Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1999)


    The academic integrity of the university requires all students to be honest in the representation of their work.  This means that you must not copy from other students during exams, that your written assignments should be properly cited and represent your own work.  FGCU keeps a n archive of submitted essays, thus anyone attempting to pass off a previous students work as their own will be caught. Likewise I regularly check the internet for essays on the themes discussed here.  Anyone caught cheating will automatically fail the course, and will place their entire university career in jeopardy. This is not a theoretical issue: every year at least one person is caught cheating and thus fails the course. See the student resources centre for help on clear and correct citation.  Contact me if you require further help.

    Academic Freedom

    I guarantee your right to freely express your ideas, no matter what they are and how unpopular they may be.  I will endeavour to present a variety of perspectives in the classroom, and to share my own personal beliefs with the class when appropriate.  If you feel intimidated or are reluctant about expressing your ideas in class please talk to me about it, or send me an anonymous message if you feel more comfortable.  You have complete freedom with one important exception: attacking or harassing individuals in the class will not be permitted. 

    Consulting Your Instructor
    My goal is to assist you in developing a meaningful understanding of history and to help you achieve the highest grade you are capable of.  A constructive, mutually respectful attitude in all matters will greatly facilitate this process. I will be available to discuss your questions and concerns during the office hours stated at the top of this syllabus. You can also make an appointment to see me at a different time by consulting me at the end of class, or by phone or email.  Please note: I will not open any email that does not show a recognizable name in the send field, nor will I open any attachments to emails that do not show recognizable names in the email containing the attachment.  I will need to receive all email attachments as word documents.  Therefore, you will not be able to send me emails under names or nicknames other than your name on the class roll for this course.  Please note also that you will not receive a grade for any paper submitted via an email attachment that does not show your name on the first page. 

    Web Links

    The following web-sites offer useful information and perspectives on colonial Latin American history.
    www.lanic.utexas.edu University of Texas at Austin Latin America Resources. This is the most comprehensive internet resource for information on each country in Latin America and the Caribbean, in a variety of subjects, with links to a huge number of sites.
    www.lib.nmsu.edu/subject/bord/laguia Internet Resources for Latin America from New Mexico State University.
    www.mundolatino.org Includes a major web site connection to newspapers, magazines, radio, and TV stations from Spain and Latin America.
    www.nalac.org  The webpage of the National Association of Latino Arts and Culture.

    Pre-Columbian Societies

    www.mesoweb.com Info on Aztec and Maya cultures, including reading hieroglyphs, news from archaeological digs, and contemporary expressions if indigenous culture.
    www.mexonline.com/precolum.htm Comprehensive site on Mexican pre-Columbian history and archaeology.
    www.halfmoon.org. Rabbit in the Moon, a fun site on Maya culture.
    www.pcswdc.org. Website of the Pre-Columbian Society of Washington D.C
    www.angelfire.com/ca/humanorigins.  Website with information on Aztec, Maya, and Inca Cultures.
    www.indians.org/welker/aztec.htm. Good website on Aztec culture and society.
    www.andes.org.  Comprehensive website on ancient and contemporary cultures of the Andes.
    www.perucultural.org.pe.  Website devoted to the Incas (In Spanish.)
    www.fortunecity.com/millenium/lilac/3/incas.htm  Website on Incas.
    www.jqjacobs.net.andes/andes_prehistory.html Info on pre-Colombian Andean people.
    www.jqjacobs.net.andes/cosmology.html Info on Andean cosmology.
    www.centrelink.org/Communities.html.  Caribbean Amerindian communities.
    www.witcombe.sbc.edu/ARTamericasoceania.html Pre-Columbian art.

    Post-Conquest History
    www.ibiblio.org/expo/1492.exhibit/Intro.html.  1492: An Ongoing Voyage. Internet project created by the Library of Congress.
    www.minn.net/keithp The Columbus Home Page.
    www.dartmouth.edu/sorjuana Internet project on Sor Juana Inés de la Cruz, created by Dartmouth University.
    www.coas.uncc.edu/latinamerican/latinhistory/Colonial.IDterms/idterms.htm University of North Carolina Charlotte web collection on Colonial Latin American history. Created by Prof. Lyman Johnson, one of the authors of your textbook, and mirrors the organisation of that text.
    www.unl.edu/LatAmHis/Colonlinks.htm University of Nebraska website on Colonial Latin American history, with links to interesting range of sites.
    www.legacy.ncsu.edu/classes/hi300001/bkmarks3.htm Pre-Columbian and Colonial Latin American History Research Sites.
    www.laceh.com Latin American Colonial Economic History Site.
    www.unesco.org/culture/dialogue/slave UNESCO Slave Route Project.  A website devoted to the Atlantic Slave Trade. Features documentaries, activities, and links to relevant publications.
    www.mnh.si.edu.africanvoices Smithsonian Natural History Web: African Voices. A general site focused on African history, the Atlantic slave trade, and African cultural influence in the Americas.
    www.yorku.ca/nhp York University’s Harriet Tubman Research Centre on the African Diaspora. Contains info on the African Diaspora, the slave trade, and the Nigerian hinterland project.
    www.jqjacobs.net/andes/tupac_amaru.html Info on life, times and execution of Tupac Amaru, including bibliography.

    www.acabtu.com.mx/independencia Website on Mexican Independence (in Spanish).
    www.members.aol.com/DonnAnCiv/ColonialMexico.html#LINKS Website with Links to sites on Mexican Independence.
    www.ddb.simplenet.com/bolivar1.html Website devoted to Simón Bolívar 

    www.lasa.international.pitt.edu Website of the Latin American Studies Association, the premier academic association for the study of Latin America in the U.S.
    www.ku.edu/iberia/ssphs Society for Spanish and Portuguese Historical Studies.
    www.h-net.org/clah Conference on Latin American History – organisation devoted to the study and discussion of Latin American history. 

    Learning and Travel
    www.asu.edu/clas/latin/ecuador Ecuadorian Summer Field School. Summer programmes on Ecuador and Quichua language run by Arizona State University.
    www.public.iastate.edu/%7Erjsalvad/scmfaq/nahuatl.html# Info on learning Nahuatl.
    www.ancientscripts.com/ma_ws.html Mesoamerican writing,
    www.LonelyPlanet.com Useful site containing international travel information.
    www.samexplo.org South American Explorers Club. Site with general information for Latin American countries.
    www.latinamericalinks.com A general page of LA links, including info on travel. 

    Course Schedule and Readings

    Part One: Pre-Columbian Worlds and the Cataclysm of Conquest

    Week beginning 21 Aug
    1a. Introduction: What is Latin America? Why is colonial history important?


    1b: The Iberian World in the 1400’s.

    Reading: Burkholder and Johnson, pp.23-32.
    Socolow, pp.5-15.

    Primary Sources: “Coexistence in Medieval Spanish Kingdoms”, Mills, Taylor and Lauderdale Graham, pp.27-33.

    Week beginning Aug 28
    2a. The Americas Before Columbus: The Indians’ Old World I – Mexico.

    Required Reading:
    Burkholder and Johnson, pp.1-18.
    Socolow, pp.16-27.

     Primary Sources: “The Aztec Stone of the Five Eras”, Mills, Taylor and Lauderdale Graham, pp.23-26.
    Suggested Reading:

    David Carrasco, The Daily Life of the Aztecs: People of the Sun and Earth. (1998)
    -do- City of Sacrifice: The Aztec Empire and the Role of Violence in Civilization. (1999)
    Inga Clendinnen, Aztecs: An Interpretation (1991)
    Collier, Rosaldo and Wirth (eds.) The Inca and Aztec States, 1400-1800: Anthropology and History (1982)
    Michael D. Coe, The Maya 5th ed. (1993)
    -do- Mexico: From the Olmecs to the Aztecs (2002)
    Enrique Florescano, The Myth of Quetzalcoatl (1999)
    Miguel Leόn-Portilla, "Mesoamerican before 1519", Cambridge History of Latin America (CHLA), Vol. I, pp.3-36.
    Jacques Soustelle, “Daily Life of the Aztecs on the Eve of Conquest”, in Gilbert Joseph and Szuchman (eds.) I saw a city invincible. pp.35-46. (1996)


    2b. The Indians’ Old World II – Peru.

    Required Reading:
    Burkholder and Johnson, pp.18-23.
    Andrien, pp.11-40.

     Primary Sources: “The Ancestors of the People Called Indians: A View from Huarochiri, Peru, 1598-1608”, from Mills, Taylor and Lauderdale Graham, pp.7-13.
    “The Inka’s Tunics”, Mills, Taylor and Lauderdale Graham, pp.14-18.

    Pedro Cieza de Leon, “How the Incas Achieved So Much”

    Garcilaso de la Vega, “The Incas Had Attained to a High State of Perfection. No Thoughtful Man Can Fail to Admire so Noble and Provident a Government”.  (Class handouts – from Lewis Hanke and Jane Rausch eds, People and Issues in Latin American History: The Colonial Experience (1993). (Class handout)

    Suggested Reading:

    Collier, Rosaldo and Wirth (eds.) The Inca and Aztec States, 1400-1800: Anthropology and History (1982)
    Garciloso de la Vega, The Incas, Royal Commentaries of the Inca.
    Catherine Julien, Reading Inca History (2000)
    Michael Andrew Malpas, Daily Life in the Inca Empire (1996)
    John Murra, “Andean Societies Before 1532” in The Cambridge History of Latin America (CHLA), Vol. 1, pp. pp.59-90.
    Maria Rostworowski de Diez Canseco and Craig Morris, “The Fourfold Domain: Inka Power and Its Social Foundations”, The Cambridge History of the Native Peoples of the Americas, Vol. III, part I, pp.769-838.

    Week beginning September 4
    3a. The Indians’ Old World III – Brazil and the Caribbean.
    First Response paper due.

     Required Reading:

    Mary W. Helms, "The Indians of the Caribbean and Circum-Caribbean at the end of the fifteenth century", CHLA, Vol. 1, pp.37-58.
    John Hemming, "The Indians of Brazil in 1500", CHLA, Vol. I, pp.119-145.
    (Class handouts)


    Primary Sources:  Fray Ramón Pané, Relación of the Taino
                                  Bartolomé de las Casas, Five Kings of Hispaniola (Class handouts, from Emory website.)

     Suggested Reading:

    Samuel Wilson (ed.) Indigenous Peoples of the Caribbean. Especially chapters by Allaire, Keegan, Olzagash, and Oliver.
    Samuel M. Wilson, Hispaniola: Caribbean Chiefdoms in the Age of Columbus. pp.1-34.

    3b. First Contacts: Caribbean.

    Required Reading:
    Burkholder and Johnson, pp.33-40.


    Primary Sources:
    “The Sermons of Friar Antonio de Montesinos, 1511” (Class handout – from Hanke and Rausch eds.) pp.87-89
    “The Requirement of 1513” (Class handout, Hanke and Rausch, pp.89-92)
    Engravings of Theodor de Bry (Class handout from Emory webpage.)

     Suggested Reading:

    Neil Whitehead, “The Crisis and transformation of Invaded Societies: The Caribbean (1492-1580), in Cambridge History of the Native Peoples of the Americas (CHNPA), Vol. III, part 1. pp.864-903.
    Samuel M. Wilson, Hispaniola: Caribbean Chiefdoms in the Age of Columbus, pp.74-134.

    Week beginning September 11
    4a. The Conquest of Mexico.
    2nd Response paper due

    Required Reading:
    Burkholder and Johnson, pp.44-52.
    Schwartz., pp.12-28.
    Socolow, pp.33-37.

     Primary Sources:

    Schwartz, pp.31-39, pp.79-99, pp.127-213.

    Bring this book to class - we will discuss these readings together in class.  

    Suggested Reading:

    Inga Clendinnen, Ambivalent Conquests: Maya and Spaniard in Yucatan. (1987)
    Matthew Restall, Seven Myths of the Spanish Conquest, “A handful of adventurers: The Myth of Exceptional Men”
    -do- “Gaspar Antonio Chi: Bridging the Conquest of Yucatán”, in Kenneth Andrien (ed.) The Human Tradition in Colonial Latin America (2002), pp.6-21.
    Bernadino de Sahagún, The War of the Conquest: How it Was Waged Here in Mexico. The Aztec’s Own Story. (1978)


    4b. The Conquest of Peru.

    Required Reading:
    Burkholder and Johnson, pp.60-68.

    Primary Sources:

    Extracts from:
    Pedro de Cieza de León, The Discovery and Conquest of Peru: Chronicles of the New World Encounter. Edited and translated by Alexandra Parma Cook and David Noble Cook. (1998)
    Pedro Sancho, An Account of the Discovery of Peru
    Juan de Betanzos, Narratives of the Incas.

    (Class handouts.)

     Suggested Reading:

    Kenneth Andrien and Rolena Adorno (eds.), Transatlantic Encounters: Europeans and Andeans in the 16th Century. (1991)
    Olivia Harris, “The Coming of the White People: Reflections on the Mythologisation of History in Latin America”, in Mills, Taylor and Lauderdale Graham, pp.34-45.
    John Hemming, The Conquest of the Incas (1970).
    Steve Stern, “The Rise and Fall of Indian-White Alliances: A Regional View of Conquest History”, Hispanic American Historical Review, Vol. 61, 1981
    Nathan Wachtel, The Vision of the Vanquished: The Spanish Conquest of Peru Through Indian Eyes, 1530-1570. (1997)


    Conundrums of Conquest

    Week beginning September 18
    5a. Europeans, Indians and Africans: The Sixteenth Century Debate
    3rd response paper due

    Required Readings:
    Burkholder and Johnson, pp.71-74.

    Primary Sources: Extracts from Bartolome de las Casas, A Short Account of the Destruction of the Indies (Class handout).

    Fray Pedro de Gante’s Letter to Charles V, Mexico City, Mills, Taylor and Lauderdale Graham., pp.104-113

    Conrad, pp.163-177; pp.180-182, p.289-296. (Compare discussion of Indians in Spanish America with ideas of Brazilian bishops about Africans.)


     Suggested Reading:
    Lewis Hanke, The Spanish Struggle for Justice in the Conquest of the Americas.
    Frances Kattunen, Between Worlds: Interpreters, Guides and Survivors.
    Jerry E. Williams and Robert E. Lewis, Early Images of the Americas: Transformation and Invention (1993) Esp. chapters by Seed and Merrim.
    5b. The Material Impact of the Conquest on Amerindian Society

    Required Readings:
    Burkholder and Johnson, pp.75-80.
    Stavig, pp.1-24.
    Alfred Crosby, “The Disastrous Effects of Disease”, Hanke and Rausch, pp.141-150. (Class handout).

     Suggested Reading:
    Woodrow Borah and Sherbune F. Cook, “Why Population Estimates are Important in the Interpretation of Mexican History”, Hanke and Rausch, pp.164-168.
    Noble David Cook, Born to Die: Disease and New World Conquest, 1492-1650. (1998)
    Noble David Cook and W. George Lovell, “Secret Judgements of God”: Old World Disease in Colonial Spanish America (1992).
    Alfred Crosby, The Columbian Exchange: Biological and Cultural Consequences of 1492 (1972)
    Karen Spalding, “The Crises and Transformations of Invaded Societies: The Andean Area (1500-1580)”, CHNPA, Vol. II, Part I, pp.904-972.

    Week beginning September 25
    6a. The Cultural Impact of Conquest – Evangelization and Syncretism
    4th response paper due

    Required Reading:
    Class handout

     Primary Sources:
    Schwartz, pp.214-221.

    “The Pope Rewards ‘So Easy and Laudable Work’ (1455)”, Mills, Taylor and Lauderdale Graham, pp.34-42.
    “ ‘There can be stamped upon them whatever belief we wish to give them’, The First Letter from Brazil, 1500”.  Mills, Taylor and Lauderdale Graham, pp.43-58
    “Orders Given to the Twelve”, Mills, Taylor and Lauderdale Graham, pp.59-64.
    “Jose de Acosta on the Salvation of the Indians”, Mills, Taylor and Lauderdale Graham, pp.134-143.

    Conrad, pp.154-162; pp.178-180.

    Prints and illustrations created by missionaries. (Class handout from www.library.upenn.edu/exhibits/rbm/kislak/index/cultural.html.)

     Suggested Reading:
    Inga Clendinnen, “Disciplining the Indians: Franciscan Ideology and Missionary Violence in Sixteenth century Yucatan”, Past and Present, no. 94, 1982.
    Nora Jaffary, False Mystics: Deviant Orthodoxy in Colonial Mexico (2004)
    Jacques LaFaye, Quetzalcoatl and Guadalupe
    Kenneth R. Mills,-“The Limits of Religious Coercion in Mid-Colonial Peru”, Past and Present, no. 145, 1994
    Matthew Restall, Seven Myths of the Spanish Conquest. “The Indians are Coming to an End: The Myth of Native Destruction.”
    Nathan Wachtel, "The Indian and the Spanish Conquest", CHLA, Vol. I, pp.207-248. Esp. pp.230-236.

    Part Two: The Consolidation of Colonial Politics and Society, 1550-1760.

    6b. State Apparatus: Viceroys, Judges, and the Chain of Imperial Command.

    Required Reading:
    Burkholder and Johnson, pp83-95.

     Primary Sources:
    Instructions given by Emperor Charles V to Don Antonio de Mendoza, the first viceroy of New Spain (Mexico) in 1535. (Class handout – from www.college.emory.edu/culpeper/Bakewell/thinksheet.html).

     Suggested Reading:

    Peter Bakewell, A History of Latin America: From Empires to Sequels, “Administration: The Power of Paper”, pp.104-128.
    James Lockhart and Stuart Schwartz (eds.) , “City, Government and Society”, in Early Latin America (1983), pp.122-126.


    Week beginning October 3
    7a. The Catholic Church.
    5th response paper due

    Required Reading:
    Burkholder and Johnson, pp.96-110
    Socolow, pp.90-111

    Primary Sources:
    “The Church and Monastery of San Francisco, Lima, Peru, (1673)”, Mills, Taylor and Lauderdale Graham, pp. 196-198.
    “Confessing to the Holy Office of the Inquisition, Bahia, Brazil, (1592, 1618)”,  Mills, Taylor and Lauderdale Graham, pp.234-245.
    “Felipe Guaman Poma de Ayala’s Appeal Concerning the Priests, Peru”, Mills, Taylor and Lauderdale Graham, pp.173-185.
    “Crossing and Dome of the Rosary Chapel, Church of Santo Domingo, Puebla, Mexico”, Mills, Taylor and Lauderdale Graham, pp.269-271. 

    Suggested Reading:
    Peter Bakewell, History of Latin America: From Empires to Sequels. “The Church: Friars, Bishops and the State”, CHLA, pp.129-150.
    Joesp M. Barnadas, "The Catholic Church in Colonial Spanish America", pp.511-540.
    Kathryn Burns, Colonial Habits: Convents and the Spiritual Economy of Cuzco, Peru (1999)
    Alexandra Parma Cook and Noble David Cook, Good Faith and Truthful Ignorance: A Case of Transatlantic Bigamy (1991)
    Enrique Dussel, A History of the Church in Latin America. Colonialism to Liberation, 1492-1979.
    Eduardo Hoornaert, "The Catholic Church in Colonial Brazil", CHLA, Vol. I, pp.541-556.
    Henry Kamen, The Spanish Inquisition: A Historical Revision (1998)

    The Colonial Economy: Demographic Disaster, Labour Systems and Land.

    7b. Population and Labour.

    Required Reading:
    Burkholder and Johnson, pp.111-143.
    Stavig, pp. 129-206

     Primary Sources:
    Conrad, pp.5-22.
    Schwartz, pp.221-225.

    Suggested Reading:
    Enrique Florescano, "The Formation and Economic Structure of the Hacienda in New Spain", CHLA, Vol. II, pp.153-188.
    Herbert S. Klein, The Atlantic slave Trade (1999)
    James Lockhart, Of Things of the Indies: Essays Old and New in Early Latin American History (2000), pp.1-26, “Encomienda and hacienda”.
    -do-"Social Organisation and Social Change in Colonial Spanish America", CHLA, Vol. II, pp.265-321.
    David McCreery, The Sweat of their Brow: A History of Work in Latin America (2000) Chapter 2, The Colonial System.
    Katia M. de Queirós Mattoso, To be a Slave in Brazil, 1550-1888 (1986)
    Lesley Byrd Simpson, The Encomienda in New Spain (1966)
    Stanley J. and Barbabra H. /Stein, “The Pre-eminent Social Legacy of Colonialism was the Degredation of the Labour Force, Indian and Negro, Everywhere in Latin America”, in Hanke and Rausch, pp.327-331.
    Hugh Thomas, The Slave Trade: The Story of the Atlantic Slave Trade, 1440-1870 (1997). Esp. Parts One and Two.


    ------------------------------ FALL BREAK NO CLASSES THIS WEEK!!!--------------

    Week beginning Oct 16th
    8a. Mining and Sugar
    6th response paper due
    Required Reading:
    Burkholder and Johnson, pp144-153
    Eduardo Galeno, The Open Veins of Latin America: Five Centuries of the Pillage of a Continent (1997) Chapters 1 and 2.  (class handout)

     Primary Sources:
    Conrad, p.140-143.

    "Jeremiah in the Stocks - Baroque Art from the Gold Fields of Minas Gerais, Brazil. C.1770", Mills, Taylor and Lauderdale Graham, pp.356-359.
    Suggested Reading:
    Peter Bakewell, "Mining in Colonial Spanish America", CHLA, Vol. II, pp. 105-152.
     B. J Barickman, A Bahian Counterpoint: Sugar, Tobacco, Cassava, and Slavery in Recôncavo, 1780-1860 (1998)
    Kathleen Higgins, “Licentious Liberty” in a Brazilian Gold-Mining Region: Slavery, Gender and Social Control in Eighteenth century Sabará (1999)
    A. J. R Russell-Wood, "Colonial Brazil: The Gold Cycle, c.1690-1750", CHLA, Vol. II, pp.547-600.
    Stuart B. Schwarz, Sugar Plantations in the Formation of Brazilian Society, Bahia, 1530-1835. (1985)
    -do- "Colonial Brazil c.1580-1750: Plantations and Peripheries", CHLA, Vol. II, pp.423-501.
    Stanley J. Stein and Barbara H. Stein, Silver, Trade and War: Spain and America in the Making of Early Modern Europe (2000)
    8b. International Trade, Taxation and the Workings of the Colonial Economy.
    ------------First Essay Due ------------------------------------------------

    Required Reading:
    Burkholder and Johnson, pp.153-179.

    Primary Sources:
    Letter 1553 from a merchant in Seville to his partner and agent in Lima.
    Map of Atlantic winds and currents in summer.
    Letter from City of Nombre de Dios to the Crown, 1573.

    (class handouts – from www.college.emory.edu/culpeper/Bakewell/thinksheet.html)

     Suggested Reading:
    Kris Lane, Pillaging the Empire: Piracy in the Americas, 1500-1750 (1998)
    Murdo J. Macleod, "Spain and America: The Atlantic Trade, 1492-1720", CHLA, Vol. I, pp.341-388.
    -do-"Aspects of the Internal Economy of Spanish America: Labour, Taxation, Distribution and Exchange", CHLA, Vol II, pp.219-264.

    The Separate, Subordinate World of Indians, Blacks and Mestizos.

    Week beginning October 23
    9a Indigenous Life Under Colonial Rule.
    7th response paper due
    Required Reading:
    Burkholder and Johnson, pp.200-205
    Socolow, pp.37-51
    Stavig, pp. 58-128.

    Primary Sources:
    Schwartz, pp.232-240

    “The Indian Pueblo of Texupa in Sixteenth Century Mexico”, Mills, Taylor and Lauderdale Graham, pp.117-124
    “Two Images from the Codex Osuna, Mexico City”, Mills, Taylor and Lauderdale Graham, pp.133-135.
    "Two Images from the Codex Sierra, Oaxaca, Mexico", Mills, Taylor and Lauderdale Graham, pp.136-137.

    Suggested Reading:
    Rolena Adorno, “Felipe Guaman Poma de Ayala: Native Writer and Litigant in Early Colonial Peru”, Kenneth Andrien (ed.) The Human Tradition in Colonial Latin America (2002), pp.140-164.
    Nancy Farriss, Maya Society Under Colonial Rule: The collective Enterprise of Survival.
    Greg Grandin, The Blood of Guatemala: A history of Race and Nation (2000) Ch. 1.
    Charles Gibson, The Aztecs Under Spanish Rule
    Serge Gruzinski, “Mutilated Memory: Reconstruction of the Past and the Mechanisms of Memory among Seventeenth-Century Otomís”, Mills, Taylor and Lauderdale Graham, pp.214-226.
    Robert H. Jackson, Race, Caste and Status: Indians in Colonial Spanish America (1999)
    James Lockhart, “Three Examples of Culture Contact: Nahua, Maya and Quechua”, in Of Things of the Indies, pp.204-227.
    Susan Ramirez, “Don Melchior Caruarayco: A Kuraka of Cajamarca in Sixteenth Century Peru”, in Kenneth Andrien (ed.) The Human Tradition in Colonial Latin America (2002), pp.22-34.
    Matthew Restall, The Maya World: Yucatec Society and Culture, 1550-1850 (1997)
    Thierry Saignes, “The Colonial Condition in the Quechua-Aymara Heartland (1570-1780), CHNPA, Vol. III, Part II, pp.287-381.
    Karen Spalding, Social Climbers: Changing Patterns of Mobility Among the Indians of Colonial Peru”, in Peter Bakewell et al, Readings in Latin American History I.
    Nathan Wachtel, “The Indian and the Spanish Conquest”, in CHLA, Vol. 1.
    Robin M. Wright, “Destruction, Resistance and Transformation: Southern, Coastal and Northern Brazil (1580-1890)”, CHNPA, Vol. III, Part 2, pp.287-381.


    9b. Africans in Spanish America.

    Required Reading:
    Michael L. Coniff and Thomas J. Davis, Africans in the Americas: A History of the Black Diaspora (1994). Ch. 6 "Africans in Mainland Spanish America", pp.107-121. (Class handout).
    Socolow, pp.130-146.

    Primary Sources:
    Extracts from Juan Fransico Manzano, Autobiography of a Slave (1996) (Class handout.)

    “The Mulatto Gentlemen of Esmeraldas, Ecuador”, Mills, Taylor and Lauderdale Graham pp.159-161.
    “Blacks Dancing, 1640”, Mills, Taylor and Lauderdale Graham, pp.320-327.
    “The Foundation of Nuestra Señora de Guadalupe de los Morenos de Amapa, Mexico”, Mills, Taylor and Lauderdale Graham, pp.274-281.

     Suggested Reading:
    The Americas, Vol. 57, Oct. 2000. Special issues on African Diaspora in Colonial Spanish America. Esp. articles by Lane, Gutierrez Brockington and Herrera.
    Frederick P. Bowser, “Africans in Spanish American Colonial Society”, CHLA, Vol. 2., pp.357-380.
    Maria Eugenia Chaves, “Slave Women’s Strategies for Freedom and the late Spanish Colonial State”, in Elizabeth Dore and Maxine Molyneuz (eds.) Hidden Histories of Gender and the State in Latin America (2000)
    Peter Gerhard, “A Black Conquistador in Mexico”, from Damien Davis (ed.) Slavery and Beyond: The African Impact on Latin America and the Caribbean. (1998)
    James Lockhart, “Africans in Sixteenth Century Peru” Hanke and Rausch, pp.192-208.
    Herbert Klein, African Slavery in Latin America and the Caribbean (1998)
    Matthew Restall, Seven Myths of the Spanish Conquest. “Invisible Warriors: The Myth of the White Conquistador”, pp.44-63.
    Leslie B. Rout, The African in Spanish America: 1502 to the Present Day (1976) Part One.
    Nancy E. Van Deusen, “Ursula de Jesús: A Seventeenth Century Afro-Peruvian Mystic”, in Kenneth Andrien (ed.) The Human Tradition in Colonial Latin America (2002), pp.88-103
    Ben Vinson III, Bearing Arms for His Majesty: The Free-Coloured Militia in Colonial Mexico (2001)

    Week beginning Oct 30
    10a. African slavery and society in Colonial Brazil.
    8th response paper due

    Required Reading:
    Katia M. de Queirós Mattoso, To Be a Slave in Brazil, 1550-1888 (1986), pp.83-151.

     Primary Sources:

    Conrad, pp.55-62; pp147-153; pp.203-209, 216-225, p245-255, pp.366-383, pp.394-405, p.322, p.332.

    Bring book to class as we will discuss these together.

    “A Black Irmandade in Bahia, Brazil, 1699”, Mills, Taylor and Lauderdale Graham, pp. 280-298.
    "Brazilian Slaves Who Marry", Mills, Taylor and Lauderdale Graham, pp.372-374

     Suggested Reading:
    Bailey W. Diffie, A History of Colonial Brazil, 1500-1792 (1987)
    Mary C. Karasch, Slave Life and Culture in Rio de Janeiro, 1808-1850 (1986)
    Mary Karasch, “Zumbi of Palmares: Challenging the Portuguese Colonial Order”, in Kenneth Andrien (ed.) The Human Tradition in Colonial Latin America (2002), pp.104-121

    10b. Mestizaje and the rise of the castas.

    Required Reading:
    Terese Bouysee- Cassagne, “In praise of bastards: The uncertainties of mestizo identity in the sixteenth and seventeenth century Andes”, from Olivia Harris (ed.) Inside and Outside the Law: Anthropological Perspectives of Authority and Ambiguity (1996) (Class handout.)

     Primary Sources:
    “Two Castas Painting from Eighteenth Century Mexico”, Mills, Taylor and Lauderdale Graham, pp.360-365.

    Conrad, pp.210-215, p.231

    Comments on mixing and mestizos by José de Acosta and Jorge Juan and Antonio de Ulloa.
    Castas paintings.
    (Class handouts from Emory website).

     Suggested Reading:
    R. Douglas Cope, The Limits of Racial Domination: Plebian Society in Colonial Mexico City, 1660-1720

    Week beginning Nov 6th
    11a Marriage and the Family.
    9th response paper due
    Required Reading:
    Burkholder and Johnson, pp.212-226.
    Socolow, pp.60-77.
    Stavig, pp. 24-57.

     Primary Sources:
    Socolow, , p.192 (Document no. 7), pp.196-199. (Documents 9, 10 and 11).

    Conrad, pp.133-140.

     Suggested Reading:
    Ramon Guttierez, When Jesus Came, the Corn Mothers Went Away: Marriage, Sexuality and Power in New Mexico, 1500-1846 (1991)
    Asunción Lavrin (ed.) Sexuality and Marriage in Colonial Latin America (1989)
    Kathleen Myers, “A Glimpse of Family Life in Colonial Mexico: A Nun’s account”, Latin American Research Review Vol. 28, no. 2, 1993.
    Muriel Nazzari, Disappearance of the Dowry: Women, Families and Social Change in Sao Paulo, Brazil, 1600-1900 (1991)
    Patricia Seed, To Love, Honor and Obey in Colonial Mexico: Conflicts Over Marriage Choice, 1574-1821 (1988)
    Ann Twinam, Public Lives, Private Secrets: Gender, Honor, Sexuality, and Illegitimacy in Colonial Latin America (1999)
    Nancy Van Deusen, Between the Sacred and the Worldly: The Institutional and Cultural Practice of Recogimiento in Colonial Lima (2001)

    11b. Men, Women and Gender.
    Required Reading:
    Burkholder and Johnson, pp.227-235.
    Socolow, pp.78-90.

    Primary Sources:
    Catalina de Erauso, Lieutenant Nun: Memoir of a Basque Transvestite in the New World. (Read text first (pp.1-80), then skim introduction. No need to read lengthy foreword.) 

     Suggested Reading:
    Christina Borchart de Moreno, “Victorina Loza: Quiteña Merchant in the Second Half of the Eighteenth century”, Kenneth Andrien (ed.) The Human Tradition in Colonial Latin America (2002), pp.211-229.
    Noble David Cook, “The Mysterious Catalina: Indian or Spaniard?”, in Kenneth Andrien (ed.) The Human Tradition in Colonial Latin America (2002), pp.64-83.
    Arlene Diaz, Female Citizens, Male Patriarchs and the law in Venezuela, 1786-1904 (2004).
    Lyman L. Johnson and Sonya Lipsett-Rivera (eds.) The Faces of Honor: Sex, Shame and Violence in Colonial Latin America (1998) Esp. chapters by Twinam, Johnson, Boyer and Lauderdale Graham.
    Asunción Lavrin (ed.) Latin American Women: Historical Perspectives (1978)
    -do- "Women in Spanish American Colonial Society", CHLA, Vol. II, pp.321-356.
    Kathleen Myers, Neither Saints nor Sinners: Writing the lives of the Women of Latin America. “The Lieutenant Nun: Catalina de Erauso”.
    Ana María Presta, “Portraits of Four Women: Traditional Female Roles and Transgressions in Colonial Elite Families in Charcas, 1550-1600”, Colonial Latin American Review Vol. 9, no. 2, 2000.
    -do- “Doña Isabel Sisa: A Sixteenth Century Indian Women Resisting Gender Inequalities”, in Kenneth Andrien (ed.) The Human Tradition in Colonial Latin America (2002), pp.35-50
    Susan Schroeder, Stephanie Wood and Robert Haskett (eds.) Indian Women of Early Mexico (1997)
    Pete Sigal, Infamous Desire: Male Homosexuality in Colonial Latin America (2003)
    Steve Stern, The Secret History of Gender: Women, Men, and Power in Late Colonial Mexico (1995)
    Week beginning Nov 13
    12a. Culture and Society.
    10th response paper due
    Required Reading:
    Andrien, pp.103-153
    Burkholder and Johnson, pp.264-279.
    Socolow, pp.165-172.

     Primary Sources:
    “Sor Juana Inés de la Cruz’s Setter to Sor Filotea”, Mills, Taylor and Lauderdale Graham, pp.207-214
    “Portraits of Santa Rosa and Sor Juana”, Mills, Taylor and Lauderdale Graham pp.215-217.
     “Two Paintings of a Corpus Christi Procession in Cuzco, Peru”, Mills, Taylor and Lauderdale Graham pp.272-280
    Suggested Reading:
    Gavin Alexander Bailey, Art in Colonial Latin America (2005).
    Carolyn Dean, Inka Bodies and the Body of Christ: Corpus Christi in Colonial Cuzco, Peru (1999)
    Jacques Lafaye, "Literature and Intellectual Life in Colonial Spanish America", CHLA, Vol. II, pp.663-704
    Irving A. Leonard, “Sor Juana Inés de la Cruz: The Supreme Poet of her Time in Castilian”, Hanke and Rausch, pp.279-289.
    Kathleen Myers, Neither Saints nor sinners. “The Tenth Muse: Sor Juana Ines de la Cruz”.
    Robert Stevenson, "The Music of Colonial Spanish America", "A note on the Music of Colonial Brazil", CHLA, Vol. II, pp. 771-778, pp.779-805.

    Part III – The Reorganisation and Collapse of the Imperial System, 1760-1825.

    12b. 18th Century Reform Projects in Brazil and Spanish America.

    Required Reading:
    Burkholder and Johnson, pp.280-337.
    Socolow, pp.172-177.

    Primary Sources: “José de Gálvez’s Decrees for the King’s Subjects in Mexico (1769,1778), Mills, Taylor and Lauderdale Graham, pp.316-319.
    “Late Eighteenth Century Inscriptions on Fountains and Monuments in Mexico City”, pp.384-389
    “Concolorcorvo Engages the Postal Inspector about Indian Affairs, Lima, Peru”, Mills, Taylor and Lauderdale Graham, pp.328-334.

     Suggested Reading:
    David Brading, "Bourbon Spain and its American Empire", CHLA, Vol. I, pp.389-440.
    Richard Graham, Independence in Latin America: A Comparative Approach. Ch. 1-3.
    Lyman L. Johnson, “Juan Barbarín: The 1795 French Conspiracy in Buenos Aries”, Kenneth Andrien (ed.) The Human Tradition in Colonial Latin America (2002), pp.259-277.
    Andrée Mansut-Diniz Silva, "Portugal and Brazil: Imperial Re-Organisation, 1750-1808", pp.469-510.


    ------ 23 Nov = Thanksgiving, No classes!! ----------------------------------------

    Week beginning Nov 27
    13a.The Age of Insurrection.
    ------------------2nd essay due-------------------------------------------------------------
    Required Reading:
    Stavig, pp. 207-257.
    Socolow, pp.159-162.

    Primary Sources:

    “Tupac Amaru I, Remembered”, Mills, Taylor and Lauderdale Graham, pp.390-394.

     Suggested Reading:
    Jonathan Brown, Latin America: A Social History of the Colonial Period (2000) “The Haitian Revolution”,  pp.369-386.
    David Cahill, “Taxonomy of a Colonial “Riot”: The Arequipa Disturbances of 1780”, Mills, Taylor and Lauderdale Graham, pp.298-315.
    Greg Grandin, The Blood of Guatemala Ch. 2.
    Anthony McFarlane, “The Rebellion of the Barrios: Urban Insurrection in Bourbon Quito”, in Silvia Arrom and Servando Ortoll (eds.) Riots in the Cities: Popular Politics and the Poor in Latin America, 1765-1910. (1996).
    Ward Stavig, “Eugenio Sinanyuca: Militant, Nonrevolutionary Kuraka, and Community Defender”, Kenneth Andrien (ed.) The Human Tradition in Colonial Latin America (2002), pp.241-259.
    -do- “Tupac Amaru, The Body Politic, and the embodiment of hope: Inca heritage and social justice in the Andes”, in Lyman L. Johnson (ed.) Death, Dismemberment and Memory: Body Politics in Latin America (2004)
    William B. Taylor, “Parish Priests and Indian Resistance in Late Colonial Mexico”, Mills, Taylor and Lauderdale Graham, pp.289-297.
    Sinclair Thomas, We Alone Will Rule: Native Andean Politics in the Age of Insurgency (2002)


    13b. The Revolution for Independence.
    Required Reading:
    Burkholder and Johnson, pp.349-373

    Primary Sources: “The Argentine Declaration of Independence, San Miguel de Tucumán”, Mills, Taylor and Lauderdale Graham, pp.401-402
    ”José María Morelos’s ‘Sentiment of the Nation’, Chilpancingo, Mexico”,  Mills, Taylor and Lauderdale Graham, pp.397-400
    "The Brazilian Constitution and the Church (1824)", Mills, Taylor, and Lauderdale Graham, Vol. II, pp.403-405.


    Extracts from the writings of Simon Bolivar. (class handout)

     Suggested Reading:
    Simón Bolívar, El libertador: Writings of Simón Bolívar
    Peter Blanchard, “Miguel García: Black Soldier in the Wars of Independence”, Kenneth Andrien (ed.) The Human Tradition in Colonial Latin America (2002), pp.278-292.
    Rebecca Earle, “Rape and the Anxious Republic: Revolutionary Colombia, 1810-1830”, in Dore and Molyneux (eds.) Hidden Histories of Gender and the State (2000)
    Gabriel Garcia Marquez, The General in His Labyrinth: A Novel
    Robert Harvey, Liberators: Latin America’s Struggle for Independence, 1810-1830 (2000)
    John Lynch, Latin American Revolutions, 1808-1826: Old and New World Origins (1994)
    Camilla Townsend, “Angela Batallas: A Fight for Freedom in Guayaquil”, Kenneth Andrien (ed.) The Human Tradition in Colonial Latin America (2002), pp.293-308.
    Jaime E. Rodríguez O. (ed.) The Independence of Mexico and the Creation of the New Nation (1998)
     Robert Levine, A History of Brazil (1999) Ch. 2, “Independence and Empire”.
    A. J. R Russell-Wood, From Colony to Nation: Essays on the Independence of Brazil (1975). Chapters by Rusell-Wood, Viotti da Costa and Silva Dias.


    Dec 5-8th Finals Week. Exam date and time to be announced. 



    Essay Questions:

    Essay One:

    Account for Spanish military success against the empires of the Aztecs and the Incas.


    “Spanish evangelisation of the Indians was simply another instrument of conquest”. Discuss.


     Essay Two:

    To what extent was the social structure in colonial Latin America based on race?


    What role did the concept of honor play in mediating social relations, including those between men and women, in colonial Latin America?

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