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  •                       History 157B   Modern Brazil                              
                                  Spring 1994                                       
                    University of California, Santa Barbara                         
                                                                                    
     Office hours:  Tuesdays 3-5 pm & by appt.             Francis A. Dutra         
     There are no office hours during finals week              Ellison 5839         
    

    E-mail: dutra@humanitas.ucsb.edu Reader: Paul Brasil - Ellison 4807 (E-mail: brasil@humanitas.ucsb.edu)

    ORIENTATION: March 28

    I. BRAZILIAN INDEPENDENCE. March 30, April 4.

    II. THE EMPIRE IN BRAZIL, 1822-1889. April 6, 11, 13.

    BLUEBOOKS: Turn in two small 24-page bluebooks on April 18. Do not

          write your name on them but do place inside a piece of paper with         
          your name.                                                                
    

    III. SLAVERY, ABOLITION AND RACE RELATIONS IN BRAZIL 1808-1888.

    April 13, 18, 20.

    IV. THE OLD REPUBLIC, 1889-1930. April 25, 27.

    MIDTERM EXAM: May 2 (Monday) 7:00-8:30 PM

          From the discussion questions in Topics I through IV, at least            
          four questions will be chosen for the midterm exam.  The student          
          will answer two of them for 40% of the grade.  There will be at           
          least one question from each topic.  There will be special                
          emphasis on lectures and the required reading.  THERE WILL BE NO          
          MAKE-UP MIDTERM EXAM.  STUDENTS WHO MISS THE MIDTERM WILL TAKE A          
          SPECIAL EXAM ON TOPICS I-IV, BASED ON THE REQUIRED READING AND            
          LECTURES WITH NEW QUESTIONS (THAT ARE NOT ON THE SYLLABUS), FROM          
          9:00 PM TO 10:30 PM ON THE NIGHT OF THE FINAL.                            
    

    V. THE BACKLANDS VS. THE COAST: TRADITIONAL SOCIETY VS.

          MODERNIZATION.  ELITES AND MASSES IN HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE.  May         
          4, 9.                                                                     
    

    VI. THE AFRICAN PRESENCE AND RACE RELATIONS IN BRAZIL, 1888 TO THE

    PRESENT. May 11.

    VII. REFORM. CO-OPTATION OR RADICALIZATION?: VARGAS AND THE

    `GETULISTAS', 1930-1964. May 16, 18.

    PAPER: (1500-word) due May 23, for 20% of grade. (See the last page

    of the syllabus for details)

    VIII. THE CATHOLIC CHURCH IN TWENTIETH CENTURY BRAZIL. May 23, 25.

    HOLIDAY: May 30 (Memorial Day).

    IX. THE POLITICS OF MILITARY RULE IN BRAZIL, 1964-1985 AND

    DEMOCRATIZATION OF BRAZIL. June 1.

    FINAL EXAMINATION: June 9 (Thursday) 7:30-9:00 PM

          At least 6 questions will be chosen from the discussion questions         
          in Topics V through IX.  The student will answer 2 of these for           
          the remaining 40% of his grade.  There will be at least one               
          question from each topic.  There will be special emphasis on              
          lectures and the required reading.                                        
    

    REQUIRED READING FOR THE MIDTERM:

    E. Bradford Burns, A History of Brazil. 3rd ed., pp. 1-19; 99-

    345. Leslie Bethell, ed., Brazil. Empire and Republic, 1822-1930,

    pp. 3-307. Emilia Viotti da Costa, The Brazilian Empire. Myths and

    Histories, pp. xi-233.

    I. BRAZILIAN INDEPENDENCE

    Required Reading:

    Leslie Bethell, ed., Brazil. Empire and Republic, 1822-1930,

    pp. 3-42. Emilia Viotti da Costa, The Brazilian Empire, pp. xvii-xxv; 1-52. E. Bradford Burns, A History of Brazil. 3rd ed., pp. 99-126.

    Recommended Reading:

    Francis A. Dutra, A Guide to the History of Brazil, 1500-1822,

    pp. 455-470; 513-565 (On reserve).

    Discussion questions and guide to the required reading:

    1. Discuss and analyze the evolution of events from 1788 to 1822 culminating in Brazil's declaration of independence. How much significance do you attach to certain intellectual currents in Brazil in this period in promoting the move to independence?
    2. It has been remarked that independence was accomplished by those classes of Brazilian society wishing to preserve the status quo in regards to Brazil's economic structure, slavery and its traditional social stratification while hoping to destroy the colonial system only insofar as it restricted their commercial opportunities and administrative autonomy. Do you agree with this point of view? Discuss.
    3. Discuss and analyze the role played by Jose Bonifacio de Andrada e Silva in Brazilian independence.

    II. THE EMPIRE IN BRAZIL, 1822-1889

    Required reading:

    Leslie Bethell, ed., Brazil. Empire and Republic, 1822-1930,

    pp. 45-213. E. Bradford Burns, A History of Brazil. 3rd ed., pp. 126-233. Emilia Viotti da Costa, The Brazilian Empire, pp. 53-124; 172-

    233.

    Discussion questions and guide to the required reading:

    1. Some view the monarchy as a positive force that saved national unity and set Brazil on a peaceful course in its independence. Others view it as an instrument of repressive centralism and elitist control, "an alien regime that isolated Brazil from the revolutionary destinies of the New World." Analyze and discuss the pros and cons of each point of view. Then discuss how the republican movement developed in Brazil and how its proponents endeavored to abolish the monarchy.
    2. Discuss and analyze the role, ideals and composition of the elite in 19th century Brazil. How did the elite organize Brazil's political system during the Empire?
    3. Discuss and analyze the political, social and economic history of the Brazilian Empire, 1840-1889.
    4. Discuss and compare the Brazilian Empire under Pedro I (1822-
    5. and during the Regency (1831-1840).

    III. SLAVERY, ABOLITION AND RACE RELATIONS IN BRAZIL, 1808-1888

    Required reading:

    Robert Edgar Conrad, Children of God's Fire. A Documentary

    History of Black Slavery in Brazil, pp. 15-54; 61-153; 180- 245; 251-288; 292-366; 379-394; 397-481 (On reserve). Emilia Viotti da Costa, The Brazilian Empire, pp. 125-171, 234-

    246.

    Discussion questions and guide to the required reading:

    1. Based on lecture and a careful reading of Conrad's Children of God's Fire and Viotti da Costa's The Brazilian Empire, discuss the role that the institution of slavery played in 19th century Brazil. How pervasive was this institution in society? What regional differences existed? Would you characterize Brazilian slavery as relatively benign or harsh? Describe the processes which abolished slavery and the reasons why abolition occurred when it did.

    IV. THE OLD REPUBLIC, 1889-1930

    Required reading:

    Leslie Bethell, ed., Brazil. Empire and Republic, 1822-1930,

    pp. 217-307. E. Bradford Burns, A History of Brazil, 3rd ed., pp. 233-345. Emilia Viotti da Costa, The Brazilian Empire, pp. 202-233. Sandra Lauderdale Graham, House and Street. The Domestic World

    of Servants and Masters in Ninteenth-Century Rio de Janeiro.

    Discussion questions and guide to the required reading:

    1. Was the Old Republic (1889-1930) an improvement over the Empire (1822-1889)? Why or why not? Were there any significant changes? Was the Old Republic merely a continuation of the same system with new rhetoric and a few minor changes? Support your opinion with examples and discussion from the reading and lecture.
    2. Discuss and analyze the society, economy, and politics of Brazil's Old Republic, 1889-1930.
    3. "During the later half of the nineteenth century, a majority of Brazilian women worked, most as domestic servants, either slave or free." Based on lecture, the required reading, and Sandra Lauderdale Graham's House and Street, discuss the "Domestic World of Servants and Masters in Nineteenth-Century Rio de Janeiro." What role did race, class, and gender play?

    REQUIRED READING FOR THE FINAL:

    E. Bradford Burns, A History of Brazil, 3rd ed., pp. 345-492. Michael L. Conniff and Frank D. McCann, Modern Brazil. Elites

    and Masses in Historical Perspective, pp. ix-xxi; 3-290.

    V. THE BACKLANDS VS. THE COAST: TRADITIONAL SOCIETY VS. MODERNIZATION. ELITES AND MASSES IN HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE.

    Required reading:

    Billy Jaynes Chandler, The Bandit King. Lampiao of Brazil. Michael L. Conniff and Frank D. McCann, Modern Brazil. Elites

    and Masses in Historical Perspective, pp. ix-xxi; 3-290.

    Discussion questions and guide to the required reading:

    1. Based on lecture and a careful reading of Billy Jaynes Chandler's The Bandit King. Lampiao of Brazil, discuss the contrast between the interior (sertao) and coastal Brazil, the issue of banditry as opposed to social banditry, and the role of Lampiao in the history of Brazil's Old Republic. What is your analysis of Lampiao and his fame.
    2. Conniff and McCann define elites "as a limited number of people in high positions who manage the affairs of the nation. The masses, in contrast, are the multitudes of poor and working- class persons who individually have little influence in national affairs." Based on a careful reading of Modern Brazil. Elites and Masses in Historical Perspective, discuss the clash (or lack of one) and interaction between the two groups in twentieth- century Brazil.

    VI. THE AFRICAN PRESENCE AND RACE RELATIONS IN BRAZIL, 1888 TO

    THE PRESENT

    Required reading:

    George Reid Andrews, Blacks and Whites in Sao Paulo, Brazil,

    1888-1988, pp. 3-244. Emilia Viotti da Costa, The Brazilian Empire, pp. 234-246. Robert B. Toplin, ed., Slavery and Race Relations in Latin

    America, pp. 253-276 and 385-437. [On Reserve]

    Discussion questions and guide to the required reading:

    1. Brazil has been called a racial democracy. Based on an analysis of race relations in Brazil from the last quarter of the nineteenth century to the present (drawn from lecture and the required reading), state if you support this description. If not, why not? How would you analyze race relations in Brazil, 1888 to the present? Be sure to use arguments and examples from the required reading.
    2. Based on George Reid Andrews, Blacks and Whites in Sao Paulo, Brazil, 1888-1988, discuss how economic, social, and political changes have shaped race relations in Sao Paulo since 1888. How do his ideas support or challenge the theory that Brazil is a "racial democracy"?

    VII. REFORM. CO-OPTATION OR RADICALIZATION? VARGAS AND THE

    `GETULISTAS' 1930-1964.

    Required reading:

    E. Bradford Burns, A History of Brazil, 3rd ed., pp. 345-444. Thomas E. Skidmore, Politics in Brazil, 1930-1964.

    Discussion questions and guide to the required reading:

    1. The years preceding Vargas' assumption of power in 1930 were turbulent ones. Discuss some of the currents in society that favored change. In your answer analyze the tenentes and their program. Did Vargas fulfill any of their ideals?
    2. Since the 1930's, every president in Brazil has made claims of reform. In reality, which of these presidents--Vargas, Dutra, Kubitschek, Quadros and Goulart--tried to effect the greatest socio-economic improvements for Brazil? In your answer, evaluate and compare the activities pursued by each president and their results.

    VIII. THE CATHOLIC CHURCH IN TWENTIETH CENTURY BRAZIL

    Required reading:

    Thomas C. Bruneau, The Political Transformation of the Brazilian

    Catholic Church (On reserve). Ralph Della Cava, "The `People's Church,' the Vatican, and

    Abertura," in Alfred Stepan, ed., Democratizing Brazil, pp. 143-167 (On Reserve). Roger Bastide, The African Religions of Brazil, pp. 109-142; 173-

    239; 260-284; 304-374 (On Reserve).

    Discussion questions and guide to the required reading:

    1. Based on lecture, the video on religion in contemporary Brazil, Bruneau's The Political Transformation of the Brazilian Catholic Church, and Ralph Della Cava's "The `People's Church,' the Vatican, and Abertura," discuss and analyze twentieth century attitudes of Brazil's Roman Catholic Church towards social and economic reform.
    2. Based on lecture, the movie "Pagador de Promessas," and the required reading from Roger Bastide, The African Religions of Brazil, discuss the role of folk Catholicism and Brazil's African heritage on religion in Brazil.

    IX. THE POLITICS OF MILITARY RULE IN BRAZIL, 1964-1985 AND

    DEMOCRATIZATION OF BRAZIL

    Required reading:

    Thomas E. Skidmore, The Politics of Military Rule in Brazil,

    1964-1985, pp. 3-310. E. Bradford Burns, A History of Brazil, 3rd ed., pp. 445-491.

    Discussion questions and guide to the required reading:

    1. Based on lecture and a careful reading of Skidmore's The Politics of Military Rule in Brazil, 1964-1985, discuss and analyze the politics of military rule in Brazil, 1964-1985. In your answer, trace its evolution under Presidents Castelo Branco, Costa e Silva, Medici, Geisel and Figueiredo.
    2. ADDITIONAL (OPTIONAL) EXAMINATION QUESTION
    3. Based on lecture, Burns, A History of Brazil, and Conniff and McCann, Modern Brazil, discuss how the movie "Bye Bye Brasil" gave (or failed to give) a better understanding of Brazil in the late 1970s.

    PAPER: 1500-word paper due May 23, 1993 (for 20% of the course grade) on one of the following four questions:

    1. Based on a careful reading of the novel Mulatto by Aluisio Azevedo, discuss and analyze the influence of race, class, and gender in the province of Maranhao in the last decades of the Brazilian Empire.
    2. List and discuss the ways that Jorge Amado's novel, Gabriela, Clove and Cinnamon illustrates various characteristics of the Old Republic which are discussed in the required reading and lecture. Analyze the facets of Ilheus society which are traditional and pinpoint those being challenged by change. Does this mirror what was taking place during the Old Republic in general, and how?
    3. Discuss how Thomas E. Skidmore's Black into White: Race and Nationality in Brazilian Thought gives (or fails to give) a better understanding of race relations in late nineteenth- and early twentieth-century Brazil.
    4. Analyze and discuss Nancy Scheper-Hughes, Death Without Weeping. The Violence of Every Day Life in Brazil.

    Information provider:
    Unit: H-Net program at UIC History Department Email: H-Net@uicvm.uic.edu
    Posted: 16 Sep 1994

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