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Summer 1994 AMAZON HISTORY AND CLIMATE OF A RAINFOREST
Profs. M. Conniff (HC 7024, MWTh 10) HY 390 R. Perritt (HC 2195, TTh 1-2:30) GY 300
Meets M-F 9 in HC 2124
This course provides a sweeping view of the evolution of the Amazon basin rain forest and of human occupation in it. We intend to give equal attention to natural and human forces, showing how each acted upon the other. The story begins with native American peoples and ends with the modern dilemma of sustainable development of the region. The course offers lectures, assigned texts, audio-visual materials, and guest appearances.
Evaluation will be based on a midterm exam, a term paper, and a final exam, weighted 25 percent, 35 percent, and 40 percent respectively. No attendance will be taken, but much of the examination material will come from class presentations. The exams will have a mix of essay and short answer questions and will be taken without notes or books. Make- up exams only on dead day or by special permission.
The term paper should be approximately 10 pp., presented in standard format (endnotes, typed double-spaced, bibliography, etc.). The general topic areas are: 1. international policies, organizations, conferences; 2. historical topics; 3. indigenous and poor farmer- gatherers, social conflict; 4. long-term climate changes, including global warming; 5. deforestation, resource management, sustainable agriculture; 6. Brazilian development efforts in the Amazon, including colonization, forestation, highways, mining. Students working on topics 1-3 will work with Prof. Conniff, those on 4-6 with Prof. Perritt.
After students choose topics, we will meet in small groups to discuss themes, methods, and bibliographies, and to develop comparative perspectives. Each study group will organize a presentation of its findings.
Required reading: Susan E. Place, ed., Tropical Forests: Latin American Nature and Society in Transition (Scholarly Resources, 1993); Marcio Souza, The Emperor of the Amazon (Bard, 1980); Roger D. Stone, Dreams of Amazonia (Penguin, 1993); plus reserve readings in the library (with an asterisk).
DATE TOPIC READINGS June: HISTORICAL BACKGROUND: MYTHS, DREAMS AND PERCEPTIONS
16 Introduction: Slides Place, pp. xii-29 17 Late Ice-age Savannas Stone, ch. 1 20 Physical Setting Perritt* 21 Earliest Human Settlement Stone, ch. 2 22 European Explorers 23 Orellana and Aguirre Stone, ch. 3
24 Non-Iberians and Portuguese 27 Friars and Scientists 28 Gusmao, Pombal and the Grao Para Company 29 Bibliographic Session to Define Topics 30 Defining Topics in Class 1 Film: Will the Rainforest Survive?
July: CLIMATE, DEFORESTATION AND DEVELOPMENT
5 Tropical Rainforest Climate Gabler* 6 Hydrology of the Amazon River Basin Salati* 7 Tropical Soils and Vegetation Stone, ch. 6 8 NGOs and Extractive Reserves Browder* 11 Late Colonial Boom Place, pp. 29-150 12 Humboldt and Other Scientists Stone, ch. 4 13 Caboclos and Native Amerindians 14 Amazonian Colonization--Small Farmers Fearnside-Ambio* 15 Amazonian Colonization--Cattle Ranchers Hecht*
18 Cobia Internacional: the Herndon Expedition 19 Mid-Term exam 20 Film: Road to the End of The Forest. 21 Film: Road to the End of the Forest. 22 Class Discussion 25 Ken McNabb--Plantation Forestry in Jari McNabb* 26 Grande Carajas Project, Hydro Dams, and Roads Fearnside-Rankin* 27 Student Presentations (all term papers due) 28 Student Presentations 29 Student Presentations
August: INTERNATIONAL POLITICS AND THE ENVIRONMENT 1 Origins of Rubber Trade Place, pp.151-222 2 Rubber: the Early Decades 3 Rondon and Farquhar
4 Acre and the Rubber Defense Plans Souza, all 5 Fordlandia and the Vargas Era Stone, ch. 5
8 Film: Fitzcarraldo 9 Film: Fitzcarraldo 10 Geopolitics and Military Planning, 1960s & 70s Stone, ch. 7 11 The Amazon Pact 12 Mineral Wealth--Why and How? Stone, ch. 8 15 Native Peoples 16 Global Warming Debates 17 "Discovering" El Nino 18 Rio '92 Stone, ch. 9 19 Review
25 Final Exam: 9-11:30 am