(Course Syllabi)

 Ellison 5839  Tuesdays 3-5 PM & by appt.              Francis A. Dutra         
There are no office hours during finals week           Winter 1994              

Reader: Paul Brasil, Ellison 4807 (Mondays 4-6 & by appt.)

              History 154A:  Portugal Overseas, 1415-1825                       
                University of California, Santa Barbara                         

ORIENTATION: Jan. 3

I. THE PORTUGUESE BACKGROUND: FROM LATE MEDIEVAL TO RENAISSANCE

PORTUGAL. Jan. 3, 5, 10.

II. EXPLORATION AND COLONIZATION FROM THE MEDITERRANEAN TO THE

ATLANTIC, 1229-1492. Jan. 10, 12.

MARTIN LUTHER KING JR.'S BIRTHDAY (HOLIDAY) Jan. 17

III. THE PORTUGUESE IN NORTH AFRICA (1415-1769), THE ATLANTIC

        ISLANDS (TO 1800), AND EXPLORING AND EXPLOITING THE WEST                
        AFRICAN COAST IN THE 15TH CENTURY.  Jan. 12, 19, 24.                    

IV. VASCO DA GAMA, HIS IMMEDIATE SUCCESSORS, AND THE CREATION OF AN

ASIAN EMPIRE. Jan. 26, 31.

V. PORTUGAL'S MID-SIXTEENTH CENTURY CRISIS IN ASIA, AFRICA, AND

AMERICA. Feb. 2.

MIDTERM EXAMINATION: Monday, Feb. 7, 7-8:30 PM. The student will answer two of the six questions chosen from the discussion questions in Topics I to V for 40% of the course grade.

VI. THE PORTUGUESE IN THE SOUTH ATLANTIC, 1500-1650. Feb. 9.

VII. DECLINE, STAGNATION, AND CONTRACTION IN THE EAST AND THE GLOBAL

WAR AGAINST THE DUTCH. Feb. 9, 14.

VIII. REVIVAL AND EXPANSION IN THE WEST, 1663-1750. Feb. 14.

IX. THE POMBALINE DICTATORSHIP AND ITS AFTERMATH. Feb. 16.

PRESIDENT'S DAY (HOLIDAY) Feb. 21.

X. SEAFARING AND THE PORTUGUESE EXPERIENCE. Feb. 23.

XI. CHURCH, CLERGY, AND CONVERTS. Feb. 28.

REVIEW PAPER (1500 WORDS): Due Feb. 28 (see last page of syllabus).

XII. THE TOWN COUNCIL AND THE MISERICORDIA IN THE PORTUGUESE WORLD.

March 2.

XIII. PORTUGUESE SOCIETY IN ASIA, AFRICA, AND BRAZIL: A COMPARISON.

March 7.

XIV. RACE RELATIONS IN THE PORTUGUESE OVERSEAS EMPIRE, 1415-1825.

March 9.

FINAL EXAMINATION. Friday, March 18, 7-8:30 PM. The student will answer two questions--one from those chosen from Topics VI-IX and one from those chosen from Topics X-XIV--for 40% of the course grade.

I. THE PORTUGUESE BACKGROUND. FROM LATE MEDIEVAL TO RENAISSANCE PORTUGAL.

Required reading:

Francis A. Dutra, "Portugal to 1279" and "Portugal: 1279-1481,"

Dictionary of the Middle Ages X, 35-56 [on reserve]. Charles R. Boxer, The Portuguese Seaborne Empire, 1415-1825, pp.

xx-xxvi; 1-14. Antonio H. de Oliveira Marques, History of Portugal I, pp. 73-

132; 165-216 [on reserve]. Sanjay Subrahmanyam, The Portuguese Empire in Asia, 1500-1700,

pp. 30-54. James Lockhart and Stuart B. Schwartz, Early Latin America, pp.

3-30 [on reserve].

Discussion questions [Guide to the Required Reading]:

  1. "The Portuguese by the middle of the sixteenth century

    dominated more of the world and more of its trade than any other country....Why was this small, rather poor, culturally backward nation, perched on the southwest coast of Europe, so dramatically successful in that great century of enterprise that started about 1440?" In your answer, discuss and analyze the motives which inspired the Portuguese during the first century of overseas expansion, 1415-1499. What factors in Portuguese history helped or hindered this expansion?

II. EXPLORATION AND COLONIZATION FROM THE MEDITERRANEAN TO THE ATLANTIC, 1229-1492.

Required reading:

Felipe Fernandez-Armesto, Before Columbus, pp. 11-252.

Discussion questions [Guide to the Required Reading]:

  1. How does Fernandez-Armesto's Before Columbus succeed or fail

    to explain Castilian and Portuguese expansion in North Africa, the Atlantic islands, and coastal West Africa to 1500? What role did the Catalans and the Genoese play?

III. THE PORTUGUESE IN NORTH AFRICA (1415-1769), THE ATLANTIC ISLANDS (TO 1800), AND EXPLORING AND EXPLOITING THE WEST AFRICAN COAST IN THE FIFTEENTH CENTURY.

Required reading:

Charles R. Boxer, The Portuguese Seaborne Empire, 1415-1825, pp.

15-38. Antonio H. de Oliveira Marques, History of Portugal I, pp. 133-

163; 217-229; 238-248; 257-258; 368-378 [on reserve]. Bailey W. Diffie and George D. Winius, Foundations of the

Portuguese Empire, 1415-1580, pp. 37-174; 301-317.

Discussion questions [Guide to the Required Reading]:

  1. One historian described the Portuguese experience in North

    Africa 1415-1640 as one in which "Portuguese commanders waged fruitless wars against neighboring Moorish chieftains, withstood their periodic sieges and threats, got involved in their frequent and obscure intriques and sided with Moorish exiles and pretenders whom they hoped to use as puppets." Do you agree? What conditions confronted the Portuguese stationed there? How would you evaluate the Portuguese experience in North Africa, 1415-1769? In your answer discuss and analyze Portuguese activity in North Africa from the capture of Ceuta [1415] to the abandonment of Mazagao [1769].

  2. The Portuguese mid-Atlantic islands [Madeiras, Azores, and the

    Cape Verdes] "in the days of sailing ships, played an important, an influential, and in certain areas and times, even an indispensable and vital role in oceanic trade, transport, and communication....Certain islands, in addition to serving as victualing stations and bases for ship maintenance, were also commercial centers in their own right." Do you agree? Discuss. In your answer analyze the discovery, settlement, and economy of the Atlantic islands by the Portuguese and the roles these islands played in the 15th to the 18th centuries.

  3. Discuss and analyze Portugal's advance down the African coast

    in the fifteenth century. What were its highlights? Who were the major explorers and what were their contributions? What role did Prince Pedro, Prince Henry, and Joao II play in the planning, organization, and financing of these voyages and what were their aims? Discuss.

IV. VASCO DA GAMA, HIS IMMEDIATE SUCCESSORS, AND THE CREATION OF AN ASIAN EMPIRE.

Required reading:

Sanjay Subrahmanyam, The Portuguese Empire in Asia, 1500-1700,

pp. 9-29; 55-79; 107-143. Charles R. Boxer, The Portuguese Seaborne Empire, 1415-1825, pp.

39-82. Antonio H. de Oliveira Marques, History of Portugal I, pp. 223-

226; 228-238; 249-251; 258-263 [on reserve]. Bailey W. Diffie and George D. Winius, Foundations of the

Portuguese Empire, 1415-1580, pp. 175-278.

Discussion questions [Guide to the Required Reading]:

  1. "The Portuguese achievement in establishing a seaborne empire

    in Monsoon Asia was no less remarkable than that of the Spaniards in establishing their land-based empire in America. Perhaps even more so, when we consider that the population of Portugal in the sixteenth century probably never exceeded about a million and a quarter souls." Discuss. What were the characteristics of the Portuguese maritime empire in the East? What were the chief factors helping and hindering Portugal in the building up of her Asian empire?

  2. Discuss and analyze Portuguese conquest, consolidation, and

    expansion in Asia, 1497-1610.

  3. PORTUGAL'S MID-SIXTEENTH CENTURY CRISIS IN ASIA, AFRICA, AND AMERICA.

Required reading:

Sanjay Subrahmanyam, The Portuguese Empire in Asia, 1500-1700,

pp. 80-143. Bailey W. Diffie and George D. Winius, Foundations of the

Portuguese Empire, 1415-1580, pp. 338-359. Antonio H. de Oliveira Marques, History of Portugal I, pp. 263-

322; 335-355. James Lockhart and Stuart B. Schwartz, Early Latin America, pp. 181-201 [on reserve].

Discussion questions [Guide to the Required Reading]:

  1. Discuss and analyze the crisis the Portuguese faced in Portugal, Asia, North Africa, West Africa, and Brazil in the mid- sixteenth century and how it affected the history of Portugal and the above-mentioned regions.

VI. THE PORTUGUESE IN THE SOUTH ATLANTIC, 1500-1650.

Required reading:

Charles R. Boxer, The Portuguese Seaborne Empire, 1415-1825, pp.

84-105; 106-127. Antonio H. de Oliveira Marques, History of Portugal I, pp. 251-

257; 355-378 [on reserve]. James Lockhart and Stuart B. Schwartz, Early Latin America, pp.

202-252 [on reserve].

Discussion questions [Guide to the Required Reading]:

  1. "Only in Brazil did Portugal initiate a true settlement

    policy, meaning one that implied the development of large- scale commercial agriculture, the control of extensive territory, and the wholesale subjugation of a foreign population." Discuss. How does this compare with the Portuguese presence in West Africa, 1481-1650? Discuss. What role did sugar play in Portuguese America to 1650?

VII. DECLINE, STAGNATION, AND CONTRACTION IN THE EAST AND THE GLOBAL WAR AGAINST THE DUTCH.

Required reading:

Sanjay Subrahmanyam, The Portuguese Empire in Asia, 1500-1700,

pp. 144-215; 270-277. Charles R. Boxer, The Portuguese Seaborne Empire, 1415-1825, pp.

106-149. Charles R. Boxer, The Dutch Seaborne Empire, 1600-1800 [on

reserve].

  1. R. Disney, Twilight of the Pepper Empire [on reserve]

Discussion questions [Guide to the Required Reading]:

  1. Discuss and analyze Portuguese decline, stagnation and

    contraction in Asia and East Africa, 1600-1800. What role did the Dutch play? What impact did the Dutch have on Portugal's South Atlantic empire, 1624-1654?

  2. Based on a careful reading of C. R. Boxer's Portuguese

    Seaborne Empire, 1415-1825 and his Dutch Seaborne Empire, 1600-1800, discuss and compare the similarities and differences between the two empires in the 17th and 18th centuries.

  3. Discuss and analyze A. R. Disney's Twilight of the Pepper

    Empire.

VIII. REVIVAL AND EXPANSION IN THE WEST, 1663-1750.

Required reading:

Charles R. Boxer, The Portuguese Seaborne Empire, 1415-1825, pp.

150-176. Antonio H. de Oliveira Marques, History of Portugal I, pp. 431-

479 [on reserve]. James Lockhart and Stuart B. Schwartz, Early Latin America, pp.

369-388 [on reserve].

Discussion questions [Guide to the Required Reading]:

  1. Discuss and analyze the effect of the gold discoveries in

    Brazil [beginning in the 1690s] had on Portugal's South Atlantic empire to 1750.

  2. Discuss and compare administration in the Portuguese overseas

    world, 1500-1808.

IX. THE POMBALINE DICTATORSHIP AND ITS AFTERMATH

Required reading:

Charles R. Boxer, The Portuguese Seaborne Empire, 1415-1825, pp.

177-203. Antonio H. de Oliveira Marques, History of Portugal I, pp. 431-

479 [on reserve]. James Lockhart and Stuart B. Schwartz, Early Latin America, pp.

388-404 [on reserve].

Discussion questions [Guide to the Required Reading]:

  1. Draw up a balance sheet for Pombal's dictatorship [1750-1777],

    his reforms and repressions and their effect on the Portuguese overseas empire. What was the fate of these reforms in the years 1777-1808?

  2. SEAFARING AND THE PORTUGUESE EXPERIENCE

Required reading:

T. Bentley Duncan, "Navigation Between Portugal and Asia in the

Sixteenth and Seventeenth Centuries," pp. 3-25 [on reserve]. James Duffy, Shipwreck and Empire, pp. 3-168 [on reserve]. Charles R. Boxer, The Portuguese Seaborne Empire, 1415-1825, pp.

205-227. Carla Rahn Phillips, Six Galleons for the King of Spain, pp. 152-

180 [on reserve].

Discussion questions [Guide to the Required Reading]:

  1. "It is an outstanding thing to see the facility and frequency

    with which the Portuguese embark for India....Each year four or five carracks leave Lisbon full of them; and many embark as if they were going no further than a league from Lisbon, taking with them only a shirt and two loaves in the hand, and carrying a cheese and a jar of marmelade, without any other kind of provision." How would you analzye the sailors' and passengers' problems on their voyages to various parts of the Portuguese empire? How successful was Portuguese navigation on the carreira da India in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries?

XI. CHURCH, CLERGY, AND CONVERTS

Required reading:

Charles R. Boxer, The Portuguese Seaborne Empire, 1415-1825, pp.

65-83; 228-248; 367-378. Charles R. Boxer, The Church Militant and Iberian Expansion,

1440-1770, pp. 1-121 [on reserve]. Bailey E. Diffie and George D. Winius, Foundations of the

Portuguese Empire, 1415-1580, pp. 335-337.

Discussion questions [Guide to the Required Reading]:

  1. Discuss and compare Portuguese conversion policies in Asia,

    Africa and Brazil. Were they successful? What were the chief obstacles the Portuguese encountered in their efforts to convert Asians, Africans and Amerindians to Christianity.

    or Draw up a balance sheet showing the contributions and failings of the secular clergy, the religious clergy and the hierarchy in the Portuguese overseas empire, 1415-1825. What influence did the Padroado Real have? What role did foreign clergy play?

XII. THE TOWN COUNCIL AND THE MISERICORDIA IN THE PORTUGUESE WORLD

Required reading:

Charles R. Boxer, The Portuguese Seaborne Empire, 1415-1825, pp.

273-295. Charles R. Boxer, Portuguese Society in the Tropics. The

Municipal Councils of Goa, Macao, Bahia, and Luanda, 1510- 1800, pp. 3-149.

Discussion questions [Guide to the Required Reading]:

  1. Discuss and compare the characteristics of four towns in the

    Portuguese overseas empire--Goa, Macau, Bahia, and Luanda. What were their chief similarities and differences? What role did their municipal councils and misericordias play?

XIII. PORTUGUESE SOCIETY IN ASIA, AFRICA AND BRAZIL: A COMPARISON.

Required reading:

Charles R. Boxer, The Portuguese Seaborne Empire, 1415-1825, pp.

296-339. Sanjay Subrahmanyam, The Portuguese Empire in Asia, 1500-1700,

pp. 216-269.

  1. J. R. Russell-Wood, A World on the Move, pp. 58-122.

Discussion questions [Guide to the Required Reading]:

  1. Discuss and analyze the Portuguese presence in Asia, Africa,

    and America, 1500-1808. Russell-Wood asserts that "the Portuguese seaborne empire was characterized by a constant flux and reflux of people" and sees mobility as an important characteristic. Do you agree? What were the other important characteristics of Portuguese overseas society? What major changes took place during the three centuries in question? Discuss and compare the role of women and the family in Portuguese Africa, Asia and Brazil.

XIV. RACE RELATIONS IN THE PORTUGUESE OVERSEAS EMPIRE, 1415-1825

Required reading:

Charles R. Boxer, Race Relations in the Portuguese Colonial

Empire, 1415-1825 [on reserve] Charles R. Boxer, The Portuguese Seaborne Empire, 1415-1825, pp.

249-272.

Discussion questions [Guide to the Required Reading]:

  1. Discuss, compare and analyze Portuguese race relations in

    Africa, Asia and Brazil

  2. Discuss and analyze the Portuguese origin and character of the

    African slave trade, 1441-1825. What was the justification for such a trade? Was there opposition? Discuss.

1500-WORD REVIEW PAPER: Due Feb. 28

Discuss how A. J. R. Russell-Wood, A World on the Move. The Portuguese in Africa, Asia and America, 1415-1808 succeeds, partially succeeds or fails to give a better understanding of Portugal overseas, 1415-1808.

General instructions for the paper:

  1. The paper must be at least 1500 words (about 6 to 7 pages).
  2. Grading of paper: 80% for content; 20% for grammar, spelling and proofreading.
  3. The paper must show that the book was carefully read and that the student is familiar with the course materials.
  4. Citations of quotations and non-quoted ideas are necessary. This can be done immediately after the quotation or at the end of the paragraph; e.g., (p. 277) or (pp. 180, 215). For sources other than A World on the Move but listed in the syllabus, cite e.g. (Subrahmanyam, 35) or e.g. (Boxer, Seaborne Empire, p. 220) if the author has several books listed. If you use sources not listed in the syllabus, attach a bibliography.
  5. All papers must be typed, double-spaced and with one-inch margins. The print should be dark and easily read.

GENERAL COURSE REQUIREMENTS

There are two categories of reading: required and supplementary.

Required reading: All students must read each of the six following books: Boxer, The Portuguese Seaborne Empire, 1415-1825 Diffie/Winius, Foundations of the Portuguese Empire, 1415-1580 Fernandez-Armesto, Before Columbus Boxer, Portuguese Society in the Tropics Russell-Wood, A World on the Move Subrahmanyam, The Portuguese Empire in Asia, 1500-1700 Plus the selected pages from Oliveira Marques, History of Portugal and from Lockhart and Schwartz, Early Latin America.

Supplementary reading: Reading in addition to the above as listed in the required reading for each topic is necessary only if the student chooses to do the question in that topic.

Information provider:
Unit: H-Net program at UIC History Department Email: H-Net@uicvm.uic.edu
Posted: 16 Sep 1994