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Means of Authorization: Establishing Hierarchy in Ch'an/Zen Buddhism in America
Revised paper from presentation at the 1999 (Boston) Meeting of the American Academy of Religion
Richard Baker, in perhaps the best selling Zen book in the English language, Zen Mind, Beginner's Mind describes the term roshi in the following manner,
A roshi is a person who has actualized that perfect freedom which is the potentiality for all human beings. He exists freely in the fullness of his whole being. The flow of his consciousness is not the fixed repetitive patterns of our usual self-centered consciousness, but rather arises spontaneously and naturally from the actual circumstances of the present. The results of this in terms of the quality of his life are extraordinary-buoyancy, vigor, straightforwardness, simplicity, humility, security, joyousness, uncanny perspicacity and unfathomable compassion. His whole being testifies to what it means to live in the reality of the present. Without anything said or done, just the impact of meeting a personality so developed can be enough to change another's whole way of life. But in the end it is not the extraordinariness of the teacher that perplexes, intrigues, and deepens the student, it is the teacher's utter ordinariness.
It should be noted that this was written as the introduction to the words and teachings of Mr. Baker's teacher, Suzuki-roshi. This introduction was meant to describe a real person, and by extension, as is clearly stated, all people with the title roshi. It is not an idealized reference to a heavenly being or some distant or mythological religious figure.
Zen Master Seung Sahn, who is the most famous Korean Zen Master in the West, in Dropping Ashes on the Buddha, one of his better selling books, related the following exchange of letters that indicates his view of the Zen Master. In a letter to the Master, someone asked, "If a Zen Master is capable of doing miracles, why doesn't he do them?... Why doesn't Soen Sunim do as Jesus did- make the blind see, or touch a crazy person and make him sane? Wouldn't even such a showy miracle as walking on water make people believe in Zen so that they would begin to practice..." The Master (that is, Seung Sahn) replied, "Many people want miracles, and if they witness miracles they become attached to them. But miracles are only a technique. They are not the true way. If a Zen Master used miracles often, people would become very attached to this technique of his, and they wouldn't learn the true way..." 
Soen Shaku, the famous Rinzai Master who was D. T. Suzuki's teacher, commenting on Zen satori states, "To say the Buddha had a satori experience sounds as if we are talking about a Zen monk, but I think it is permissible to say that a monk's attaining satori corresponds to the Buddha's awakening effortlessly."
Since the opening of the Dun Huang caves at the beginning of this century, we know that Chan lineage texts in the mid-and late-Tang were quite at odds with one another in their varied claims to own enlightenment--lineages harking back to Bodhidharma looked quite different, depending on who was writing them. On the whole, these lineage texts represent a new form of disputation which works as follows, 'I am right and you are wrong because I stand in a singularly perfect lineage of truth and you don't.' The structure of this polemic ought to be provocative simply at face value. How did this happen to Buddhism? Why did it get locked into a Confucian model of patrilineal inheritance...?"
As we have seen above though, Ch'an/Zen attempts to legitimate itself through the idea of an unquestionable lineage and transmission going back to the mythologized Shakyamuni Buddha. This myth is a humanly constructed form that is necessarily open to human interpretation. By legitimation I mean socially objectified "knowledge" that serves to explain the social order. Put differently, legitimations are answers to any questions about the "why" of institutional arrangements. All legitimation maintains socially defined reality. At times a given legitimation may seem above question and the whole idea of human construction and interpretation may be hidden or lost. But at other times, for whatever historical reasons, the contingencies of human situations break through this covering and show how based in human interpretation and understanding the seeming absoluteness of the construction really is. Berger writes: "All socially constructed worlds are inherently precarious. Supported by human activity, they are constantly threatened by the human facts of self-interest and stupidity."
Zen appears trapped by its own rhetoric into idealizing key terms such as Master/roshi, Dharma transmission, and Zen lineage. It has divorced its own claims to authenticity from the sutras or any other canonical texts and based its legitimation on lineage. Inherent to this model is the corollary idea of Dharma transmission from enlightened Master to enlightened Master going all the way back to the Buddha. The Buddha represents ontologically, the nature of the universe as well as the epitome of human attainment. It is as necessary today to maintain the myth of unbroken lineage based on mind-to-mind transmission, as it was necessary for the Sung dynasty monks who created the myth and fought to have it accepted as historical fact. Otherwise, there is no way to maintain Ch'an's claim to represent the mind of the Buddha. It then becomes important to stress the ancestral connections, through mind-to-mind transmission, whether real or fabricated. The level of praise and sanctity attained in the human realm by the Ch'an patriarchs and succeeding teachers is a matter of concern to the living members of the Ch'an lineage, i.e. the living Masters and roshis. It is the prestige of the mythological lineage that affords the living teachers their privileged position in the Buddhist monastic tradition and the Buddhist world at large.
Though the three terms Master/roshi, Dharma transmission, and Ch'an/Zen lineage may be looked at separately, in terms of authority in Zen, they are intertwined and almost function as a unit. This convention of transmission within a lineage requires that that which is transmitted be totally and authentically the mind of the Buddha. Importantly, there can be no partial transmission. Hence one is a Master or one is not a Master. There is no intermediate or equivocal state; no one is recognized as being " kind of a Master" or " almost a Master." If one is a Master, then one has perfectly realized the mind of the Buddha, and thus functions from the perspective of the absolute, a viewpoint beyond the understanding of the ordinary sentient being. In this sense, the Master stands in for the sacred, the mysterious living manifestation of true nature, Buddha Mind. Berger states the more general case thus, "Religion legitimates so effectively because it relates the precarious reality constructions of empirical society with ultimate reality. The tenuous realities of the social world are grounded in the sacred realissimum, that is, by locating them within a sacred and cosmic frame of reference, which by definition is beyond the contingencies of human meanings and human activity. The historical constructions of human activity are viewed from a vantage point that, in its own self-definition, transcends both history and man."
Hence, according to the rhetoric of Zen, every act of the Master is a manifestation of the living truth of Zen, every activity is a teaching if only the student can grasp it. Anything that seems wrong or problematic or contradictory is due to the student's lack of insight into the absolute, or the Buddha Mind, from which all the Master's insights and actions arise. This model leads necessarily to an idealization of the Master/roshi. As the embodiment of the Buddha's enlightened Mind, the Master is totally beyond all our comprehension and hence exempt from our understanding and all judgments. It is no wonder that much of the behavior one sees around American Zen Centers might appear cultish to the uninitiated.
One of the distinctive features of Zen that has caught the attention of Americans is the Zen koan. As we shall see below, the koan is used in many ways and serves a number of functions. As many people know, a koan is a story or more correctly an encounter dialogue between a Master and a disciple or another person or persons. Koans are used in a form of Zen meditation known as koan meditation (Ch. k'an hua Ch'an, J. kanna Zen), or more popularly as koan study. In Japan, koan study has, over the years become formalized within each teaching line; each line has a selected course of koans to "go through," accepted answers to go with the given cases, and a standardized method of secretly guiding students through the curriculum of koans and answers. The contents of a given course within a line are a guarded secret. These dialogues are most often totally perplexing to the uninitiated. Koans are not historical accounts of actual events although East Asian Buddhists, as well as many, if not most practitioners today in the West believe that they are. Rather they are literary re-creations of how the enlightened masters of the past might have spoken and acted. The popularity of the koan texts eventually informed the actual oral practice. That is, they came to serve as models for the rhetorical and procedural forms of public discourse within Zen institutions. If the idea of the koan stories as literary inventions implies too much calculation or artifice on the part of the compilers, another way to view them might be as the folk tales of the Zen tradition. 
Though Americans may think they are following some ancient, orthodox form of Chinese, Korean, or Japanese Zen koan study, this hardly is the case, for no such form exists. There is no single way of using the koans; it is not known exactly how the koans were used in Sung and later China. One Korean teacher popular in the United States has constructed a koan course that seems to mirror the view that Americans have come to expect, which is the method of the modern Rinzai school of Japan, though that is not the form that is employed in Korea. This truncated version of the Rinzai curriculum model would lead the student to believe that there is little or no intellectual content to koan study in contemporary Japan, however G. Victor Sogen Hori, a Canadian scholar who spent roughly fifteen years in monasteries in Japan doing koan study paints a very different picture. According to him there was considerable time spent in writing talks on the koans to be presented to and graded by the roshi. Much effort was made to become familiar with the book of capping phrases so that this large collection of phrases was essentially memorized. Finally, for those capable, writing matching poems in Chinese for the various koans was required.
Like almost all other aspects of Zen, the koans and the enlightenment that is hopefully to follow from their study, are presented to Americans in an extremely idealized fashion. The qualities presented in the idealized descriptions contained in koan anecdotes are quite naturally transposed to the living Master or roshi, since the Zen rhetoric presents the people in these positions as having completely mastered the koans.
An example of this idealized view is seen in the following quote of Yasutani-roshi in his commentary on the Mu koan,
Once you burst into enlightenment you will astound the heavens and shake the earth. As though having captured the great sword of General Kuan [a great general invincible in combat], you will be able to slay the Buddha should you meet him [and he obstruct you] and dispatch all patriarchs you encounter [should they hinder you]. Facing life and death, you are utterly free; in the Six Realms of Existence and the Four Modes of Birth you move about in a samadhi of innocent delight.
One could think from the description above, that the roshi only moves about in the "samadhi of innocent delight." However, this is how the same enlightened roshi manifested his wisdom when addressing the social and political conditions of modern Japan. The quote that follows are words written for a strictly Japanese audience by Yasutani, shortly before his death in 1972. After calling Japan's labor movement and unions traitors, he goes on to say, "The universities we presently have must be smashed one and all. If that can't be done under the present constitution, then it should be declared null and void just as soon as possible, for it is an un-Japanese constitution ruining the nation, a sham constitution born as the bastard child of the allied occupation forces." This type of view was a consistent feature of Yasutani's discourses in the social and political arena, at the least covering the last 40 years of his life.
Koans are used mainly in two ways. In the groups associated with the Soto tradition of Japanese Zen, they are used in formal talks either as the main theme of the lecture or as pedagogical devices to bring out some point or to act as pointers. In the groups associated with the Rinzai or Sanbokyodan traditions of Japanese Zen as well as in some groups within the Chinese or Korean traditions, the koans are also used in these ways, but also and most importantly, they are used as the topic or subject of the student's meditation. Private meetings with the teacher (J. sanzen or dokusan) are part of the process when the koans are used in this last fashion.
In the schools of Zen where the koan has preeminence as the focus of meditation practice, the koan has the added function of empowering the teacher and reinforcing the authority of an institutional hierarchy founded in part on what is a largely literary invention. The teacher, having ostensibly mastered the koan, is a living representative of the enlightened mind to which the koan points. The teacher judges the student's insight and decides whether the response is complete or deep enough to attain confirmation or approval and to move to the next case in the curriculum. In spite of popular rhetoric to the contrary, though one may "move on" to the next case, this "moving on" in no way means that the student has seen deeply into the present case at all. There is a certain "moving along" that takes place, which is not openly discussed or written about. That is, the student is kept progressing through the course of koans though there may be little insight or realization into many of the koans.
The private meetings between teacher and student take place in a stylized form: incense burns in the hushed atmosphere and privacy of the interview room, the student bows on entering and leaving the room, and prostrates to the floor before coming to sit in front of the waiting seated teacher. The teacher controls the interview; the teacher decides whether to encourage lightly or forcefully, to give a pointer or to just dismiss, to scold or to encourage, to tell a personal anecdote or to be cold, and terminates the interview at will with the ring of a bell. Finally, the teacher decides when the student should "move on" to another case or, more importantly, when someone's insight is a genuine Zen experience or not. It is understood among practitioners, that this is the real Zen, where the real training goes on in secret. The student is not to discuss anything that goes on in sanzen with anyone else. In this atmosphere and context it is easy to see how the student makes a connection between the present day teacher and the great Masters of the past whose words and gestures are examined in the koans.
There are, however, two ways in which this estrangement may proceed - one, in which the strangeness of world and self can be reappropriated by the "recollection" that both the world and self are products of one's own activity- the other, in which such reappropriation is no longer possible, and in which social world and socialized self confront the individual as inexorable facticities analogous to the facticities of nature. This latter process may be called alienation. Put differently, alienation is the process whereby the dialectical relationship between the individual and his world is lost."
Alienation is a false consciousness in that it is forgotten that this social world was and continues to be co-produced by the individual as an active participant in the collective enterprise of social life.
It is important to understand that alienation does not necessarily weaken or disempower the alienated individual. In fact, the opposite may be the case -- it may become a source of great power as it removes the doubts and uncertainties that may cause problems and hesitancy in a non-alienated person. For the alienated individual, "The social world ceases to be an open arena in which the individual expands his being in meaningful activity, becomes instead a closed aggregate of reifications divorced from present or future activity." Importantly, perceiving the social cultural world in alienated terms serves to maintain its structures that give meaningful order to experience, with particular efficacy, precisely because it immunizes against the innumerable contingencies of the human enterprise of world building. In the case we are examining here, namely that of the Zen Master in America, we have seen a number of cases where no matter how poorly the Master has performed, he/she seems able, almost as if blinded to his/her own shortcomings, to continue to act and maintain his/her position of Master. There is an apparent strength, that allows the Master to maintain his/her position, almost totally divorced from his/her activity, despite the rhetoric of Zen that places so high a value on the normal activities of daily life and that maintains that every act of the Master comes from the Absolute. The alienation in these cases immunizes against the innumerable contingencies and setbacks of everyday life.
In Zen, the institution is "embodied" or "realized" in the performed role of the Master or roshi. A role that is almost necessarily idealized (with rare exceptions) through the mechanisms of Dharma transmission, Zen lineage, koans, mondo, and ritual. The students internalizing the Zen rhetoric, expect the real teacher to be an ideal teacher, so they look forward to having such an ideal teacher lead and instruct them. These idealizations are repeated in one form or another throughout the Ch'an tradition. In one of the earliest of Ch'an texts, the Platform Sutra of the Sixth Patriarch Hong-ren, the fifth Patriarch, tells his successor Hui-neng, the sixth and last Patriarch, "If you are able to awaken another's mind, he will be no different from me." What is implied here is that each Master in the line of transmission is equal to evfery other, and that the teaching each new Master gives is identical to that given by all the masters of the past. Essentially, at least as far as understanding is concerned, one teacher is the same as all the others, each one being the same as the Buddha.
To rise in Zen institutions, as in any institution, one must be well socialized in its ways and not question the institutional order and its roles. Since the role of Master is connected to the historical and semi-mythological Buddha through the mechanisms of Dharma transmission and Zen lineage, the Master's self identification in his/her role is further enhanced and deepened as is her/his sense of ultimate rightness. It is my contention that the idealizations associated with this position lead the Master or roshi to have an alienated view of the world. The person inhabiting the role of Master becomes, through the process of internalization of the privileges and qualities embodied in her/his role, something other than herself/himself. The role as defined by the Zen institutions, as we have seen describes a person actualizing perfect freedom, free of fixed repetitive patterns, not self centered, filled with simplicity, buoyancy, humility, perspicacity, and compassion, or according to another description capable of performing miracles and still another description has the Master always maintaining a pure mind. This is truly a stupendous person, very rare indeed.
However, the internalization of the role is never complete, and some part of the person remains that has all the normal shortcomings and the concomitant doubts, desires and uncertainties that comprise all fallible people. By saying that the Master/roshi becomes something other than herself/himself, I mean that the role and its imputed qualities are foreign to, or in conflict with her/his activities and thoughts manifest in her/his daily life, to her/his non-socialized self upon which the role Master has been placed. For the alienated person, in this case the Zen Master, there is an "otherness" (the role of Zen Master) produced within herself/himself that is formed by the social world and is in addition, strange to herself/himself. It is strange to herself/himself because the process of socialization is never perfect. There remains an uneasy accommodation with the non-socialized self-consciousness and its varied desires." Alienation is an overextension of the process of objectivation, whereby the human ("living") objectivity of the social world is transformed into the non-human ("dead") objectivity of nature... In this loss of the societal dialectic, activity itself comes to appear as something other--namely, as process, destiny or fate," or in Buddhist terminology, as karma or causes-and-conditions. In this case, the students too become reified to the Master. Though not necessarily with sinister intent, the students become objects to be used and insidiously manipulated for the Master's ends, whatever they may be. It is insidious because the Master's actions and motives as defined by the institutional role are "good," based in the absolute, coming from a pure mind, serving to spread the Dharma, and in order to help all sentient beings while in reality they are serving his/her own human desires. Simultaneously, critical thinking and questioning are explicitly denigrated with the worst of Zen epithets, "ego-centered activity."
The gigantic projections of religious consciousness, whatever else they may be, constitute the historically most important effort of man to make reality humanly meaningful, at any price... The great paradox of religious alienation is that the very process of dehumanizing the socio-cultural world has its roots in the fundamental wish that reality as a whole might have a meaningful place for man. One may thus say that alienation, too, has been a price paid by the religious consciousness in its quest for a humanly meaningful universe"The disparity between the Master's lived everyday life with its occasions for error, desires, and doubts and the idealized presentation of the person as Master often repeated in the histories, mondos and koans, is too great. However, the rhetoric of Zen hinges on the doctrine of Zen lineage as passed on through Dharma transmission and the institutional legitimacy and the authority of the Master/roshi is dependent on this model. Put another way, "doctrine and a narration of the origin of that doctrine are completely intertwined, with the historicity of ... events essential to the narration of truth. Though the transmission moment might be toyed with in later disclaimers that nothing was ultimately transmitted, the historicity of the lineage cannot be disposed of." That is, the content of the transmission is not so important as is the performance, the transmission and the re-creation of the social fact of lineage. However, the latter is ignored by the emphasis on the former. The Soto sect in Japan is just one very prominent example. In modern day America, as was probably most often the case, the maintenance of institutional stability and continuity is of primary importance. The family of supposed Buddhas is continued into the next generation, the institution is perpetuated, and of course some "ordinary" members of the community are necessarily expendable. In this respect, Zen is no different from other major religious institutions.
SummaryIn this paper we have looked at how Ch'an /Zen has been presented to America in a most idealized fashion. Specifically, we have seen how the terms Dharma transmission, Zen lineage, and Master/roshi are intertwined to form a seamless web that along with koans and ritual behavior falsely elevates the Zen teacher, by whatever title he/she may assume, to a position that is paradoxically human, but simultaneously beyond human. I have shown that it is not necessary for any individual teacher to make claims concerning his/her own enlightenment or level of spiritual attainment because the Zen institutions repeat this claim, in one form or another, for the person sitting in the role of Zen Master. We have seen that these defining Zen terms and most of the elements of Zen's self definition have been accepted uncritically in America and the West in general. In addition, as students are discouraged from resorting to any non-Zen theoretical framework to critically examine Zen institutions, a member who attempts a critical view is thrown back into Zen terminology that only tends to enhance the power of the teacher. In this paper, I have proposed one theoretical framework to view Zen institutions, namely that of the American sociologist, Peter L. Berger. Surely there are others and I hope Zen students seek them out.
 Much thanks to Simeon Gallu for editorial assistance. I welcome any comments from the reader. Please send to <firstname.lastname@example.org>.
 mondo- a Japanese term meaning question and answer- a dialogue or verbal encounter between a teacher and a student in which the student asks a question that is particularly troubling and the teacher answers attempting to bring out an answer from the student's intuitive mind. Koan (J.), kung-an (Ch.)--originally in China, a public case of law that established a precedent. In Ch'an /Zen, a koan is a dialogue or encounter between a Master and another person(s), usually in what appears to be confusing language and gesture; yet in this manner, it is pointing to some truth of Ch'an. It canbe used as a place of focus in meditation as well as a topic for a teacher's talk.
 Shunryu, Suzuki, Zen Mind , Beginners Mind, Weatherhill, 1970, p.19.
 Sahn, Master Seung, Dropping Ashes on the Buddha: The Teachings of Zen Master Seung Sahn, Grove Press, 1976, p.99.
 satori- a Japanese term translated as enlightenment, Self realization, seeing ones true nature, or opening ones eye. One sees/experiences the emptiness of things and self, though this emptiness is not different from the 10,000 things. This emptiness is alive and one sees the interrelationship of all things. There are deep and shallow experiences of satori.
 Victoria, Brian, Zen At War, Weatherhill,1997, p.199, fn. 50, quoting from the Eastern Buddhist, 26/2(1993), p.141
 Stated in a public talk given at his Center. It was later printed in his Center's newsletter, Ch'an Newsletter, No. 38, 1984, pp.1-2.
 Aitken, Robert, The Mind of Clover, North Point Press, 1984, p.3. See also, Lori, John Daido, The Heart of Being: Moral and Ethical Teachings of Zen Buddhism, Charles Tuttle and Co., 1996. Paaramitaa has been translated as perfection or transcendence. The six are giving, morality, patience, effort, meditation, and wisdom. The ten precepts have been translated as to refrain from killing, stealing, sexual misconduct, lying, taking recreational drugs, discussing the faults of others, praising oneself, covetousness, indulging in anger, and defaming the Three Treasures (Buddha, Dharma, and Sangha).
 Butler, Katy, "Events Are The Teachers," The CoEvolution Quarterly, winter 1983, pp.112-123. To give some sense of scale, in 1982, while the students working at the Center's enterprises were just getting by on minimum wage, Baker spent more than $200,000. Much of this was related to his job as abbot, but he also spent money impulsively on art, furniture, and expensive restaurant meals. Zen Center spent $4,000 for his membership in New York's exclusive Adirondack Club and despite the governing Board's uneasiness, $26,000 for his BMW.
 The eight terms were Dharma transmission, mind to mind transmission, Zen master, roshi, Zen lineage, enlightened being/person, monk/nun, and kensho/satori.
 The person relating the story had been doing koan study with Carol for a year and a half. He had been involved in Zen for 20 years or so, part of the time with a major Zen group in another part of North America, from whom he attained permission to teach introductory classes.
 Lachs, Stuart."Coming Down From the Zen Clouds," 1995, Articles on Buddhism and East Asian Philosophy, www.human.toyogakuen-u.ac.jp/~acmuller/articles/eaprforum.htm
 Berger, Peter, L., The Sacred Canopy, Doubleday, 1967.
 The Sacred Canopy, pp.7-9.
 The Sacred Canopy, p.3.
 The Sacred Canopy, p.6-9
 Said to the author privately during a visit to the U.S.A. in 1983.
 Public letter from Koun Yamada -roshi 1/16/86. Yamada-roshi was Yasutani -roshi's heir. He became the leader of the Sanbokyodan School of Zen started by Yasutani -roshi and also gave Dharma transmission to Robert Aitken. Also a letter from Mr. Kapleau to Koun Yamada 2/17/86.
 Buswell, Robert E., The Zen Monastic Experience, Princeton University Press, 1992, pp. 204-208.
 Masataka Toga, director of the Institute of Zen Studies, Hanazono University, and Dharma successor of the prominent Rinzai roshi, Yamada Mumon, quoted in Josh Baran's complete review of Brian Victoria's Zen At War, on the internet at WWW.darkzen.com.
 McRae, John, "Encounter Dialogue and Transformation in Ch'an," in Paths to Liberation, ed. by Robert Buswell and Robert Gimello, University of Hawaii Press, 1992, P.354.
 Muller, Charles A., "The Key Operative Concepts in Korean Buddhist Syncretic Philosophy, Interpenetration and Essence- Function in Wonhyo," Chinul, and Kihwa, Bulletin of Toyo Gakuen University, No.3, March 1995, P.2.
 Cook, Francis, Hua- yen Buddhism, The Pennsylvania State University Press, p.18.
 Watson, Burton, The Zen Teachings of Master Lin-chi, Shambala, 1993, p.13.
 Foulk, T.Griffith and Robert H. Sharf, "On the Ritual Use of Ch'an Portraiture in Medieval China," Cahiers D'Extrême Asie, 7, 1993, p. 195.
 For an interesting discussion of the rather late (early twelfth century) and even controversial acceptance of this self- defining idea in Ch'an/Zen see Welter, Albert, " Ch'an Slogans and the Creation of Ch'an Ideology, A Special Transmission Outside the Scriptures," a paper presented at the annual meeting of the AAR, November, 1995.
 Faure, Bernard, Rhetoric of Immediacy, Princeton University Press, 1991, pp. 221,225; Sheng- yen, Master, Investigation of Chinese Buddhism in the Late Ming Era, translated privately for the author by Ming-yee Wang, Dharma Drum Publications, 1987, pp. 48-53. For a broken and strange type of transmission in the Tsao-tung lineage see Schlutter, Morten, "Silent Illumination, Kung-an Introspection, and the Competition for Lay Patronage in Sung-Dynasty Ch'an" in Buddhism in the Sung, edited by Peter N. Gregory and Daniel Getz, Honolulu: Hawaii University Press, 1999.
. Welch, Holmes, Buddhism in China, 1900 to 1950, Harvard University Press, 1967, p. 315. Welch gives the interesting case of one Chinese monk in the twentieth century who gave Dharma transmission to another Chinese monk then in Burma, "without ever having met him, and indeed, without even finding out whether he would accept the Dharma."
 Foulk, T. Griffith " Myth, Ritual, and Monastic Practice," Religion and Society in Tang and Sung China, Ed. Patricia Buckley Ebrey and Peter N. Gregory, University of Hawaii Press, 1993, p.160.
 Bodiford, William M., Soto Zen in Medieval Japan, University of Hawaii Press, 1993, p. 215."Zen Dharma transmission between master and disciple could occur whether or not the disciple had realized enlightenment, just so long as the ritual of personal initiation had been performed." For a further discussion of the surprising usages of Dharma transmission see, Bodiford above, p.149, Welch previously cited, The Rhetoric of Immediacy, pp.14, 17, 225. See also "On the Ritual Us of Ch'an Portraiture in Medieval China."
 Foulk, T. Griffith, "The Zen Institute in Modern Japan," pp.157-177 , Zen, Tradition and Transition, Kenneth Kraft ed., NY, Grove Press, 1988
 Brian Victoria related this information to me in a private correspondence.
 Sharf, Robert, "Sanbokyodan, Zen and the Way of New Religions," Japanese Journal of Religious Studies, Fall 1995, Vol. 22, no. 3-4.
 Sheng-yen, Master, Investigation of Chinese Buddhism in the Late Ming Era, Dharma Drum Publications, 1987, pp.5-7, 48-53, translated privately for the author by Ming-yee Wang. For a broken and strange type of transmission in the Tsao-tung lineage see Schlutter, Morten, "Silent Illumination, Kung-an Introspection, and the Competition for Lay Patronage in Sung-Dynasty Ch'an." In Buddhism in the Sung, edited by Peter N. Gregory and Daniel Getz, Honolulu: Hawaii University Press, 1999.
 The four Masters were Ou-I (1595-1653), Ta-guen Cheng-Ke (1543-1603), Yun-chi Chu-chung (1535-1615), and Han Shan (1546-1623). Han Shan's commentary on the Diamond Sutra and the Sutra of Complete Enlightenment were translated into English in Luk, Charles, Chan and Zen Teaching, First Series and Third Series respectively, Rider & Co., 1960 and 1962. For some of Han Shan's words on meditation, see Luk, Charles, The Secrets of Chinese Meditation, Weiser, 1979. Also see Ou-I, An Exhortation to be Alert to the Dharma. Trans. Dharma Master Lok To. Ed. Dr. Frank G. French, Bronx, New York: Sutra Translation Committee of The United States and Canada, 1987.
 Sheng- yen, Master, Subtle Wisdom, Doubleday, 1999, p. IX.
McCrae, John, "Encounter Dialogue and Transformation in Ch'an" in Paths to Liberation, ed. by Robert Buswell and Robert Gimello, University of Hawaii Press, 1992, p.359.
 Cole, Alan, "Fathering Your Father and Other Literary Privileges in the Platform Sutra," a paper delivered at a seminar at Princeton University under the auspices of Stephan Teiser, December 1998, p. 12, permission to quote granted by the author.
The Sacred Canopy, pp.32-34
 " Myth, Ritual, and Monastic Practice" in Sung Ch'an Buddhism, in Religion and Society in T'ang and Sung China, p.174.
 The Sacred Canopy, pp. 32-34.
 Soto Zen in Medieval Japan, pp.145-148.
 McCrae, John, Encounter Dialogue and Transformation in Ch'an, in Paths To Liberation, Ed. by Robert E. Buswell and Robert M. Gimello, p.340
 The idea of koans as folk tales was suggested by Robert Aitken, Original Dwelling Place, Counterpoint, 1996, p.103
 capping phrase- jakugo(J)- literally means "attached phrase"- used to show one's understanding of the koan by selecting a verse or phrase from the Zenrin Kushin, Collected Zen Verses- a collection of 4,380 verses all taken from a wide range of Chinese sources. See Hori, G. Victor Sogen, "Koan and Kensho in the Rinzai Zen Curriculum," p.26, an unpublished paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Academy of Religion, Nov.21, 1994. Permission to quote granted by the author.
 Hori, G. Victor Sogen, "Koan and Kensho in the Rinzai Zen Curriculum," pp.24-29.
 The Three Pillars of Zen, pp.76-77.
 Zen At War, p.168.
 For an interesting discussion of institutional volatility in the Sanbokyodan line of Yasutani and who controls enlightenment, along with nationalist interests, see Sharf, Robert H., "Sanbokyodan: Zen and the Way of the New Religions," Japanese Journal of Religious Studies, Fall, 1995,Vol. 22 /nos.3-4, pp.444-452.
 Three Pillars of Zen, p.83.
 The Sacred Canopy, p. 32.
 Sacred Canopy, P.33
 See The Sacred Canopy, chapter 4, "Religion and Alienation," pp. 81-101.
 Berger, Peter L. and Thomas Luckmann. The Social Construction of Reality, Anchor Books, 1996, pp. 78 - 79.
 The Social Construction of Reality, p.116
 The Sacred Canopy, p.85.
 The Sacred Canopy, p.86.
This idea was suggested by, Mysticism and Kingship in China, Julia Ching, Cambridge University Press, 1997, p. 209.
 "Fathering Your Father and Other Literary Privileges in the Platform Sutra," 1998, pp. 24-25.
 The Sacred Canopy, pp.85-86.
 The Sacred Canopy, pp.100-101.
 "Fathering Your Father and Other Literary Privileges in the Platform Sutra," 1998, p.9.
 Bell, David , "Power Influence and Authority, An Essay in Political Linguistics," pp.82-83, quoted in Christopher Collins, Authority Figures: Metaphors of Mastery From the Illiad to the Apocalypse, Rowman and Littlefield, 1996, p.5.
 The Sacred Canopy, P.22.
 Collins, Christopher, Authority Figures, Rowman and Littlefield, 1996, p. 4. Also see chapter one, "The Glamour of Authority" for a most interesting look at the personal pronoun in relation to systems of authority.
 Suzuki, D. T., Introduction, Zen in the Art of Archery, Eugene Herrigel, Random House, 1983, p.VII.
 Zen At War, pp.166-174.
 The Social Construction of Reality, p. 116.
 The Sacred Canopy, p. 85.
 The Zen Monastic Experience, p.208.