Translations of Shaykhi, Babi and Baha'i Texts, No. 11 (December, 1997)

"The Bab in Shiraz" by Mirza Habibu'llah Afnan

Ahang Rabbani, Trans.

Mirza Habibu'llah's Account of the Bab in Shiraz: Translation and Commentary (Revised Edn. March, 2004)


[1] Kindness of Abu’l-Qasim Afnan who initially requested the translation of the two narratives by his father, Mirza Habib Afnan, and offered many valuable suggestions (some of which appear as footnotes under his name) in the course of translation, and Prof. Juan R.I. Cole who generously shared a copy of the Tarikh Amry Fars va Shiraz manuscript is warmly acknowledged.

[2] Light is a reference to the Declaration of the Bab in Shiraz. Original Tablet in Nuri’d-Din Compilation of Tablets no. 144, dated 1 Rajab 1307 A.H. [21 February 1890]. “Nuri’d-Din Compilation” (in private hands) includes some 161 densely scribed pages containing Baha’u’llah’s Tablets to Aqa Mirza Aqa Nuri’d-Din, a long time follower of Baha’u’llah. This unpublished compilation was prepared at `Abdu’l-Baha’s request and sent to Him in Haifa, and the present translator is grateful to Abu’l-Qasim Afnan for making his copy accessible.

[3] Shoghi Effendi himself also participated in this enterprise first by producing an edited translation of Nabil Zarandi’s history and later by writing a monumental analytical history of the Cause, titled God Passes By.

[4] Private communications with the present translator, summer 1985.

[5] For example, Mírzá Habib notes that fifty-five years had elapsed since the spring of 1892 when he had met Tarazu’llah Samandari in the Holy Land, and assuming these years are reckoned in accordance with the lunar calendars, then this places the date of re-composition around 1945-6.

[6] An annotated rendering was completed by the present translator in 1998 and remains unpublished.

[7] INBA (Iranian National Baha’i Archives collection) 91:6-10, no. 3 and 91:13-4, no. 4. In Qayyumu’l-Asma’, Chapter 55, the Bab refers to Himself as the Gate of the Land of refuge (bab-i-baladu’l-amn). Verse 35 of the Chapter pillar (rukn) of the same Book refers to Shiraz as the baladu’l-amn. It should also be noted that INBA volumes 51 and 52 contain many Tablets addressed to believers in Fars. Volume 51 (633 pages) contains Tables of Baha’u’llah, while volume 52 (683 pages) provides Tablets of the `Abdu’l-Baha.

[8] It should be noted for those not fully familiar with the story of the Báb that the reader’s path may be eased if, while reading this history, reference is made to Nabil’s immortal history, presented in an edited version in the Dawn-breakers, and to Hasan Balyuzi’s biography, The Báb. In these volumes are to be found many of the persons and incidents mentioned in this narrative, but depicted in a wider context. For a more academic treatment of the same subject see, Resurrection and Renewal, Abbas Amanat.

[9] H-Baha’i has electronically published Tarikh Amry Fars va Shiraz, see (give url here).

[10] A translation of the complete text has been prepared and approved by the World Centre for publication. It is hoped that it will be published soon.

[11] In the Qayyumu’l-Asma, Surih al-Qarabih [kinsmen], verse 14, the Báb reveals: “Verily We have named this Remembrance by two Names from divine Self after two Beloved among Our servants in the heavens.”

[12] The Báb gives a slightly different genealogy in Sahifih Baynu’l-Haramayn (Treatise Between Two Shrines): “Say: My name is Muhammad after the word `Alí [i.e. `Ali-Muhammad]. And the name of My father, as hath been revealed in the Book of God, is Rida after Muhammad. And the name of My grandfather in the Book of God is Ibrahim, and his father is named Nasru’llah as has been revealed in the Qur’an (Fathu’llah).” (Browne Or. MSS F.7(9)) The final statement is a reference to the Qur’an 61:13 where it reads: “And another [favor will He bestow], which ye do love - help from God or a speedy victory; so give the glad tidings to the believers.” The same genealogy is given in the Qayyumu’l-Asma, Surih al-Qaribih, verses 14-5.

[13] That is, this family traced its ancestry to Imam Husayn.

[14] Hadrat-i-Nuqtih-i-Ula` 64, give his name as Zaynu’l-`Abidin.

[15] 20 October 1819.

[16] The Báb provides the date of His birth in the Sahifah Baynu’l-Haramayn: “Say O denizens of the Concourse! Hear the command of the Remnant of God from this Servant, the Exalted, the Wise. And this Servant was born, as hath been concealed in the Book of God, on the first day of Muharram of the year twelve hundred and thirty-five.” Also, the same date can be computed precisely from His age given in His personal diary appended to the Azali published Kitab-i-Panj Sha’n (the Book of Five Modes). Other references to His age are to be found in the Persian Bayan 2:1 and 4:11 and the Dala’il-i-Sab`a (the Seven Proofs).

[17] In Persian, when someone’s age is reported, say, five years of age, it means they are in their fifth year of life. In English, during the whole of the fifth year of life, a child is called four year old. In general, whenever age is given in Baha’i histories translated from the Persian, it is necessary to subtract one to get the age in English. In the present translation, everywhere that age is provided, the original number is given.

[18] His given name was Shaykh Muhammad (d. 1263/1847), and he is also known as Shaykh Zaynu’l-`Abidin or Shaykh Mu`allim. The Bab recalled him in the Arabic Bayan 6:11, “Say: O Muhammad, My teacher! Do not beat Me ere My years have gone beyond five.”

[19] A variation of the same name, Shaykhuná, is employed in The Dawn-Breakers 75.

[20] Named after a certain Sufi saint, Dervish Awlíyá` (d. 1119AH/1707), this convent is occupied by the dervishes and sufis. Located in the Bazar-i-Murgh, it is situated near the house of the Báb’s maternal uncle, Hájí Mirza Siyyid `Ali, and over the years has decayed so thoroughly that presently no trace of it is evident.

[21] Known also as Bazar-i-Murgh [poultry market] quarter, it is one of the most prosperous and religiously significant quarters of the city and one of the five Haydari wards of Shiraz. For further details see Farsnamih-i-Nasiri 2:27-47.

[22] Masjid-i-Vakil is the largest and the most important of Shiraz’s mosque.

[23] Mullá Fathu’llah and his father converted on the day the Báb proclaimed His Call in the aforementioned mosque. Both were among the martyrs at Shaykh Tabarsi and, therefore, his recollection of the Báb must have been conveyed to the Afnan family at an early time.

[24] Mirza Habib adds parenthetically: “And this convent was standing in the middle, surrounded by ruins and evidence of old graves and gravestones”

[25] A.Q. Afnan informs that on that occasion, Hájí Mirza Siyyid `Ali, the Báb’s maternal uncle, went to the school. (Private communication, Aug 1986)

[26] A.Q. Afnan suggests that only the Báb and His maternal uncle, Hájí Mírzá Siyyid `Ali, were present on that occasion. (Private communication, Aug 1986)

[27] The Afnan-i-Kabir of later years.

[28] An alternative reading of this poem is: ‘You bring forth a prayer, and I am that Prayer.’

[29] Original “ghulam” signifies a permanent, purchased servant.

[30] Qur’an 34:25.

[31] The Dawn-Breakers 75-6 tells a similar story though considerably different in details.

[32] Brief recollections of Aqa Muhammad Ibrahim have previously appeared in The Bab 34-5.

[33] See The Bab 35. For similar childhood stories of the Bab see The Dawn-Breakers 75-6.

[34] The Báb in the Qayyumu’l-Asma, Surih al-Sina, verse 5, addressing Himself states, “And We favored Thee during Thy Childhood with the mighty Cause of God, as it had been decreed as such in the Mother Book.” In the same Book, Surih al-Ism, verse 34, the Báb proclaims: “Verily as a child I was aware of the truth of My own Self, and God is the Almighty, the All-knowing.”

[35] In the Qayyumu’l-Asma, Surih al-Jihad, verse 39, the Báb states, “O My God, My Lord! Verily in Thy will, My father passed away and I do not remember Him. My Master, when he is seated with the heavenly angels, inform him of My Cause and record him in this Mighty Book.”

[36] Mírzá Habib adds parenthetically: “Located south of Shiraz and on the mountains, the shrine of Sabz-Pushan is about twelve kilometers from the city. The route to that place is most difficult and even strong individuals are very tired by the journey. People often visit that spot in the summer.”

[37] A.Q. Afnan suggests that based on extensive family correspondence examined by him, the Báb began to work in His uncle’s office at the age of ten and it was at the age of fifteen – the age of maturity in Islamic law – that He moved to Bushihr. The same fact is also provided by the Báb Himself in the Kitab-i-Fihrist, “After My childhood had passed, by the will of God, I began the occupation of commerce as this was decreed by God, and I commenced this from the age of ten.”

[38] Nicolas (A.L.M. Nicolas, Seyyed Ali Mohammad dit le Bab; Paris, 1905. p.189 n. 131) on the authority of Haji Mirza Jani of Kashan (whom Nicolas assumed to be the author of the Kitab-i-Nuqtatu’l-Kaf) suggests that at the age of eighteen the Bab revealed Risalih-i-Fiqihiyyih.

[39] A similar translation appears in The Bab 39-40.

[40] The Bab indicates He was in Bushihr for five years; see Selections from the Writings of the Bab 180-1.

[41] Mírzá Abu’l-Fadl, Tarikh Zuhur-i-Diyant-i-Hadrat-i-Bab va Hadrat-i-Baha’u’llah, gives the date of Báb’s departure as 1 Rabi`u’l-Avval 1257 A.H. [23 April 1841].

[42] A.Q. Afnan suggests that it was the younger uncle, Hájí Mírzá Siyyid `Ali, who went on Bushihr. (Private communications, Nov 1991).

[43] For a brief description of the Bab’s stay in Bushihr see The Dawn-Breakers 77-80.

[44] The `Atabat is a general term referring to the region where Najaf, Karbala, Kázimayn and Sámarrá are located. The first of the two city’s hold within them the Shrines of Imam `Ali and Imam Husayn, respectively. Kazimayn is famous because the Shrines of the seventh and the nineth Imam are located there. Sámarrá is where the Shrines of the tenth and the eleventh Imams, `Ali an-Naqi and Hasan al`Askari, are situated.

[45] For a description of a similar observation by Shaykh Hasan-i-Zunuzi see The Dawn-Breakers 30.

[46] That is, a direct descendent of the Prophet Muhammad.

[47] See The Dawn-Breakers 27 where Nabil outlines a slightly different recollections of Shaykh Hasan-i-Zunuzi’s observations on that day.

[48] The following is noted in noted in Khanidan-i Afnan 132-33 on the authority of Tarikh Zuhuru’l-Haqq volume 3:

Because of the insistence of the mother of the Bab and other kinsmen as well as his own profound desire, Haji Mir[za] Siyyid `Aliy-i-Khal had come to Karbala. One day the Bab met Mulla Sadiq [Khurasani] in the courtyard of the Shrine of Imam Husayn. The Bab said to him, “My uncle has recently arrived from Shiraz and if you wish to meet him, come to our abode.” The Akhund had expressed his deep interest and with thanks had assured that he would come. That very afternoon he had gone to the home of the Bab where great many of the `ulama, merchants and other dignitaries were present, with the Khal sitting and conversing with the guests and the Bab busy serving tea and sherbet. Mulla Sadiq spoke of the Bab’s peerless qualities and His exalted character. In response, the Khal said, “Even though our entire family is well known in Shiraz and its vicinity for our pious nature and goodly characters, yet this Youth shines like a most brilliant candle in our midst and is most evident that He is cut of a different cloth. Our one wish is for Him to undertake study of diverse sciences so it would bring added honor to us. However, He refuses.” Mulla Sadiq responded, “If you do not take Him with you to Shiraz, I will see to it that He would be engaged in studying.” Thrilled with the prospect, the Khal stated, “Even though it is very agonizing for His mother and other kinsmen to be far from Him, but because of your assurance, I will return by myself to Shiraz.” A few days later, the Khal returned to his native city and left that illustrious Personage in Karbala. However, it was not long thereafter that He, too, returned to Shiraz.

[49] As customary, such occasions consisted of two separate celebrations, one for the men and the other for the women. The men gathered in the house of the Bab’s uncle, Haji Mirza Siyyid `Ali, while the women gathered in the residence of Khadijih Bagum’s father, which was next door. The wedding was conducted by Shyakh Abu-Turab, the Imam Jum`ih.

[50] 25 August 1842. A copy of the Bab’s marriage certificate provides the same date, see The Bab page opposite 80 and Khanidan-i Afnan 158-61.

[51] The Báb refers to His wedding as such: “O concourse of Light! Hear My call from the point of Fire in this ocean of snow-white water on this crimson earth. Verily, I am God, besides Whom there is no other God. On the exalted throne a beloved noble woman, bearing the same name [Khadijih] as the beloved of the First Friend [the Prophet Muhammad], was wedded to this Great Remembrance; and verily I caused the angels of Heaven and the denizens of Paradise, on the day of the Covenant, to bear witness, in truth, to God’s Remembrance.” (Qayyumu’l-Asma`, Surih of Qarábat [The Chapter of Kinship], quoted in Khanidan-i Afnan 7-8).

[52] Named thusly as the tomb of Bíbí Dukhtarán is located there. For further details consult Farsnamih-i-Nasiri 2:1131.

[53] The following passage from Qayyumu’l-Asma`, Surih Qarábih, is addressed to Khadijih Bagum (cited in Khadijih Bagum 8-9): “O well-beloved! Value highly the grace of the Great Remembrance for it cometh from God, the Loved One. Thou shalt not be a woman, like other women, if though obeyest God in the Cause of Truth, and the greatest Truth. Know thou the great bounty conferred upon thee by the Ancient of Days, and take pride in being the consort of the Well-Beloved, Who is loved by God, the Greatest. Sufficient unto thee is this glory which cometh unto thee from God, the All-Wise, the All-Praised. Be patient in all that God hath ordained concerning the Báb and His family. Verily, thy son, Ahmad, is with Fátimih [the Prophet Muhammad’s daughter], the Sublime, in the sanctified Paradise.” Also, see Khadijih Bagum 9 for another instance where the Báb mentions Ahmad in Suratu’l-`Abd of the Qayyumu’l-Asma’.

[54] See The Dawn-Breakers 76-7 for a brief reference to this incident and a purported prayer by the Bab marking the passing of His son.

[55] 23 May 1844.

[56] The exact time and date of the Báb’s declaration is given in the Persian Bayan 2:7.

[57] Mírzá Habib adds parenthetically: Faddih and Mubárak were two Black servants purchased in Bushihr during His days of commerce.

[58] See Khadijih Bagum 10-13 for a different rendering.

[59] The section pertaining to Mullá Husayn correlates closely with the narrative of Siyyid Husayn-i-Hamadani (see Tarikh-i-Jadid 35-9) which is purported to be based on recollections of Mírzá `Abdu’l-Wahháb-i-Khurasaní from utterances of Mullá Husayn and captured in the history of Hájí Mírzá Jani of Kashan. The present translator has not been able to determine if a copy of Mírzá Jani’s valuable history was in possession of the early Afnan family. However, it is known that Mirza Jani’s original text, which stands about 80 or so pages, is extant and is in possession of a non-Baha’i in Tihran. Though he did not allow his precious manuscript to be copied, because of his longstanding friendship with Fadil-i-Mazandarani he permitted the latter to examine this document and he certified its authenticity. See The Dawn-Breakers 52-66 for Nabil’s moving, though very different, description of the Bab’s declaration.

[60] Quddús had returned to his native town some months prior to the passing of Siyyid Kazim; see Tarikh Zuhuru’l-Haqq 3:405-7.

[61] Mírzá Habib adds parenthetically: The Báb’s place of business was at the Custom building, known as caravansary.

[62] See, Todd Lawson, The Qur’an Commentary of Sayyid `Ali Muhammad, the Bab, 1987, Ph.D. dissertation. For copies of manuscripts see, Denis MacEoin, The Sources for Early Babi Doctrine and History, 1992.

[63] The date of the Bab’s Declaration is fixed in the Persian Bayan 6:13 and 2:7, “And from the moment when the Tree of the Bayan appeared until it disappeared is the Resurrection of the Apostle of God, as is divinely foretold in the Qur’an; the beginning of which was when two hours and eleven minutes had passed on the eve of the fifth of Jamádíyu’l-Avval, 1260 A.H. [22 May 1844], which is the year of 1270 of the Declaration of the Mission of Muhammad.” (Translation in Selections from the Writings of the Bab 107.) In a Tablet in honor of Mirza Qabil of Abadih, `Abdu’l-Baha specifies this date as Kamal (8th) of Azamat; see Ishraq-Khavari’s Ganginih Hudud va Ahkam 426.

[64] Ishraq-Khavari (Kitab-i-Muhadhirat 14) notes that Jariyyih was a daughter of Khadijih, the wife of Muhammad. For a discussion of this Tradition of Handmaiden attributed to Imam Ja`far-i-Sadiq, see Abu Ja`far Muhammad Kulayni, al-Usul min al-Kafi, 4 vols, (Tihran, 1392/1972-73), 1:495-6. See also C. Rieu, Catalogue of the Persian Manuscripts in the British Museum (London, 1879-1883) 1:30.

[65] In the course of the first section of the Kitab-i-Panj-Sha’n (the Book of Five Modes), p. 9, revealed on the sixth anniversary of His declaration, the Báb describes the night of His declaration in language of a prayer: “In the name of God. There is no God but God. Sanctified art Thou, O God, My God. I testify that at an hour such as this, Thou hast bestowed honor and exaltation, glory and loftiness upon this night and has sanctified it above all other nights through Thy Manifestation. This is the hour of the appearance of the Point of Bayan, Who is the sign of Thy dawning, the countenance of Thy morn of eternity, the evidence of Thy unity, the manifestation of Thy oneness, the confirmation of Thy loftiness, the signifier of Thy holiness and the very essence of the divinity of Thy kingdom. Sanctified and exalted art Thou, that thou hast glorified this hour by creating whatsoever is within the Bayan and by decreeing the manifestation of whatsoever Thou willeth. I testify and all things testify that on such a night I was at My house before Thy threshold when the first person [ie. Mullá Husayn] who has tasted the sweetness of Thy love in this Ridvan attained to Me. He prostrated himself before Thy effulgence in this Paradise, and with him were the Letters of the Three. At such a hour, Thou caused Me to show Myself to him. Sanctified and exalted art Thou for enabling him [ie. Mullá Husayn] to recognize upon hearing them the signs of Thy guidance, and for having created in him a clear vision when I made mention of Thee. Therefore praise and gratitude to Thee, O My God, with praise like of which no soul is the past has offered and none in the future will offer, and such gratitude as none before has offered and none in the future will offer, for the first who recognized My person, and for the recognition with which he recognized Me.” From this passage it cannot be determined whether the three travel companions of Mullá Husayn also attained the presence of the Báb that very night, or if they gained that felicity at a later occasion.

[66] Mírzá Habib has added the following marginal note in his own hand: “Áqá Mírzá `Ali-Muhammad, the illustrious son of the Akhund Mullá Muhammad-Sadiq-i-Muqaddas related for me the following description which he had heard from his honored father: ‘No matter how I implored Mullá Husayn [to divulge the name of Him Who claimed to be the promised Manifestation], he refused and would only state that it was forbidden for him to do so and that I must seek Him independently. Disappointed by this response, I proceeded to the room set aside for devotions and performed my ablutions. I spread the prayer mat and began my supplications. I entreated with such earnestness that tears pouring from my eyes dampened the prayer mat. In the midst of such contemplation and in a state of near-consciousness, I beheld the Young Siyyid that I had met in the gathering of late Siyyid [Kazim-i-Rashti]. He stood over me saying, ‘Akhund, what do you desire? If you seek Faith, it stands appeared and manifest.’ Until dawn, thrice this experience was repeated. After the third occurrence of this vision, I came to the room where Mullá Husayn was resting. I woke him and said, ‘Mullá Husayn, I have discovered the identity of the Master of this Cause. It must be none other than that same Shirazi Siyyid that we met in `Atabat.’ Mullá Husayn responded affirmatively.”

[67] A similar description is provided in The Dawn-Breakers 144-8 relating to the events befallen Quddus, Mulla Sadiq and Mulla `Ali-Akbar Ardistani subsequent to the Bab’s return from pilgrimage.

[68] In his writings, Quddús describes the vision of the Báb that he had some time prior to the Latter’s declaration which enabled him to recognize the promised Manifestation. He further states that on the first day of Jamádíyu’l-Avval [18 May 1844], he left his native town for Shiraz. For a detailed discussion of the life and writings of Quddus, see the present translator’s forthcoming book on this subject.

[69] Among the various eyewitness accounts of Shaykh Tabarsi, the most detailed was recorded by Lutf-`Ali Mirzay-i-Shirazi.

[70] August-September 1844. The Báb in one of His sermons, known as Kutbih-i-Jaddiyyih, gives the date of His departure from Shiraz as 26 Sha`ban (10 September 1844); see, A.H. Ishraq-Khavari, Kitab-i-Muhadirat 729-31.

[71] The Bab provides a brief outline of His hajj journey in the Persian Bayan 4:18; for translation see Selections from the Writings of the Bab 89-91. Additionally see Persian Bayan 4:16 and 6:17.

[72] From Bushihr, the Bab sent the following letter to His wife in Shiraz (Text quoted in Khanidan Afnan 166-7, the original letter is displayed in the International Baha’i Archives in Haifa):

O the best of Protectors! In the Name of God, the Exalted.

My sweet life! May thou be guarded by God!

It was not because of sadness that I did not write sooner,

      Nor was it due to My heart being sorrowed

Nay, My hand wrote thee,

      But My tears washed away the words.

God is My witness that I have been overcome with so much sorrow since our separation that it cannot be described. However since we are all seized in the grasp of destiny, such has been decreed for us. May the Lord of the world, by the righteousness of the Five Near-Ones, ordain My return.

It is now two days since we arrived in Bushihr. The temperature is extremely hot, but the Lord of creation will protect. Apparently this very month our ship will sail. Out of His mercy, may God watch over Us. At the time of departure, it was not possible to meet My esteemed mother and, therefore, kindly convey My greetings to her and ask for her prayers. Regarding the silk cloth, I will write to Bombay. I also intent on securing a maidservant for you. God willing, that which is ordained will come to pass. Upon thee rest peace, favors and grace of God.

[73] The renowned father of Vahid-i-Darabi and one of the most distinguished theologians of his generation. For a detailed discussion of his life and writings, see (forthcoming), Ahang Rabbani, Epics of the Brave: the history and documents of the Babis of Nayriz.  

[74] According to the Abjad system, ghars has a numerical value of (1000+200+60=)1260, hence signifying the year of the appearance of the Báb.

[75] See The Dawn-Breakers 130-41 for further details on the Bab’s hajj journey.

[76] About five miles south of Burazjan.

[77] In a Tablet dated 24 Jamádíy’th-Thání 1261 A.H. [30 June 1845] to the His uncle, Haji Mirza Siyyid `Ali, the Bab mentions the esteem that the horsemen showed Him during this journey.

[78] 1845.

[79] This paragraph is congruent with the narrative of Siyyid Husayn-i-Hamadani; see Tarikh-i-Jadid 203.

[80] For comparison, the Qur’an is slightly over 6600 verses.

[81] Qur’an 6:121.

[82] 11 September 1846.

[83] Most likely it is meant bastinado.

[84] See the Bab 96-8 for a slightly different translation.

[85] A son of Shaykh Muhammad Zahid [pious] who had served as the Imam Jum`ih of Shiraz after his father, Shaykh Abu-Turab ranked as the foremost divine of the city and was greatly loved and admired by the citizens. He lived for a few years during the reign of Muhammad Shah in Tihran, but eventually returned to Shiraz where he passed away in 1855; see Sharh Rijal-i Iran 1:71.

[86] In language of prayer, the Báb gives an outline of the events befallen Him:

Thou art aware, O My God, that since the day Thou didst call Me into being out of the water of Thy love till I reached fifteen years of age I lived in the land which witnessed My birth [Shiraz]. Then Thou didst enable Me to go to the seaport [Bushihr] where for five years I was engaged in trading with the goodly gifts of Thy realm and was occupied in that which Thou favored Me through the wondrous essence of Thy loving-kindness. I proceeded therefrom to the Holy Land [Karbala] where I sojourned for one year. Then I returned to the place of My birth. There I experienced the revelation of Thy sublime bestowals and the evidences of They boundless grace. I yield Thee praise for all Thy goodly gifts and I render Thee thanksgiving for all Thy bounties. Then at the age of twenty-five I proceeded to Thy sacred House [Mecca], and by the time I returned to the place where I was born, a year had elapsed. There I tarried patiently in the path of Thy love and beheld that evidences of Thy manifold bounties and of Thy loving-kindness until Thou didst ordain for Me to set out in Thy direction and to migrate to Thy presence.” (Selections from the Writings of the Báb 180-1)

[87] For biography of Manuchihr Khan, see Sharh Rijal-i Iran 4:159-63. `Abdu’l-Baha has revealed a Tablet of Visitation for him wherein it is revealed that visit to this resting-place in Qum is endowed with special spiritual potency.

[88] Fifteen thousands tumans represented an extremely large sum of money for that time.

[89] See Hadrat-i-Nuqtih-i-Ulá 151-3 and Tarikh Zuhur’l-Haqq 3:85-9. In a Tablet (INBA 64:115), the Bab describes the Governor to Muhammad Shah as “vicious and sinister” who owing to consummate drunkenness “was never able to pass a sound judgement.”

[90] Presumably a reference to Hájí Mírzá Siyyid `Ali.

[91] Her name was Sultan Bagum and she was from Jahrúm.

[92] For other details on the Bab’s stay in Shiraz see The Dawn-Breakers chapter 8.

The End.

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