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Department of History
University of Edinburgh


'Ethnicity, Class and Power in Twentieth-Century Africa'

1995-96: Spring Term


  1. Tuesday 9 January: Introduction and screening of The Kitchen Toto.
  2. Thursday 11 January: Can Mau Mau meaningfully be understood as a nationalist movement? If not, how better can it be approached?

Primary:

        Historical  Survey of the Origins and Growth of Mau Mau (Corfield
        Report), 1960.

Secondary:

        Bates, Robert, Beyond the Miracle of the Market (1989), ch.1.
        Bruce Berman, "Nationalism, ethnicity and modernity: the paradox
        of Mau Mau", CJAS 25, 2 1991.*
        Bruce Berman and John Lonsdale, Unhappy Valley (1992), chs.
        11-12.*
        A.S. Cleary, "The myth of Mau Mau in its international context",
        AA 89. 335, 1990.
        Fred Cooper, "Mau Mau and the discourse of decolonization", JAH
        29, 1988.
        R.B. Edgerton, Mau Mau: An African Crucible (1990).
        F. Furedi, The Mau Mau War in Perspective (1989).
        Dane Kennedy, "Constructing the coloniual myth of Mau Mau", IJAHS
        25, 2, 1992.
        M. Kinyatti, Kenya's Freedom Struggle: The Dedan Kimathi Papers
        (1987).
        John Lonsdale, "Mau Maus of the mind: Making Mau Mau and remaking
        Kenya", JAH 31, 1990.
        Tabitha Kanogo, "Women and the politics of protest" in S. McDonald
        et al (eds.), Images of Women in Peace and War (1987).
        Tabitha Kanogo, Squatters and the Roots of Mau Mau (1987).*
        Wunyabari Maloba, Mau Mau and Kenya (1993).
        C. Presley, Kikuyu Women, the Mau Mau Rebellion and Social Change
        in Kenya (1992).
        C. Rosberg and J. Nottingham, The Myth of Mau Mau: Nationalism in
        Kenya (1966).
        S. Stichter, "Trade unionism in Kenya, 1947-1952: the militant
        phase", in P. Gutkind, R. Cohen and J. Copans (eds.), African Labor
        History (1978).
        "Workers, trade unions and the Mau Mau rebellion", CJAS
        9, 2, 1975.
        David Throup, Economic and Social Origins of Mau Mau (1988).*
        L. White, "Separating the men from the boys: constructions of
        gender, sexuality and terrorism in Kenya", IJAHS 23, 1, 1990.

3. Tuesday 16 January: Does 'neo-colonialism' adequately describe the nature of the independence settlement in Kenya?

        Bates, Robert, Beyond the Miracle of the Market (1989), ch.2.
        Bruce Berman, Control and Crisis in Colonial Kenya (1990), chs.
        9-10.*
        Cherry Gertzel, The Politics of Independent Kenya (1970), ch. 1.
        D. Gordon, Decolonization and the State in Kenya (1986).*
        Geoff Lamb, Peasant Politics (1974), ch. 2.
        Colin Leys, Underdevelopment in Kenya (1975).
        A. Njonjo, "The Kenya peasantry: a reassessment", ROAPE 20, 1981.
        B. Ogot and T. Zeleza, "Kenya: the road to independence and
        after", in Gifford, P. and Louis, R. (eds.), Decolonization and African
        Independence (1988).
        B. Ogot and W. Ochieng' (eds.) Decolonization and Independence in
        Kenya, 1940-93 (1995) - on order.
        Parker Shipton, "The Kenyan land tenure reform: misunderstandings
        in the creation of private property", in R.E. Downs and S.P. Reyna (eds),
        Land and Society in Contemporary Africa (1988).
        M. Sorrenson, Land Reform in Kikuyu Country (1967).
        N. Swainson, The Development of Corporate Capitalism in Kenya,
        1918-1977 (1980)
        Robert Tignor, "Race, nationality and industrialization in
        decolonizing Kenya, 1945-1963", IJAHS 26, 1, 1993.
        Gary Wasserman, "Continuity and counter-insurgency: the role of
        land reform in decolonizing Kenya, 1962-1970", CJAS 7, 1, 1973.
                , "The independence bargain: Kenya Europeans and the land
        issue, 1960-62", Journal of Commonwealth Political Studies, 1973.
                 Politics of Decolonization: Kenya Europeans and the Land
        Issue, 1960-1965 (1976).*

4. Thursday 18 January: By what means has the Kenya political elite maintained itself in power since independence?

        E.S. Atieno-Odhiambo, "Democracy and the ideology of order in
        Kenya", in M. Schatzberg (ed.) The Political Economy of Kenya (1987).
        J. Barkan, "The electoral process and peasant-state relations in
        Kenya", in  Fred Hayward (ed.) Elections in Independent Africa (1987).
        Jean-Franois Bayart, The State in Africa (1993), ch.3.
        G.P. Benson, "Ideological politics versus Biblical hermeneutics:
        Kenya's Protestant churches and the Nyayo statee", in in H.B. Hansen and
        Michael Twaddle (eds.) Religion and Politics in East Africa (1995).
        J. Barkan, "The electoral process and peasant-state relations in
        Kenya", in Fred Hayward (ed.), Elections in Independent Africa (1987).
        J. Barkan and F. Holmquist, "Peasant-state relations and the
        social base of self-help in Kenya", World Politics 41, 3 1989.
        Daniel Bourmaud, Histoire Politique du Kenya (1988).
        Angelique Haugerud, "The  consequences of land tenure reform among
        small holders in the Kenya highlands", Rural Africana 15/16, 1983.
                , The Culture of Politics in Modern Kenya (1995).*
        S. Mueller, "Government and opposition in Kenya, 1966-1969", JMAS
        22, 3, 1984.
        Parker Shipton, "The Kenyan land tenure reform: misunderstandings
        in the public creation of private property", in R.E. Downs and S.P. Reyna
        (eds.), Land and Society in Contemporary Africa (1988).
        Ngugi wa Thiong'o, Barrel of a Pen (1987).
        Barbara Thomas, Politics, Participation and Poverty: Development
        Through Self-Help in Kenya (1985).
        David Throup, "The construction and destruction of the Kenyatta
        state", in Michael Schatzberg (ed.) The Political Economy of Kenya (1987).
        David Throup, "'Render unto Caesar the things that are Caesar's: :
        the politics of church-state conflict in Kenya, 1978-1990", in H.B. Hansen
        and Michael Twaddle (eds.) Religion and Politics in East Africa (1995).
        Jennifer Widner, From Harambee! to Nyayo!: The Rise of a
        Party-State in Kenya (1992).*

5. Tuesday 23 January: Why did the nationalist movement divide along ethnic lines in post-war Nigeria?

        (i) Nationalism
         J. Ajayi, J. and A. Ekoko, "Transfer of power in Nigeria: its
        origins and consequences", in Gifford, P. and Louis, R. (eds.),
        Decolonization and African Independence (1988).
        O. Aluko, "Politics of decolonization in British West Africa,
        1945-60", in J. Ajayi. and M. Crowder, A History of West Africa (1974)
        Vol.2.
        E. Iweriebor, "Radical nationalism in Nigeria: The Zikist movement
        and the struggle for liberation, 1945-1950", Ph. D. thesis, Columbia
        University, 1990.
        O. Nnoli, Ethnic Politics in Nigeria (1978), chs. 2-5*
        G.O. Olusanya, The Second World War and Politics in Nigeria,
        1939-1953 (1973), chs. 4-7. 
        G.O. Olusanya,"The Zikist movement: a study in political
        radicalism", JMAS, 4, 3, 1966 
        Olusanya, G.O.," "The role of ex-servicemen in Nigerian politics",
        JMAS, 6, 2, 1965 
        W. Oyemakinde, "The Nigerian general strike of 1945", JHSN, 7, 4,
        1975.
        W. Oyemakinde, W., "Michael Imoudu and the emergence of militant
        trade unionism in Nigeria, 1940-42", JHSN, 7, 3, 1974. 
        R. Pearce, "Governors, nationalism and constitutions in Nigeria,
        1935-51", JICH, 9, 3, 1981 

        (ii) Schism:
        O. Ogban-Iyam, "Nigerian nationalism: crises of ideas and
        strategies"  in Olisa and Ikejiani-Clark, Azikiwe and the African
        Revolution (1989)        
        L. Plotnicov, "An early Nigerian civil disturbance: the 1945
        Hausa-Ibo riot", JMAS, 9, 2, 1971 
        Ken Post, "Nationalism and politics in Nigeria: A Marxist
        approach", Nigerian Journal of Economic and Social Studies, 6, 2, 1964.
        Ken Post, "The contribution of tribalism to nationalism in
        Western Nigeria", R. Melson and H. Wolpe (eds.), Nigeria: Modernization
        and the Politics of Communalism (1971) 
        F. Salamone, "Playing at nationalism: Nigeria, a nation of
        'ringers'", Genve-Afrique 30, 1993.                   
        Richard Sklar, R., Nigerian Political Parties (1963), ch.2-3.*
        Robert Tignor, "Political corruption in Nigeria before
        independence", JMAS 31, 2, 1993.
        U. Uba, "NCNC and Nigerian realities", in Olisa and
        Ikejiani-Clark, Azikiwe and The African Revolution (1989)                
        Vaughan, O., "Decolonisation and legitimation in Nigeria", in T.
        Ranger and O. Vaughan (eds.) Legitimacy and the State in Twentieth-Century
        Africa (1993).                                         

6. Thursday 25 January: What was the relationship between class and ethnicity in the events leading to the outbreak of the Nigerian Civil War?

        J. Adekson, "Ethnicity and army recruitment in colonial plural
        societies", ERS, 2, 2 April 1979.@
        Henry Bienen, Political Conflict and Economic Change in Nigeria
        (1985), ch.3.
        L. Dare, "The 1964 elections and the collapse of the First
        Republic", in Nigeria Since Independence Vol V: Politics and
        Constitutions.
        Larry Diamond, Class, Ethnicity and Democracy in Nigeria (1988)*
        , "Class, ethnicity and the democratic state: Nigeria,
        1950-1966", CSSH 25, 3, 1983.* 
        Billy Dudley, Instability and Political Order (1973).
        , "Western Nigeria and the Nigerian Crisis", K.
        Panter-Brick (ed.) Nigerian Politics and Military Rule (1970)   
        A. Ebigbola, "Politics and population enumeration in Nigeria,
        1960-73", Odu, 21, Jan/July 1981.
        Eme Ekekwe, Class and State in Nigeria (1986)
        Ruth First, Barrel of a Gun (1970), ch.5.*
        W. Graf, The Nigerian State (1988), ch. 2.*
        U. Himmelstrand, "Tribalism, regionalism, nationalism and
        secession in Nigeria", in S. Eisenstadt and S. Rokkan, Building States and
        Nations Volume 2 
        A.H.M. Kirk-Greene, "Hereditas damnosa: ethnic ranking and the
        martial races imperative in Africa", ERS, 3, 4, 1980.@.
        Robin Luckham, The Nigerian Military (1971), esp. chs. 1, 2, 3, 7,
        8, 11, 13*
        N.J. Miners, The Nigerian Army: 1956-66 (1971)
        E. Nafziger, The Economics of Political Instability (1983), chs.
        1-4 
        O. Nnoli, Ethnic Politics in Nigeria (1978), chs. 2-5.*
        U. Okpu, "The politics of state creation and the outbreak of the
        Nigerian Civil War", Transafrican Journal of History, 11, 1982.
        J. O'Connell, "The fragility of stability: the fall of the
        Nigerian Federal Government, 1966", in R. Rotberg and A. Mazrui (eds.)
        Protest and Power in Black Africa (1970). 
        S. Osoba, "The Nigerian power elite", in P. Gutkind and P.
        Waterman, African Social Studies (1977) 
        K. Post and M. Vickers, Structure and Conflict in Nigeria
        (1973).*
        R. Sandbrook and R. Cohen, R., The Development of an African
        Working Class (1975), chs. by Lubeck, Peace.@ 
        S. Schatz, Nigerian Capitalism (1977), ch.8
        Gavin Williams,  State and Society in Nigeria (1980), ch.3  
        "Nigeria", in J. Dunn, West African States (1978) 

Memoirs/biography:

        Ademoyega, A., Why We Struck (1981)
        Gbulie, B., Nigeria's Five Majors: Coup d'Etat of 1966 (1981)
        Mainasara, A., The Five Majors: Why They Struck (1982).
        Muffett, J., Let Truth Be Told: The Coups d'Etats of 1966 (1982) 
        Obasanjo, O, Nzeogwu  (1987)

7. Tuesday 30 January: Screening of programme on Biafran secession

8. Thursday 1 February: What lessons have Nigerian writers and historians extracted from the Civil War?

        Literature: 
        Chinua Achebe, Girls At War and Other Stories (1972).
        Cyprian Ekwensi, Divided We Stand (1980).
        Buchi Emecheta, Destination Biafra (date?)
        C. Ike, Sunset at Dawn (1976).
        Eddie Iroh, Forty-Eight Guns for the General (1976).
        Isidore Okpewho, I., The Last Duty (1976).
        Ken Saro-Wiwa, K., Sozaboy: A Novel in Rotten English (1985).*
        C. McLuckie, Nigerian Civil War Literature (1990).
        Akinjide Osuntokun, "Review of literature on the Civil War", in T.
        Tamuno and S. Ukpabi, Nigeria Since Independence Volume VI: The Civil War
        Years (1989). 

Memoirs:

        D.A. Ejoor, Reminiscences (1990)
        A. Madiebo, The Nigerian Revolution and the Biafran War (1980)
        H. Njoku, A Tragedy Without Heroes (1987).
        B. Odogwu, No Place to Hide (1985)
        J. Oluleye, Military Leadership in Nigeria, 1966-1979 (1985),
        chs.1-11. 
        O. Obasanjo, My Command (1980) 
        Ben Gbulie, The Fall of Biafra (1989)
        O. Ojukwu, Biafra: Random Thoughts of C. Odumegwu Ojukwu
        Ken Saro-Wiwa, K., On A Darkling Plain (1989).* 

History:

        Herbert Ekwe-Ekwe, The Biafra War (1990).
        A.H.M. Kirk-Greene, Crisis and Conflict in Nigeria: A Documentary
        Sourcebook (1971), Volume 1 and 2.
        John Njoku, The Igbos of Nigeria (1990), ch. 8.
        J de St. Jorre, , The Nigerian Civil War (1972).
        S. Orabator, "The Biafran crisis and the Midwest", AA, 86, 334,
        July 1987.
        Stremlau, J., The International Politics of the Nigerian Civil War
        (1977) 
        T. Tamuno and S. Ukpabi, Nigeria Since Independence Volume VI: The
        Civil War Years (1989).
        Uwechue, R., Reflections on the Nigerian Civil War (1969).

9. Tuesday 6 February: In what ways has oil intensified regional and social conflict in Nigeria since 1970?

        Karin Barber, "Popular reactions to the petro-Naira", JMAS 20, 3,
        1982.
        B. Beckman, "Neocolonialism, capitalism and the state in Nigeria",
        in H. Bernstein and and B. Campbell (eds.), Contradictions of Accumulation
        in Africa (1985).
        Henry Bienen, Political Conflict and Economic Change in Nigeria
        (1985), ch.2-4.
        Tom Forrest, "State capital, capitalist developmentand class
        formation in Nigeria", in Paul Lubeck (ed.) The African Bourgeoisie
        (1987).
                 Politics and Economic Development in Nigeria (1993).
        M. Hiskett, "The Maitatsine riots in Kano, 1980: an assessment",
        Journal of Religion in Africa 17, 1983.
        Richard Joseph, Democracy and Prebendal Politics in Nigeria
        (1987). M.H. Kukah, Religion, Politics and Power in Northern Nigeria
        (1993).
        Paul Lubeck, "Islamic protest under semi-industrial capitalism:
        'Yan Tatsine explained", Africa 5, 4, 1985.*
        Otwin Marenin, "The Anini saga: armed robbery and the reproduction
        of idelogy in Nigeria", JMAS 25, 2, 1987.
        Shehu Othman, "Nigeria: power for profit - class, corporatism, ,
        and factionalism in the military", in D. Cruise O'Brien, John Dunn and
        Richard Rathbone (eds.), Contemporary West African States (1989).
        Douglas Rimmer, "Elements of the political economy", in Keith
        Panter-Brick, Soldiers and Oil: The Political Transformation of Nigeria
        (1978).
        Ken Saro-Wiwa, Genocide in Nigeria: The Ogoni Tragedy (1992) [on
        order, see me].
        S. Schatz, "Pirate capitalism and the inert economy of Nigeria",
        JMAS 22, 1, 1984.
        Terisa Turner, "Commercial capitalism and the 1975 coup", in Keith
        Panter-Brick, Soldiers and Oil: The Political Transformation of Nigeria
        (1978).
        Gavin Williams and Terisa Turner, "Nigeria", in John Dunn (ed.)
        West African States (1978).

10. Thursday 8 February: Is it meaningful to explain the Ethiopian revolutionin terms of its social origins?

        Negussay Ayele, "The Ethiopian revolution: political aspects of
        the transition from PMAC to PDRE", in Marina Ottaway (ed.), The Political
        Economy of Ethiopia (1990).
        Randi Balsvik, Haile Selassie's Students (1985).
        Christoper Clapham, Transformation and Continuity in Revolutionary
        Ethiopia (1988), chs. 1-3.*
        Haggai Erlich, Ethiopia and the Challenge of Independence (1986),
        ch. 12.
        Fred Halliday and Maxine Molyneux, The Ethiopian Revolution
        (1981).*
        John Harbeson, The Ethiopian Transformation: The Quest for the
        Post-Imperial State (1988).
                "State and social transformation in modern Ethiopia", in
        Marina Ottaway (ed.), The Political Economy of Ethiopia (1990).
        A. Hiwet, From Autocracy to Revolution (1975)
        Edmond Keller, Revolutionary Ethiopia: From Empire to People's
        Republic (1988), especially chs 5-6.*
        Ren Lefort, Ethiopia: An Heretical Revolution?
        John Markakis and Nega Ayele, Class and Revolution in Ethiopia
        (1978).
        Marina and David Ottoway, Ethiopia: Empire in Revolution (1978).
        Gebru Tareke, Ethiopia: Power and Protest (1991), especially
        conclusion and epilogue.
        Amare Tekle, "Continuity and change in Ethiopian politics", in
        Marina Ottaway (ed.), The Political Economy of Ethiopia (1990).
        Andargachew Tiruneh, The Ethiopian Revolution, 1974-1987 (1993)
        [in NLS].

11. Tuesday 13 February: What were the factors that contributed to the strength and ultimate victory of the Eritrean secessionist movement?

        Lionel Cliffe, "Forging a nation: the Eritrean experience", Third
        World Quarterly 2, 4, 1989.
        Lionel Cliffe and Basil Davidson (eds.), The Long Struggle of
        Eritrea for Independence and Constructive Peace (1988) [on order].
        Edmond Keller, "Constitutionalism and the national question in
        Africa: the case of Eritrea", in Marina Ottaway (ed.), The Political
        Economy of Ethiopia (1990).
                , "Drought, war and famine in Ethiopia and Eritrea", JMAS
        30, 4, 1992.
        John Markakis, "The nationalist revolution in Eritrea", JMAS 26,
        1, 1988.
                , National and Class Conflict in the Horn of Africa
        (1990), ch.5.
        Ruth Iyob, "Regional hegemony: domination and resistance in the
        Horn of Africa", JMAS 31, 1, 1993.
                 The Eritrean Struggle for Independence (1995).*
        Roy Pateman, Eritrea: Even the Stones are Burning (1990).
                ,"The Eritrean war", Armed Forces and Society 17, 1, 1990.
        David Pool, "Eritrean independence: the legacy of the Derg and the
        politics of reconstruction", AA 92, 368, 1993.
        J. Sorrenson, "Discourses on Eritrean nationalism and identity",
        JMAS 29, 2, 1991.
        Young, Crawford, "Comparative claims to political sovereignty:
        Biafra, Katanga, Eritrea", in D. Rothchild and V. Olorunsola (eds.), State
        Versus Ethnic Claims (1983).

12. Thursday 15 February: What were the other liberation movements in Ethiopia fighting for and what accounts for the differential levels of success?

        Asafa Jalata, Oromia and Ethiopia (1993), ch5-8.* 
        Paul Baxter, "Ethiopia's unacknowledged problem: the Oromo", AA
        77, 30, 1978.
                , "The creation and constitution of Oromo nationality", in
        K. Fukui and John Markakis (eds.), Ethnicity and Conflict in the Horn of
        Africa (1994).
                "The problem of the Oromo or the problem for the Oromo",
        in I.M. Lewis (ed.) Nationalism and Self-Determination in the Horn of
        Africa (1983) [in NLS].
        Christopher Clapham, "Conclusion: revolution, nationality and the
        Ethiopian state", in Marina Ottaway (ed.), The Political Economy of
        Ethiopia (1990).
        John Markakis, National and Class Conflict in the Horn of Africa
        (1990), ch.9.
        Gebru Tereke, "Continuity and change in peasant mobilization: the
        cases of Bale and Tigray", in Marina Ottaway (ed.), The Political Economy
        of Ethiopia (1990).

13. Tuesday 20 February: Did the coming to power of the National Party in 1948 represent the triumph of nationalist ideology over class interests?

        H. Adam and H. Giliomee, Ethnic Power Mobilized (1979).*
        A. du Toit. "No chosen people: the myth of the Calvinist origins
        of Afrikaner nationalism and racia ideology", American Historical Review
        88, 4, 1983.
        Saul Dubow, "Afrikaner nationalism, apartheid and the
        conceptualization of race" JAH 33, 1992.*
                "Ethnic euphemisis and racial echoes", JSAS 20, 3, 1994.
        J. Kinghorn, "Social cosmology, religion and Afrikaner identity",
        JSAS 20, 3, 1974.
        Hermann Giliomee and Lawrence Schlemmer (eds.), From Apartheid to
        Nation-Building (1989), ch. 2.
        C. Marx, "The Ossewabrandwag as a mass movement, 1939-1941", JSAS
        20, 2, 1994.
        Dan O'Meara, "The Afrikaner Broederbond, 1927-1948: class vanguard
        of Afrikaner nationalism", JSAS 3, 2, 1977.
                , "White trade unionism, political power and Afrikaner
        nationalism", in Eddie Webster (ed.) Essays in Southern African Labour
        History (1978).
                 Volkskapitalisme: Class, Capital and Ideology in the
        Development of Afrikaner nationalism, 1934-1948 (1983).*
        T. Dunbar Moodie, The Rise of Afrikanerdom (1975).
        Leonard Thompson, The Political Mythology of Apartheid (1985).(@)
        David Welsh, "The political economy of Afrikaner nationalism", in
        Adrian Leftwich (ed.), South Africa: Economic Growth and Political Change
        (1974).

14. Thursday 22 February: In the race-class debate about the origins and trajectory of apartheid who has ultimately been proved right?

        Heribert Adam, Modernizing Racial Domination (1971), chs. 2-3.
        A. Ashforth, The Politics of Official Discourse in
        Twentieth-Century South Africa (1990).
        Philip Bonner, Peter Delius and Deborah Posel, "The shaping of
        apartheid: contradiction and Popular Struggle", in Philip Bonner, Peter
        Delius and Deborah Posel (eds.), Apartheid's Genesis, 1935-1962 (1993).*
        Nancy Clark, "The limits of industrialization under apartheid", in
        Philip Bonner, Peter Delius and Deborah Posel (eds.), Apartheid's Genesis,
        1935-1962 (1993).
        Robin Cohen, Endgame in South Africa?: The Changing Structures and
        Ideology of Apartheid (1986).*
        Saul Dubow, "Ethnic euphemisis and racial echoes", JSAS 20, 3,
        1994.
        S. Gelb, "South Africa's economic crisis: an overview", in Stephen
        Gelb (ed.) South Africa's Economic Crisis (1991).
        Herman Giliomee, "The non-racial franchise and Afrikaner and
        coloured identities, 1910-1994", AA 94, 375, 1995.
        Hermann Giliomee and Lawrence Schlemmer (eds.), From Apartheid to
        Nation-Building (1989), chs. 1-4.
        John Lazar, "Verwoerd versus the 'visionaries': the South Africasn
        Bureau of Racial Affairs (SABRA) and apartheid, 1948-1961", in Philip
        Bonner, Peter Delius and Deborah Posel (eds.), Apartheid's Genesis,
        1935-1962 (1993).
        M. Legassick, "Legislation, ideology and eonomy in post-1948 South
        Africa", JSAS 1, 1, 1972.*
        Merle Lipton, Capitalism and Apartheid (1986).
        P. Maylam, "The rise and fall of urban apartheid in South Africa",
        AA 89, 334, 1990.
        T. Moll, "Did the South African economy 'fail'?" JSAS 17, 2, 1991.
        M. Morris, "State, capital and growth: the political economy of
        the national question", in Stephen Gelb (ed.) South Africa's Economic
        Crisis (1991).
        Nicoli Nattrass, "Controversies about capitalism and apartheid in
        South Africa: an economic perspective", JSAS 17, 4, 1991.
                "Economic aspects of the constrution of apartheid", in
        Philip Bonner, Peter Delius and Deborah Posel (eds.), Apartheid's Genesis,
        1935-1962 (1993).
        Deborah Posel, :"Rethinking the race-class debate in South African
        historiograpyh", Social Dynamics 9, 1983.*
                 The Making of Apartheid, 1948-1961: Conflict and
        Compromise (1991).*
        Robert Price, The Apartheid State in Crisis (1991), ch. 1, 2.
        C. Saunders, The Making of the South African Past (1988).
        Harold Wolpe, "Capitalism and cheap labour power: from segregation
        to apartheid", Economy and Society 1, 4, 1974.* (also in William Beinart
        and Saul Dubow (eds.) Segregation and Apartheid in Twentieth-Century South
        Africa(1995))
                Race, Class and the Apartheid State (1988).*

15. Tuesday 27 February: Why was the ideological contest between the Africanists and the Charterists in South Africa ultimately won by the latter?

        R. Davies, D. O'Meara and S. Dlamini (eds)., The Struggle for
        South Africa (1984), ch.6.
        N. Diseko, "The origins and development of the South African
        Students' Movement (SASM), 1968-1976", JSAS 18, 1, 1992.
        D. Everatt. "Alliance politics of a spevial kind: the roots of the
        ANC/SACP alliance, 1950-1954", JSAS 18, 1, 1992.
        Gail Gerhart, Black Power in South Africa (1978).
        D. Hirschmann, "The Black Consciousness movement in South Africa",
        JMAS 28, 1, 1990.
        Baruch Hirson, Year of Fire, Year of Ash, chs. 3-6, 15, 16.
        Joshua N. Lazerson, Against the Tide: Whites in the Struggle
        Against Apartheid (1994).
        Tom Lodge and Bill Nasson, All, Here and Now (1991), , parts
        I-III.
        Anthony Marx, Lessons of Struggle (1992), ch. 2-3.
        Francis Meli, South Africa Belongs to Us: A History of the ANC
        (1988).
        K. Moodley, "The continuing impact of the Black Consciousness
        movement in South Africa", JMAS 29, 2, 1991.
        Martin Murray, South Africa: Time of Agony, Time of Destiny
        (1987), ch.4.*
        Bill Nasson, "Opposition movements and ideology in the Western
        Cape", in Glenn Moss and Ingrid Obery (eds.) South Africa Contemporary
        Analysis (1990).
        No Sizwe, One Azania, One Nation: The National Question in South
        Africa (1979).*
        N. Barney Pityana et al, Bounds of Possibility: The Legacy of
        Steve Biko and Black Consciousness (1991).*
        Paul Rich, "Reviewing the origins of the Freedom Charter", in
        Norman Etherington (ed.) Peace, Politics and Violence in the New South
        Africa (1992).
        M. Van Diepen, The National Question in South Africa (1988).

16. Thursday 29 February: In what ways, and with how much success, has Inkatha sought to exploit the symbols of Zulu sub-nationalism?

        Heribert Adam, "Political violence, 'tribalism' and Inkatha", JMAS
        30, 3, 1992.
        C. Campbell, "Evidence for an ethnic identity in the life
        histories of Zulu-speaking Durban township residents", JSAS 21, 2, 1995.
        Daphna Golan, Inventing Shaka (1994) - on order.
        J.D. Brewer, "The membership of Inkatha in KwaMashu", AA 84, 1985.
                , After Soweto (1986), ch.6.
        N.L. Cope, "The Zulu petit bourgeoisie and Zulu nationalism in the
        1920s: oprigins of Inkatha", JSAS 16, 3, 1990.
                , To Bind the Nation: Solomon kaDinuzulu and Zulu
        Nationalism, 1913-1933 (1993).@
        C.A. Hamilton, "An appetite for the past: the re-creation of Shaka
        and the crisis in popular historical consciousness", SAHJ 22, 1990.
        Gerhard Mar, Ethnicity and Politics in South Africa (1993).
        G. Mar and G. Hamilton, An Appetite for Power: Buthelezi's Inkatha
        and South Africa (1987).*
        Gerhard Mar and Muntu Ncube, "Inkatha: marching from Natal to
        Pretoria", in Glenn Moss and Ingrid Obery (eds.) South Africa Contemporary
        Analysis (1990).
        Mzala, Gatsha Buthelezi: Chief with a Double Agenda (1988).*
        Shula Marks, "The origins of ethnic violence in South Africa", in
        Norman Etherington (ed.) Peace, Politics and Violence in the New South
        Africa (1992).
        James Shuttleworth, "Sons of Shaka or sons of umslopogaas?", in
        Norman Etherington (ed.) Peace, Politics and Violence in the New South
        Africa (1992).
        R. Southall, "Buthelezi, Inkatha and the politics of compromise",
        AA 80, 1981.

17. Tuesday 5 March: Was the role of organized labour ultimately more important in the defeat of apartheid than that of the liberation movements?

        Glen Adler, Judy Maller and Eddie Webster, "Unions, direct action
        and transition in South Africa", in Norman Etherington (ed.) Peace,
        Politics and Violence in the New South Africa (1992).
        Jeremy Baskin, Striking Back: A History of Cosatu (1991) - in NLS
        Alan Fine and Eddie Webster, "Transcending traditions: trade
        unions and political unity", in Glenn Moss and Ingrid Obery (eds.) South
        Africa Contemporary Analysis (1990).
        Robert Fine and Dennis Davis, Beyond Apartheid(1990).
        Gerald Kraak, Breaking the Chains: Labour in South Africa in the
        1970s and 1980s (1993).
        Peter Limb, "The ANC and black workers", in Norman Etherington
        (ed.) Peace, Politics and Violence in the New South Africa (1992).
        Anthony Marx, Lessons of Struggle (1992), ch.5-6.*
        Martin Murray, The Revolution Deferred (1994), especially ch.7.*
                , South Africa: Time of Agony, Time of Destiny (1987),
        ch.3.*
        Robert Price, The Apartheid State in Crisis (1991).*
        Thompson, Leonard, A History of South Africa (1990), ch.7.

18. Thursday 7 March: Is the political instability of contemporary Africa a direct consequence of the illegitimate boundaries inherited from the colonial era?

        Tim Allen, "Ethnicity and tribalism on the Sudan-Uganda border",
        in K. Fukui and John Markakis (eds.), Ethnicity and Conflict in the Horn
        of Africa (1994).
        A.I. Asiwaju: "Borderlands in Africa:  A Comparative Research
        Perspective With Particular Reference to Western Europe", in Paul Nugent
        and A.I. Asiwaju (eds.) African Boundaries: Barriers, Conduits and
        Opportunities (1996) - on order, see me.
        Christopher Clapham, "Boundary and territory in the Horn", in Paul
        Nugent and A.I. Asiwaju (eds.) African Boundaries: Barriers, Conduits and
        Opportunities (1996) - on order, see me.
        Martin Doornbos, "Pasture and polis: the roots of political
        marginalization of Somali pastoralism", in John Markakis (ed.), Conflict        
        and the Decline of Pastoralism in the Horn of Africa (1993).
        Ieuan Griffiths: "Permeable Boundaries in Africa", in Paul Nugent
        and A.I. Asiwaju (eds.) African Boundaries: Barriers, Conduits and
        Opportunities (1996) - on order, see me.
        Wendy James, "War and 'ethnic invisibility': the Uduk of the
        Sudan-Ethiopia border", in K. Fukui and John Markakis (eds.), Ethnicity
        and Conflict in the Horn of Africa (1994).
        David Laitin, "The Ogadeen question and changes in Somali
        identity", in D. Rothchild and V. Olorunsola (eds.), State Versus Ethnic
        Claims (1983). 
        John Markakis, "Ethnic conflict and the state in the Horn of
        Africa", in K. Fukui and John Markakis (eds.), Ethnicity and Conflict in
        the Horn of Africa (1994).
        William Miles, Hausaland Divided (1994).*
        Paul Nugent and A.I. Asiwaju, (eds.) African Boundaries: Barriers,
        Conduits and Opportunities (1996)  introduction and conclusion - on order,
        see me.
        Paul Richards: "Rain Forests, Diamonds and War: The Sierra Leone
        Boundary Wilderness", in Paul Nugent and A.I. Asiwaju (eds.) African
        Boundaries: Barriers, Conduits and Opportunities (1996) - on order, see
        me.
        Young, Crawford, "Comparative claims to political sovereignty:
        Biafra, Katanga, Eritrea", in D. Rothchild and V. Olorunsola (eds.), State
        Versus Ethnic Claims (1983).
        "Self-determination, territorial integrity and the
        African state system", in F. Deng and I.W. Zartman (eds.) Conflict
        Resolution in Africa (1991).

Abbreviations:

AA      - African Affairs
ASR     - African Studies Review 
CJAS    - Canadian Journal of African Studies
CSSH    - Comparative Studies in Society and History 
ERS     - Ethnic and Racial Studies
IJAHS - International Journal of African Historical Studies JAH - Journal of African History
JAAS - Journal of African and Asian Studies JDS - Journal of Development Studies JHSN - Journal of the Historical Society of Nigeria JICH - Journal of Imperial and Commonwealth History JMAS - Journal of Modern African Studies JSAS - Journal of Southern African Studies JPS - Journal of Peasant Studies NLR - New Left Review ROAPE - Review of African Political Economy


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