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Swazi Culture: An Annotated Bibliography

compiled by Paiki Muswazi* and Rose Magagula**

* Special Collections Librarian, University of Swaziland Libraries, P.Bag 4, Kwaluseni, M201, Swaziland. E-Mail: paiki@uniswacc.uniswa.sz or pmuswazi@yahoo.com

** Cataloguer, University of Swaziland Libraries, P. Bag 4, Kwaluseni, M201, Swaziland. E- Mail: rosef@uniswacc.uniswa.sz or rmagagula@hotmail.com

[Web edited by Kenneth Wilburn; hard copy format adapted to facilitate online reading.]


Historically, Africa has experienced social, political, economic and cultural upheavals. The effects of colonialism and increased interaction between different African communities themselves have been profound, with far reaching implications on the cultural cohesion of the constituent nations. Following the attainment of independence and increasing globalization, African nations struggle to retain their original cultural identities. However, numerous commentators have singled out the unique experiences of Swaziland, especially the resilience with which the originality of its culture has survived and co - existed with alien cultural influences. Nyekos(1) 1982 observation that Swaziland has tended to retain and cherish many of its pre-European traditions is a recurring comment in many works and fora.

Understandably, Swazi culture has attracted scholarly attention resulting in considerable documentation. In addition, attempts at identifying and compiling a bibliographic record relating to this documentation have also been made. Nyeko(2), Jiyane(3), Swaziland Official Publications 1880 1972(4), Swaziland National Bibliography(5), and University of Swaziland Social Science Research Unit Accessions Bulletin(6) represent the most significant efforts in this regard. However, Nyekos pioneering annotated bibliography excludes official publications; Jiyanes work does not cover books; and Swaziland Official Publications is limited to only official publications. Overall, the foregoing bibliographies are not specific to Swazi culture. Instead they cover a broad universe of subjects, including cultural records. Specialised bibliographies like those by Ngcobo(7) and the Swaziland Economic Planning Office(8) are specific to women and socio-economic development, respectively. It is apparent that though Swazi culture is recognised for its extraordinary resilience, a fitting specialised compilation of a corresponding bibliography, for current awareness and posterity purposes, is lacking.

The idea behind this exercise is to collate and consolidate existing bibliographic records with other sources, to provide a special annotated Swazi culture bibliography. Logically, the starting point is to adopt the UNESCO - sponsored definition which states that Culture is the whole complex of distinctive spiritual, material, intellectual and emotional features that characterise a society or social group. It includes not only arts and letters, but also modes of life, the fundamental rights of the human being, value systems, traditions, and beliefs.(9) This is reinforced in the Swaziland national culture policy which states that Swaziland has always valued her customs, history and traditions since her founding in the eighteenth century. By word of mouth and manner of behaviour, what is naturally Swazi has been preserved and passed through generations, - thanks to the elderly people who are regarded by Swazi society as custodians of culture, oral history and traditions.(10) In these respects, the bibliography covers Swazi culture, customs and traditions from various standpoints, including social, political, legal, linguistic, literary, artistic, scientific and educational.

The bulk of the data for this bibliography comes from published bibliographies on Swaziland and materials at the University of Swaziland Libraries (UNISWA), Swaziland National Archives Library (SNA), Swaziland National Museum Library (SNM), and consultations with custodians of Swazi culture, mainly the elderly. Included are materials in all formats, monographs, articles, theses, reports, audio visual materials, government documents, microforms, etc, covering culture elements, namely, folktales, language and literature, dance, traditions, ceremonies, rites, art, morals, law, customs, marriage (lobola), social institutions and norms, mourning, song (praise songs), ancestors, beliefs, etc. It is noted that the current Codification of Swazi Law and Custom Project which seeks to document and codify Swazi law, custom and legal terminology and maxims will contribute significantly to existing resources. Like most African nations, Swazi society is largely oral. Therefore, this bibliography is only indicative of those elements of Swazi culture that are documented to date.

Artists, anthropologists, linguists, historians, indigenous knowledge management researchers, sociologists, Africana information specialists and many other Africanists interested in Swazi society should find this bibliography handy.


A few observations arising from this exercise relate to:

The need to standardise terms in cases where orthography is not clear, for example, Ncwala/incwala/inqwala, SiSwati/siSwati/Swazi/Siswati/Swati, lobolo/lobola, kungena/ukungena, etc.

Culture is a recurring subject in the daily newspapers of Swaziland, namely, The Times of Swaziland and The Swazi Observer and the video recordings of the Swaziland Outside Broadcasting Unit. These should be consulted where there may be a need for supplementary information.

Where there are scanty formal publications, authoritative graduate theses make up for the lacunae in most cases.

SiSwati and English novels, though not annotated, capture the stories of the life and times of the Swazis in a fictional way and they have been listed to retain the completeness of culture.

SiSwati is not only restricted to Swaziland. A considerable number of SiSwati speakers are also found in surrounding South Africa and this has resulted in a sizeable volume of culture materials from the later. Some of this material is included in this publication, reaffirming the long recognized cultural affinities between Swaziland and South Africa.

That this collection includes works by Swazis and non-Swazis published in and outside Swaziland is in itself symbolic of the influence of external cultures and in many respects therefore, a mirror of the pressures on and the consequent but slow changes taking place in Swazi culture itself.

The conclusion of the current work of the Commission on Swazi Law and Custom holds potential for enriching the resources relating to Swazi culture.

Arrangement and Format

Description of entries is in accordance with Anglo-American Cataloguing Rules, second edition. The bibliography is arranged by the Dewey Decimal Classification Scheme.



MOTSAPI, Ike. "The miracle healer of Swaziland" / by Ike Motsapi. - IN: Bona. - (Feb. 1991), pp.38-41.

Describes the spiritual and supernatural powers of a Swazi miracle healer and her accomplishments.

Christian denominations & sects

ARMITAGE, Fiona Louise. Abakamoya = People of the Spirit: a study of the Zionist movement in Swaziland with special reference to the Swazi Christian Church in Zion of South Africa and the Nazarethe branch / Fiona Louise Armitage. - Aberdeen: University of Aberdeen, 1976. 427 p.

Explains the nature of the integrating and adaptive role the Zionist Church plays for a large number of Swazis by providing a structural framework within which people can achieve spiritual fulfillment in a new political, social and economic environment without breaking with the tradition.

ARMITAGE, Fiona. "Functions of the Zionist movement in Swaziland" / Fiona Armitage. - [Kwaluseni: University of Botswana, Lesotho and Swaziland, 1973], 36 p.; paper presented at Botswana History Workshop, 1973.

Examines the multi-functional and adaptive role of the Zionist movement in Swaziland. Looks at provisions of meaning, values and cohesion in the lives of the people, its educative role and the effective compromise in its practice between old and new ways of life.

Christian moral & devotional theology

LOVELL, Deborah M. Bereavement reactions of female Scots and Swazis: a preliminary comparison / Deborah M. Lovell, Graham Hemmings and Andrew B. Hill. - IN: British journal of medical psychology. - 66 (1993), pp. 259-274.

Describes the main characteristics of bereavement customs, associated rituals and ceremonies in Swazi culture.

Christian social & ecclesiastical theology

"The SWAZI reaction to missions" / Hilda Kuper. - IN: African studies. - Vol. 5, no. 3 (1946), pp. 177-188.

Examines the cooperation between missionaries and colonial administration and the relationship of missions with the royal family and chiefs. Discusses the conversion of the masses, the establishment of separatist churches and the attitude of missionaries towards magicians.

Comparative religions & other religions

BYARUHANGAAKIIKI, A.B.T. et al. Religion in Swaziland: Papers / compiled by A B T ByaruhangaAkiiki ... [et al.]. - Kwaluseni: University of Botswana, Lesotho and Swaziland (UBLS), 1975, 234 p. - (BLS ; v. 1); includes bibliographical references.

Analyses aspects of Swazi traditional religion and culture, including the supernatural, ancestors, royal funerals, and rituals.

KASENENE, Peter. Religion in Swaziland / Peter Kasenene. - Braamfontein, South Africa: Skotaville, c1993. iii, 160 p.; includes bibliographical references and index; ISBN 0947479872

Includes discussion of mythology, divine beings, mystical power, taboos, ancestors, evil spirits, rites of passage, national rituals, magic rituals, blessing and cursing and sacred places.

KASENENE, Peter. Swazi traditional religion and society / Peter Kasanene. - Mbabane: Websters, 1993. v, 149 p; includes bibliographical references; ISBN 0797804552.

Discusses culture, ancestors, sacred places, objects and animals, taboos, witchcraft and mystical powers.

NDLOVU, Hebron Luhlanya. "The Royal Easter ritual and political actions in Swaziland" / by Hebron Luhlanya Ndlovu. - xv, 323 leaves; Thesis (Ph.D.)McMaster University, 1993. Includes bibliographical references. Discusses the meaning and role of the royal Easter ritual in post-colonial Swaziland. Argues that the ritual is an invented tradition.

Social sciences

ALLEN, Carole Jeannine. "Dimensions of Swazi households in urban and rural areas" / Carole Jeannine Allen. - xxii, 619 leaves, Thesis (Ph.D.) University of Massachusetts, 1973; includes bibliographical references.

Explains the changes that have taken place in the Swazi household concept, making reference to marriages, lobolo customs, polygyny, inheritance, etc.

ARMSTRONG, Alice Kavanaugh. A situation analysis of women in Swaziland / Alice Armstrong, Margo Russel. - Kwaluseni: University of Swaziland, Social Science Research Unit, 1985, 105 p.; funded by United Nations Children's Fund; includes bibliographical references.

Analyses the socio-economic situation of women making reference to traditional practices and changes thereto.

BOWEN, Paul N. A Longing for land: tradition and change in a Swazi agricultural community / Paul N. Bowen. - Aldershot: Avebury, 1993, viii, 248 p.; includes bibliographical references and index; ISBN 1-85628-398-4

Documents and explains the unintended results of a major development scheme (Ntimane Irrigation Scheme). Researched and written from the perspective of social anthropology, this case study describes processes of socio-cultural change which go beyond often unquestioned issues of class and class differentiation. Discusses involvement in intense political activity in local affairs, in which customary institutions are continually supported, while striving to achieve the long term goal of accumulating agricultural land. Discusses similarities apparent between the manner in which some people support tradition and the way in which the Swazi State has evolved over the last 20 years.

FERRARO, Gary P. "Changing marriage patterns and conjugal roles among the Swazi: an analysis and policy implications / Gary P. Ferraro. - Kwaluseni: University College of Swaziland," Dept. of Sociology, [198?], 73 p.; includes bibliographical references.

A proposal to collect, analyze and synthesize implications from existing data on types of marriage contracted, the degree of involvement of families, choice of spouse, attitudes towards participation in lobola and polygamy, division of labor between spouses, and alternative marital forms.

GININDZA, Thoko. "The traditional role of the Swazi woman" / Thoko Ginindza. - IN: Swazi women: sociocultural considerations, March - May 1989: final report / prepared by Thoko Ginindza. - [S.l.]: Labat-Anderson, [1989], pp. 14-17.

Examines the traditional role of the Swazi woman and pinpoints the basis of her power in decision making and resource allocation at the homestead level. Highlights womens importance in ancestral rituals and succession.

HERBST, D. Tegniese skeppinge van die Swazi in KaNgwane / D. Herbst. - Pretoria: Raad vir Geestewetenskaplike Navorsing, 1985, xvi, 271 leaves: illus, Afrikaans; includes bibliographical references.

Among other things, describes objects used during recreation, the performance of magic and religious rites, and hut construction.

HLANZE, Zakhe. "Beyond inequalities: women in Swaziland" / written by Zakhe Hlanze and Lolo Mkhabela. - Harare: Women and Law in Southern Africa, 1998, 64 p.: ill, map. - (Women in development. Southern Africa awareness); includes bibliographical references; ISBN 0797417583

Discusses gender mainstreaming in development processes making reference to kinship and culture.

"HOMELAND of the Swazi". - IN: BaNtu. (Apr. 1960), pp. 240-248.

Pictorial depiction of Swazi life covering homestead structures, women household duties, traditional attire, village social life, and warrior dance.

HUGHES, A.J.B. Land tenure, land rights and land communities on Swazi nation land in Swaziland: a discussion of some inter-relationships between the traditional tenure system and problems of agrarian development / A.J.B. Hughes. - Durban : University of Natal, 1972, 351 p. - (Institute for Social Research monograph ; no. 7).

Examines various features of the traditional Swazi system of land tenure and the customary rules and regulations whereby rights to use land are acquired. Also discusses ways in which the tenure system could inhibit agrarian development.

KASENENE, Peter. "Swazi civil religion: a preliminary discussion" / Peter Kasenene. - Kwaluseni: University of Swaziland, 1987, 26 p., Seminar paper presented to the Faculty of Humanities.

Examines the beliefs and values which form the collective conscience of the Swazi and constitutes their civil religion.

KEREGERO, K.J.B. "Perceived contribution of cultural activities towards the socialization of secondary and high school students in Swaziland" / K.J.B. Keregero and P.S. Mdluli. - IN: UNISWA research journal. - Vol. 13 (Dec. 1999), pp. 29-37.

Survey examining the perceptions of culture teachers regarding the contribution of cultural activities towards the socialization of students. Encourages introduction and maintenance of cultural activities in the curriculum.

KUPER, Hilda. An African aristocracy: rank among the Swazi / Hilda Kuper. - London: Oxford University Press, [1961], xii, 251 p.: ill, map; inludes bibliographical references.

Describes Swazi culture from the rank viewpoint, covering ritualization of the King, kinship, lobolo, incwala, clans,etc. Includes praises of Sobhuza II.

KUPER, Hilda. "Kinship among the Swazi" / by Hilda Kuper. - IN: African systems of kinship and marriage / edited by A.R. Radcliffe-Brown and Daryll Forde. - London: Oxford University Press, 1964, pp. 86-110.

Describes Swazi modes of behavior with special reference to kinship covering clan taboos and rituals; the significance of lobola as a foundation of the family unit; and the basic sets of behavior patterns in the immediate family - between the spouses, parents and children, and siblings; paternal and maternal kinsmen; relations with/between parents-in-law and sisters- and brothers-in-law; and rank and kinship.

KUPER, Hilda. The Swazi: a South African kingdom / Hilda Kuper. - New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, c1963, vi, 87 p.: illus., map. - (Case studies in cultural anthropology); includes bibliographical references.

Describes the Swazi way of life covering religion, magic, sorcery, and ceremonies. Also discusses the impact of Western industrialization on traditional Swazi society.

LULE, Elizabeth L. "Marriage and marital fertility in Swaziland" / Elizabeth L. Lule & E. L. Huppert. - Kwaluseni: University of Swaziland, Department of Statistics, 1986., 53 p.

Examines the marriage patterns existing in rural Swaziland and the relationship between marriage and fertility.

McKEE, Richard L. "PSI related beliefs among the rural people of Swaziland" / by Richard L. McKee. - IN: Parapsychology review. - (May-Jun. 1982), pp.11-16.

Describes Swazi traditional beliefs relating to clairvoyance, psychometry, precognition and spirit mediumship. Notes the Kings role in rites and ceremonies like the Incwala, significance of ancestral guiding spirits, and social role of the various types of traditional diviners/healers. Notes the coexistence of an externally influenced culture with strong Swazi traditional beliefs.

MACMILLAN, Hugh. "Administrators, anthropologists and traditionalistsin colonial Swaziland: the case of the amabhacafines" / Hugh Macmillan. - IN: Africa. - Vol. 65, no. 4 (1995), pp. 545-564, includes bibliographical references.

On the basis of the Swazi custom relating to the control within the age grade or regimental system of the age at marriage of men, the article explains why social anthropologists of the 1930s were ill equipped to distinguish between real and invented traditions or old and revived customs. Describes the history of the custom.

MALAN, J. S. Swazi culture / J.S. Malan. - Pretoria: Africa Institute of South Africa, 1985, ii, 74 p., illus. - (Communications of the Africa Institute; 44), includes bibliographical references, ISBN 0798300922.

Portrays a contemporary image of Swazi culture, taking into account modern changes.

MARWICK, Brian Allan. "Abantu ba kwa Ngwane: an ethnological account of the natives of the Swazi protectorate" / by Brian Allan Marwick. - x, 502 leaves, illus., thesis (M.A.), University of Zululand, 1934.

Covers aspects of Swazi culture, including polygamy, kinship, clan, lobolo, ceremonial life, ancestor worship, magic and witchcraft, and the technology of arts and crafts.

MARWICK, Brian Allan. The Swazi: an ethnographic account of the natives of the Swaziland Protectorate / Brian Allan Marwick. New impression. - London: Frank Cass & Co., 1966, xvii, 320 p., illus., includes bibliographical references and index.

Discusses various aspects of Swazi culture including kinship, polygamy, clans, mythology, dance, art, games, ceremonies and rituals, incwala, lobolo, magic and witchcraft, ancestor worship and rain making.

MAVUSO, Andreas. "Adulterated culture: wherewith our customary traditions" / Andreas Mavuso. - IN: The Nation. - (Mar.1999), pp. 18-19.

Explains factors accounting for the gradual weakening of Swazi customs and traditions. Notes the role of the monarchy in the regular observation of Swazi royal traditions such as the incwala, umhlanga reed dance, umquasho, butimba royal hunt, lusekwane, etc.

MOTSA, Lucky. "What culture is not!" / Lucky Motsa. - IN: The Nation. - (Mar. 2001), p. 40.

Discusses impact of foreign cultures and electronic media on Swazi language and clothing.

NXUMALO, Anderson M. "Indigenous education among the Swazi" / Anderson M. Nxumalo. - IN: Swaziland Institute for Educational Research (SIER) bulletin. - No. 13 (Nov. 1993), pp. 101-109.

Highlights the role of education in the cultural evolution of Swaziland. Shows that: information on Swazi indigenous methods of child rearing is handed down from generation to generation through practice and orally; the objective of Swazi indigenous education is to mould individual behaviour; and the education content includes respect and appropriate symbolic and verbal mannerisms. Recommends documentation of Swazi oral traditions and indigenous vegetation.

NXUMALO, Sishayi Simon. Our Swazi way of life / by Sishayi Simon Nxumalo. - Mbabane: Swaziland Printing & Publishing Co. [printers], [1976], [36] p., illus., ISBN 0-7978-0181-2.

Outlines some aspects of life in Swazi society covering relationships and procedures encountered at each stage of the development of the individual - from birth through marriage to the grave. Discusses inter alia, religion, customary behaviour, courtship, sacred songs, Swazi bride, dowry, and divorce. Also describes manners as well as notes on social changes.

NXUMALO, Sishayi Simon. Our way of life / by Sishayi Simon Nxumalo. - Mbabane: Swaziland Printing & Publishing Co. [printers], [19?], 23 p., illus. [may be another edition of the preceding entry]

Outlines some aspects of life in Swazi society covering relationships and procedures encountered at each stage of the development of the individual - from birth through marriage to the grave. Also describes manners and customary behaviour as well as notes on social changes.

NYEKO, Balam. "The Development of the study of culture in Swaziland, South-Eastern Africa: a historical survey" / Balam Nyeko.- [Lusaka: University of Zambia, Dept. of History, 1980], 13 p. Paper presented at Eastern Africa History Conference on Language and Culture in Eastern Africa, 17th - 20th Sept., 1980, Lusaka, Zambia, includes bibliographical references.

Surveys the existing works dealing with the question of change in Swaziland and attempts to evaluate the salient features of the major works.

SHERWOOD, E.T. "Swazi personality and the assimilation of Western culture" [microform] / E.T. Sherwood, 409 p., illus., Thesis (Ph.D.) -- University of Chicago, 1961, includes bibliographical references.

Analyses the influence of Western culture on Swazi society.

SIBISI, Harriet. "Traditional securities and response to moderneconomic opportunities" / Harriet Sibisi. - Mbabane: Ministry of Agriculture and Cooperatives, 1980, 14 p. - (Paper; no. 3).

Examines the nature of the interrelation of the participation in traditional rural Swazi life and the modern sector.Concludes that in Swaziland modernity and tradition are not opposed but on the contrary are complementary to each other.

"The SWAZI." - IN: Abantu: an introduction to the black people of South Africa / Martin West. - 1st ed. - Cape Town: C. Struik Publishers, 1976, pp. 57-76.

Describes Swazi customs, rituals and dress and the related meanings. Comments on the impact of external cultures.

"SWAZI culture and the child." - [S.l.: s.n., n.d.], 5 p, [A paper presented at a Symposium on the position of the Swazi child in the traditional culture].

Examines the life of a boy and girl child from birth to adulthood within the context of family in a typical traditional Swazi setting. Discusses processes involved as the child is brought up and parentsexpectations from the child as s/he becomes an adult.

"WOMEN of Swaziland ... or the legend of the queens." - IN: Pace. - (Nov. 1980), pp. 66-68.

Describes the significance of polygamy, arranged marriages and the patriarchal monarchy in Swazi life.

Political science

AFRICAN kingships in perspective: political change and modernization in monarchical settings / edited by Rene Lemarchand. - London: Frank Cass, 1977, xiv, 325 p., includes bibliographical references and index, ISBN 0-7146-3027-6.

Deals comparatively and analytically with the dynamics of change in monarchical settings. Aims to examine the variant responses of African kingships with their traditional political structures to the challenges of modernity and political centralization and to assess their successes and failures in the face of rapid social change. The analysis is based on eight case studies, including Swaziland.

DLUKULA, Gilroy. "The Vanishing power of the Swazi monarchy" / by Gilroy Dlukula ; photography by Ronni Kweyi. - IN: Pace (Nov. 1983), pp. 18-23.

Documents how politicians and some princes (Liqoqo - the Supreme Council of State) attempted to usurp or whittle away the powers of the Swazi monarch after the demise of King Sobhuza II.

MACMILLAN, Hugh. "Swaziland: decolonization and triumph of tradition" / Hugh Macmillan. - IN: Journal of modern African studies. - Vol. 23, no. 4 (1985), pp. 643-666.

Traces the roots of Swazi traditionalismin an attempt to explain the nature of the post- colonial state in Swaziland.


HARRISON, David. "Tradition, modernity and tourism in Swaziland" / David Harrison. - IN: Tourism and the less developed countries / edited by David Harrison. - Chichester: John Wiley and Sons, 1992, pp. 148-162.

Critical analysis of the originality of Swazi culture and traditions in the context of the modernizing influence of tourism.

HUGHES, A.J.B. "Reflections on traditional and individual land tenure in Swaziland." - IN: Journal of local administration overseas. - Vol 3, no. 1 (1964), pp. 3 - 13.

A shortened and slightly amended version of "Some Swazi views on land tenure." - IN: Africa. - Vol. 32, no. 3 (1962)

A study based on essays written by Swazi students on the main differences between traditional land rights and individual land tenure. [see next]

HUGHES, A.J.B. "Some Swazi views on land tenure" / A.J.B. Hughes. - IN: Africa. - Vol. 32, no. 3 (1962), pp. 45 - 75.

Discusses a number of essays written by Swazi students on the main differences between traditional land rights and individual land tenure. The disadvantages of individual tenure are dealt with in some detail. The students showed a clear conflict between two loyalties: loyalty to the traditional Swazi system of land tenure and loyalty to the progressive urge of the present generation.


ADINKRAH, K.O. "We shall take our case to the King: legitimacy and tradition in the administration of law in Swaziland" / K.O. Adinkrah. - IN: Comparative and international law journal of Southern Africa. - xxiv (1991), pp. 226-239.

Observes the survival and resilience of indigenous institutions in the face of the imposition of Western norms and institutions. Describes the co-existence of Western courts applying the general law and customary courts applying folk law or customary laws. Comments on the significance of the Incwala and Umhlanga ceremonies.

ARMSTRONG, Alice. "Traditionalism and access to health care: law relevant to womens health in Swaziland" / Alice Armstrong. - IN: Women and law in Southern Africa / edited by Alice Armstrong and Welshman Ncube. - Harare: Zimbabwe Publishing House, 1987, pp. 221-236.

Notes Swazilands strong sense of identity and the nearly intact traditional culture, and the ongoing clash of cultures and influences on health care.

BOOTH, Alan R. "European courts protect women and witches: colonial law courts as redistributors of power in Swaziland, 1920-1950" / Alan R. Booth. - IN: Journal of Southern African studies. - Vol. 18, no. 2 (Jun. 1992), pp. 253-275.

Analyses the erosion of the traditional power of healers, diviners and chiefs due to the perceptions of British colonial administrators who treated their practice as witchcraft.

CHURCH, Joan. "The Dichotomy of marriage by customary and by civil rights: a note on a recent Swaziland decision" / Joan Church. - IN: The Comparative and international law journal of South Africa. - Vol. 11, no. 1 (1978), pp. 80 - 82.

Examines the Dladla versus Dlamini case, which involved the considerations of the court regarding the effect of marriage by civil rights upon a subsisting customary union.

FAMILY in transition: the experience of Swaziland / Women and Law in Southern Africa Research Trust. - Manzini: Ruswanda Publishing Bureau, 1998, xi, 240 p.: illus, includes bibliographical references, ISBN 0797813357.

Discusses the family including the significance of lobola and womens rights to land under customary/communal tenure.

FANNIN, J.M.A. Preliminary notes on principles of Swazi customary law / by J.M.A. Fannin. - Lozitha: [s.n.], 1967, 133 leaves.

Discusses the family system, marriage, lobolo, ukusisa and succession.

INHERITANCE in Swaziland: the law and practice. - Mbabane: Women and Law in Southern Africa Trust (WLSA), 1994, xi, 127 p., includes bibliographical references, ISBN 0797805711

Discusses inheritance including the role of Swazi law and custom, Swazi courts, kungenwa, mourning and the influence of witchcraft and death ceremonies.

KHOZA, A.R.V. "Swazi law and custom" / A. R. V. Khoza. - IN: Justice. - Vol. 11, no. 5 (1975), pp. 179-183. - A speech delivered at the Malkerns Womens Institute on May 15, 1973.

Discusses Swazi customs in relationship to marriage, regimental systems, religion and urbanization.

KHUMALO, J.A.M. "Swazi customary law courts: a supplement to civil practice and procedure in all Bantu courts in Southern Africa" / J.A.M. Khumalo. - Cape Town: Juta & Co., [19?], 14 p., includes index, ISBN 0-7021-0724-7.

Describes Swazi traditional law and the court structure.

NHLAPO, R.T. "Law versus culture: ownership of freehold land in Swaziland / Thandabantu Nhlapo." - IN: Women and law in Southern Africa / edited by Alice Armstrong and Welshman Ncube. - Harare: Zimbabwe Publishing House, 1987, pp. 35-55.

Analyses womens property rights under Swazi law and custom. Argues that due to modernization, the conditions which made it rational to keep women from attaining full legal equality have all but disappeared.

NHLAPO, R.T "Legal duality and multiple judicial organization in Swaziland / R.T. Nhlapo." - IN: All-Africa law conference: the individual under African law, 1st -11th October 1981, Swaziland, pp. 66-77.

Discusses the conflicts inherent in dual legal system comprising the general law and the customary law. Notes the special position accorded to matters of succession, the regimental system and the Incwala ceremony in the dual system.

NHLAPO, R. T. Marriage and divorce in Swazi law and custom / R. T. Nhlapo. - Mbabane: Websters, c. 1992, xxvi, 113 p., includes bibliographical references, ISBN 07978394-7.

Discusses marriage and divorce covering the role of culture, libovu, lobolo and witchcraft in divorce.

"A PROGRESS report on the recording of Swazi law and custom." - IN: Swaziland. Constitutional Review Commission. Final report on the submissions and progress report on the project for the recording and codification of Swazi law and custom. - [Nkhanini: The Commission], 2001, pp. 129-139.

Describes the project and its organization. Gives an overview of the characteristics of Swazi law and custom, and indigenous Swazi public and private law.

RUBIN, N.N. "The Swazi law of succession: a restatement" / by N.N. Rubin. - IN: Journal of African law. - Vol. 9, no. 2 (1965), pp. 90-113.

Describes the patrilineal nature of inheritance in Swazi customary law including decisions on who is the heir, succession (ukungena), the distributable estate, burial (emadliseni), period of mourning, etc.

SANDERS, A.J.G.M. "Legal dualism in Lesotho, Botswana and Swaziland" / by A.J.G.M. Sanders. - IN: Speculum juris (1984), pp. 1-15.

Describes the main features of indigenous law and factors accounting for its survival.

"SYMPOSIUM on Civil Rites Marriage, Swazi Law and Custom Marriage, Administration of Estates and Swazi Administration" (1989: Matsapha Prison Training College, Matsapha, Swaziland).

"Consequences of the civil rites marriage: a paper presented at ... 26th -28th June 1989" / by B.P. Wanda - 55 leaves, includes bibliographical references.

Discusses civil rites marriages in the context of Swazi law and custom.

WHELPTON, F.P. van R. "Swazi law and custom in the Kingdom of Swaziland" / F.P. van R. Whelpton. - IN: South African journal of ethnology. - Vol. 20, no. 3 (1997), pp. 145-151.

Deals with Swazi law and custom in the legal system of Swaziland. Shows that the underlying aims and consequences thereof are not necessarily incompatible with contemporary fundamental rights. Concludes by discussing reform measures.

"WITCHCRAFT in Swaziland." - IN: Nature. - (Apr. 27, 1940), p. 664.

Notes (i) the difficulties experienced by the British judiciary in trying witchcraft cases arising from Swaziland; and (ii) the strength of Swazi belief in witchcraft.

WOMEN and Law in Southern Africa Research and Educational Trust - Charting the maze: women in pursuit of justice in Swaziland / by Women and Law in Southern Africa Research and Educational Trust. - Mbabane: Women and Law in Southern Africa Research Trust, 2000, 220 p., includes bibliographical references, ISBN 0797815775.

Discusses womens legal status, including the influence of custom, tradition, Swazi law and custom and customary law courts.

WOMEN and the law: report of proceedings from two seminars held in Swaziland, January and June, 1983 / edited by Ronald Thandabantu Nhlapo. - Kwaluseni: University of Swaziland, Dept. of Law; Manzini: Family Life Association of Swaziland, 1983, 93 p.

Proceedings of two seminars in which the rights, entitlements and position of women under Swazi law were discussed. The papers presented covered the traditional and common law aspects of marriage law, the question of women in employment, issues of property law and women and health. The establishment of a womens bureau was discussed at the end of the 2nd seminar.

Public administration

BEEMER, Hilda. "The Development of the military organization in Swaziland (concluded)" / Hilda Beemer. - IN: Africa. - Vol. 10 (1937), pp. 176 - 204.

Examines the role and activities of Libutfo (Regiment) in war and as a labour battalion. The author describes the changes in the functions of Libutfo due to European influence.

LEVIN, Richard. "Swaziland's tinkhundla and the myth of Swazi tradition" / Richard Levin. - IN: Journal of contemporary African studies. - Vol. 10, no. 2 (1991), pp. 1-23.

Highlights King Sobhuza IIs role in the evolution of Swazi traditions. Argues that: propagation of tradition has been central to the maintenance of royal hegemony especially in the sphere of land allocation and control, including the portrayal of the Swazi way of lifeas superior to western lifestyle and practices; and, the tinkhundla local government structure is an attempt to transform flexible custom into dogmatic practice.

SWAZILAND. Ministry of Home Affairs, "Swaziland national culture policy: final draft" / Ministry of Home Affairs. - Mbabane: Ministry of Home Affairs, 1992, 40 leaves.

Cover title outlines Swaziland's culture policy aspirations.

SWAZILAND National Trust Commission, "Annual report" / Swaziland National Trust Commission.- Mbabane: The Commission, 1985, v, annual.

Describes progress in the identification and protection of rock paintings and monuments.

Customs, etiquette, folklore

AKELEY, Mary L. Jobe. "The Swazi Queen at home: intimate observations on love, life and death in South Africa's timeless Swaziland" / by Mary L. Jobe Akeley. - IN: Natural history. - (Jun. 1938), pp. 21-32.

Illustrated account of Swazi social life including observations on the incwasho ceremony, which is a ritual preparatory for adult life and marriage, hair dressing, cattle as a form of wealth, polygamy, rain making rites and identification of the wicked.

ASTUTI, Rita. "Ritual, history and the Swazi ncwala: sacred kingship and the origin of the state" / by Rita Astuti. - IN: Africa. - Vol. 43 (1988), pp. 603-619.

A discussion of the incwala and of Swazi royal ritual and symbolism as a case of sacred kingship.

ASTUTI, Rita. A Woman is more than a goat: bridewealth exchange and the value of women in Swaziland / Rita Astuti. - Siena, Italy: University of Siena, 1984, 352 p., in Italian with an English summary.

Provides an overview of the social and kinship structures in Swaziland. Some of the most important features of Swazi society are outlined. The stages of marriage in Swazi society are analyzed and a model for the exchange system is proposed that it includes women as well as all other exchangeable goods.

BEEMER, Hilda. "The Swazi rain ceremony (critical comments on P.J. Schoeman's article)" / by Hilda Beemer. - IN: Bantu studies. - Vol. 9 (1935), pp. 273-280.

Critical comment on Schoemans article in which the author points out some of the most important inaccuracies. The comment is written after consultation with the Indlovukazi (Queen Mother) and signed by King Sobhuza II.

BEIDELMAN, T.O. "Swazi royal ritual" / T.O. Beidelman. - IN: Africa. - Vol. 38 (1966), pp. 373-405.

An analysis of Swazi cosmology, basic concepts and values behind the main royal rites and how they relate to kingship and society. Discusses Swazi symbolism in detail.

BREAM, Noel. "Does this creature exist?" / by Noel Bream. - IN: Pace. - (Feb. 1992), pp. 44-47.

Describes a traditional belief in a supernatural creature, half-man, half-fish, living in the Ngwempisi River and its ravages on the local population, especially women.

BREAM, Noel. "It's legal - a woman can marry another woman" / Noel Bream. - IN: Pace. - (Apr. 1992), pp. 109-110.

Explores the rationale behind the provision allowing a woman to marry another woman under Swazi traditional law and culture.

CARTER, Gwendolen M. "The incwala festival in Swaziland" / by Gwendolen M. Carter and Phyllis A. Gardner. - IN: Geographical magazine. - Vol. 30, no. 7 (1957), pp. 263-272.

Describes the Incwala traditional ceremony.

COOK, P.A.W. "The inqwala ceremony of the Swazis" / P.A.W. Cook. - IN: Bantu studies. - Vol. 4 (1930), pp. 205 - 210.

Explores the historical origins of the Incwala Ceremony, its preparation, proceedings and various stages beginning from the pilgrimage undertaken by kings men to the sea until the time when bones of the black bull and pumpkin remains are burnt.

"CULTURAL essence." - IN: Dzadze: Swazilands first women's magazine. - Vol. 1, no. 2 (Ju./Jul. 1987), pp. 28-29.

Images of Swazi womens traditional preoccupations depicting such chores as water fetching, removal of the husk from the grain, basket weaving and the makhoyane Swazi string musical instrument.

DERMAN, P.J. "Stock and aristocracy: the political implications of Swazi marriage" / P.J. Derman. - IN: African studies. - Vol. 36, no. 2 (1977), pp. 119-129.

An analysis of how marriage is employed as a mechanism for controlling the distribution of wealth, and for maintaining the hierarchy of rank and status.

DLAMINI, G.D. Bekukhona: tinsimi, imidlalo, tiphicaphicwano, netisho letigcogcwe = Once upon a time: a collection of SiSwati folktales, games, riddles, poetry and prose / by G.D. Dlamini and G. Garb. - Manzini: Macmillan Boleswa, 1989, vi, 130 p., ISBN 0 7978 0415 4

A collection of SiSwati folktales, proverbs, poems, games, riddles and prose.

DLAMINI, Hamilton Mfuna. "A royal wedding" / by Hamilton Mfuna Dlamini. - IN: Pace. - (Sep. 1992), pp. 38-39.

An illustrated account of the wedding ceremony between King Sobhuza II's daughter, Princess Ngobile to Swaziland television producer, Oscar Nkosinathi Mabusela.

DLAMINI, Peter. "The King is dead - long live the King" / Peter Dlamini. - IN: Hit. - (Oct. 1982), pp. 8-11.

Describes the death of King Sobhuza II, his legacy and his secret burial in accordance with ancient Swazi customs.

DUMBRELL, H.J.E. "Pyre burning in Swaziland / H.J.E. Dumbrell. - IN: African studies. - Vol. 11, no. 4 (Dec. 1952), pp. 190-191.

Describes the old tradition of burning the dead especially among the Maseko people of Swaziland.

ENGELBRECHT, J.A. "Swazi customs relating to marriage" / J.A. Engelbrecht. - IN: Annals of the University of Stellenbosch. - Vol. 8, no. 6/2 (1930), pp. 1-27.

An analysis of prohibited and approved marriages, dissolution of marriages, lobola, marriage ceremony, childbirth, etc.

GARB, Gill. "Kingship and ritual" / by Gill Garb. - IN: Africa now. - (Sep. 1981), pp. 14-15.

Describes the traditional status of the king and mystical characteristics of kingship, including the incwala ceremony.

GININDZA, Thoko. "SiSwati traditional dress and costumes" / Thoko Ginindza. - IN: Swaziland National Centre yearbook. - (1974), pp. 16-31.

Illustrated discussion of SiSwati traditional dress covering loin skins (emajobo), brightly coloured clothes (emahiya), sidvwashi, umhelwane, kuhloba (finery), incwala costume, anklets, arm finery, head dress, umchele (the coronet), etc.

GREEN, Edward C. "Traditional healers, mothers and childhood diarrheal disease in Swaziland: the interface of anthropology and health education" / Edward C. Green. - IN: Social science medicine. - Vol. 20, no. 3 (1985), pp. 277-285.

A study on traditional beliefs, attitudes and practices related to childhood diarrheal diseases in the context of Swazi culture. After a description of research methods, a general description of Swazi health beliefs is presented followed by a detailed look at the three traditionally recognized forms of childhood diarrhea. Next is a discussion of factors that relate to a mothers decision as to where to take her sick child for treatment. Recommendations for health education approaches are made.

HAMMOND, Sharon. "Land of myths, mist and magic" / Sharon Hammond. - The Nation. - (Feb. 2000), p. 22.

Describes the incwala ceremony, lobola, umhlanga and kingship.

HERBST, D. "Settlement pattern and dwelling constructions of the Swazi in KaNgwane = Kraaluitleg en woningvorme by die Swazi in KaNgwane" / D. Herbst. - IN: South African journal of ethnology. - Vol. 8, no. 3 (Sep. 1985), pp. 109-119.

Describes a typical Swazi settlement/dwelling, including method of construction. Notes Western influences and recommends preservation of original settlement pattern through a Swazi open-air museum. Article is in Afrikaans, with an English synopsis.

"INCWALA." - IN: Dzadze: Swazilands first womens magazine. - Vol. 1, no. 1 (Feb./Mar. 1987), p. 17.

Illustrated account of Incwala activities and significance to national life.

KAMERA, W. D. "Tinganekwane teSiswati: Siswati folktales" / W.D. Kamera, E.C.L. Kunene and E.S. Sibanda. - IN: University of Swaziland Research Board report series, No. 2, (Sept. 1998), pp. 71-92.

Includes bibliographical references and appendices. Describes a project to collect, transcribe and transliterate Swazi tinganekwane (folktales), and the 16 categories making up the collection.

KAMERA, William D. "Trickster heroines in Swazi folktales" / William D. Kamera. - IN: Voices: a journal for oral studies. - Vol. 2 (1999), pp. 48-63.

Discusses the deeper meanings of trickery in Swazi folktales, including the role of women as principal actors in the verbal drama of storytelling.

KHUMALO, Joe. "Swazi reed dance" / by Joe Khumalo. - IN: Pace. - (Nov. 1987), [6] p.

Description of reed dance and its importance.

KNAPPERT, Jan. Myths and legends of Botswana, Lesotho and Swaziland / by Jan Knappert. - Leiden: E.J. Brill, 1985, [x], 254 p., illus. - (Religious texts translation series: 14), ISBN 90 04 074554.

Includes description of a fair selection of Swazi tales, sagas, moral tales, fables religion, and myths.

KOCKAERT, Hendrik. "Swazi folktales and the French connection" / Hendrik Kockaert. - IN: Voices: a journal for oral studies. - Vol. 2 (1999), pp. 64-77.

Explores the similarities between orally transmitted siSwati animal tales and French XVIIth century animal tales written by Jean de la Fontaine (1621-1695).

KRUGER, Tony. "The Myth of African classlessness: classes in pre-colonial Swaziland" / Tony Kruger. - IN: Africa perspective (1976), pp. 38 - 45.

Historically analyses the social structure and the existence of classes in pre- colonial Swaziland. Concludes that the tie between cattle, women and wealth is the basis on which class exploitation in Swaziland rests.

KUPER, Adam. "Symbolic dimensions of the Southern Bantu homestead" / Adam Kuper. - IN: Africa. - Vol. 50, no. 1 (1980), pp. 8-23.

Analyses arrangement of womens quarters around the cattle-byre; homestead structures, the sibaya (cattle-byre), indlunkulu (great hut), and lilawu (bachelors quarters); dimensions and physical arrangement; plans; and symbolic importance of homestead layout.

KUPER, Adam. "Rank and preferential marriage in Southern Africa: the Swazi" / Adam Kuper. - IN: Man. - Vol. 13 (19?), pp. 567-79.

Shows how the Swazi kin-based model of alternating asymmetrical marriage alliance is linked to the developmental cycle of the homestead and to the broader tendency to hypogamy.

KUPER, Adam. "The Swazi marrying up" / Adam Kuper. - IN: Wives for cattle: bridewealth and marriage in Southern Africa / Adam Kuper. - London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1982, pp. 94-107.

Discusses the kinship system of the Swazis especially the lobolo bridewealth system. Focuses on the politics and the formal analysis of marriage rules, descent categories, rank and marriage rules, marriage prohibitions and preferences, marrying up and choosing the heir, and, the queen mother.

KUPER, Hilda. "Costume and cosmology: the animal symbolism of the ncwala" / Hilda Kuper. - IN: Man. - Vol. 8, no. 4 (1973), pp. 612-630.

Discusses and interprets the animal symbolism of costumes worn on the main day of the ncwala ritual. Describes the ncwala costume and the meaning of the animals used in the costumes. Extracts dominant themes which order Swazi animal symbolism. Notes that Swazi cosmology comprises not only animals, but plants, water and fire, directions, and the general topography (forests, mountains, rivers and the oceans).

KUPER, Hilda. "Costume and identity" / Hilda Kuper. - IN: Comparative studies in society and history: an international quarterly. - Vol. 15, no. 3 (Jun. 1973), pp. 348-367.

Discusses the rules governing dress, uniform and costume to demonstrate status and identity at different levels and at different times among Swazis.

KUPER, Hilda. "Incwala in Swaziland: celebration of growth and kingship" / Hilda Kuper. - IN: African arts. - Vol. 1, no. 3 (1968), pp. 54-59.

Analyses dance and song in Swazi culture, including the significance of the Incwala ceremony.

KUPER, Hilda. "The marriage of a Swazi Princess" / Hilda Kuper. - IN: Africa: journal of the International Institute of African Languages and Culture. - Vol. 15 (1945), pp. 145-155.

Describes the marriage of Princess Bahashule to Chief Nkonjane Matse, including preparations for the departure of the bridal party, the fictional hostility, the marriage ritual, incorporation of the bride into the grooms family, etc.

KUPER, Hilda. "A ritual of kingship among the Swazi" / Hilda Kuper. - IN: Africa. - Vol. 14, no. 15 (Jan. 1944), pp. 230-255.

A detailed analysis of the dominant incwala national ceremony from the angle of social stratification.

KUPER, Hilda. "A royal ritual in a changing political context" / Hilda Kuper. - IN: Catriers Detudes Africanes. - Vol. 12, no. 48 (1972), pp. 593-614.

Examines how and why the ncwala ritual persisted and served as a resource of political leadership from the precolonial period to independence.

LEIBBRANDT, V.S. Notes on tradition and religion in Swaziland / by V. S. Leibbrandt. - Nhlangano: V. S. Leibbrandt, 1972, 85 p.

Discusses traditional and religious beliefs and practices in Swaziland.

LINCOLN, Bruce. "Ritual, rebellion, resistance: once more the Swazi incwala" / Bruce Lincoln. - IN: Man. - Vol. 22, no. 1 (1987), pp. 132-156.

Discusses the incwala ritual and how it served as an instrument of resistance to British domination.

MABASO, N.P. Sicelankhobe = Evening star / N.P. Mabaso. - 1st ed. - Isando: Prima Books, 1992, 73 p. - (SiSwati folklore), ISBN 1 874860 02 5.

Collection of SiSwati proverbs, folktales, poems and surnames.

MAHARAJ, Chester. "Happy birthday Swaziland" / by Chester Maharaj. - IN: Drum. - (Nov. 1978), pp. 8-11.

Illustrated description of the traditional celebrations marking the tenth anniversary of independence.

MAMBA, Glory M. "Group identity in Swazi oral poetry" / by Glory N. Mamba. - IN: Oral traditions in Southern Africa, volume II: aesthetics, language and literature / compiled and edited by Steven P.C. Moyo, Tobias W.C. Sumaili and James A. Moody. - Lusaka: University of Zambia, Division for Culture Research, Institute for African Studies, 1986, pp. 183-212.

Analysis of the value of Swazi oral poetry in terms of the cultural practices reflected in the subject matter and also in terms of the richness of the language used. Includes a selection of praise poems.

MAMBA, Glory N. "The Swazi Imbongi = Royal Oral Poet" / Glory N. Mamba. - Kwaluseni: University of Swaziland, 1983, 16 p.

Paper presented at Annual Conference on African Literature Association, 1983. Examines the activities of an Imbongi (Royal Oral Poet) in Swazi society.

MAMBA, R.S. Luselwa: Mamba incwala, 1993/94 [videorecording] / by R.S. Mamba. - [Kwaluseni: University of Swaziland, 1995], 1 videocassette (ca.. 60 min.): sd., col.

A videocassette recording of the proceedings of the 1993/94 Mamba incwala.

"MARRIAGE: your rights." - IN: The Swazi mirror. - (May/Jun. 1991), pp. 30-31.

Discusses the provisions of customary marriage with respect to marital power, property, divorce and death.

MATTHEWS, Rick. "Swazi reed dance: pictures" / Rick Matthews. - IN: Signature. - (Jul. 1992), pp. 40-47.

Describes the umhlanga or reed dance, noting its significance in Swazi society.

MAVUSO, Mavutsiwe. "A Swazi woman's traditional rites of passage: birth to marriage" / researched and written by Mavutsiwe Mavuso and Susan Duke. - [Mbabane: U.S. Peace Corps, 1981], 15 leaves.

Documents the rites of passage of a girls traditional lifestyle in Swaziland and attempts to provide Peace Corps Volunteers with a better understanding on the Swazi woman within the context of family, community, culture and nation.

MBATHA, Nikiwe Desiree. "The Ambiguities of Swazi marriage" / Nikiwe Desiree Mbatha. - Kwaluseni: University College of Swaziland, Social Science Research Unit (SSRU),1983, 10 p. - (Research paper, no. 5.), includes bibliographical references.

Discusses marriage in the Swazi rural homesteads according to Swazi custom. Illuminates the ambiguity involved in Swazi marriage, pointing out that getting married in a Swazi custom is a long process involving several stages which do not form any defined pattern namely, lobola (payment of bridewealth), kumekeza (weeping of the bride), kugcotshiswa libovu (smearing of the bride with red ochre), kuteka ( a combination of the last two above).

MOTSA-DLADLA, Thulisile. "And still they dance and sing: the significance and meaning of Swazi women's traditional songs" / by Thulisile Motsa-Dladla. - vii, [235] leaves: illus., maps, Thesis (M.A.) Saint Marys University, 1994, includes bibliographical references.

Discusses preservation of Swazi culture in the face of colonialism and capitalism and awakening of women's critical consciousness of their traditional subservient status. Records Swazi rural womens traditional songs to awaken identity and preserve Swazi culture.

MUDEKUNYE, A.E. "Traditional Swazi education for girls and the modern concept of the curriculum" / A.E. Mudekunye. - IN: Swaziland Institute of Educational Research (SIER) bulletin. - No. 2 (1979), pp. 81 - 88.

Examines traditional Swazi education, establishing areas of harmony and areas of divergence with modern education.

NDLELA, B.M.B. Kwesukesukela: tinganekwane, inkholelo, netinchazelo temagama = Once upon a time: a collection of folktales, prohibitions, taboos and language usage / B.M.B. Ndlela, S.M. Magagula. - Manzini: Macmillan BOLESWA, 1994, vii, 70 p. - (Luju lweSiSwati).

A collection of folktales, prohibitions, taboos and language usage.

NGUBANE, Harriet. "The consequences for women of marriage payments in a society with patrilineal descent" / Harriet Ngubane. - IN: Transformations of African marriage / D. Parkin and D. Nyamwayi, eds. - Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1987, pp. 173-182.

Discusses the consequences of the monetisation of lobolo and draws parallels between the Swazi and the Zulu.

NGWENYA, M. Inyoni yemasi / M. Ngwenya. - 1st ed. - Kenwyn: Juta & Co., 1991, 99 p. - (SiSwati folklore), ISBN 0 7021 2585 7.

Collection of SiSwati folktales.

NQUKU, J.J. "Amaqhawe ka Ngwane (AmaSwazi): incwadi yokuqala, ngqa ilotshwe" / ngu J.J. Nquku. - Mariannhill, Natal: Hlathuzane, 1939, 36 p., illus.

Short histories and praises relating to Swazis.

NXUMALO, Mamane. "The Socio-economic dynamics of home-brewing practices in Swaziland: an exploratory study" / Mamane Nxumalo. - Kwaluseni: University of Swaziland, 1982, 21 p.

Examines socio-economic dynamics of home-brewing practices in peri-urban areas of Swaziland. The author looks briefly at the role of traditional home-brewing. Discusses the background of the female brewers, the ingredients used, varieties of home brew as well as the social consequences of home-brewing.

RIPINGA, Selby Simeon. Pedagogical implications of a phenomenological reflection into the life-world of the Swazi child / by Selby Simeon Ripinga. - [Pretoria]: University of South Africa, Dept. of Fundamental Pedagogics, 1976, vii, 160 p., includes bibliographical references.

Reflects the life-world of the Swazi child from the phenomenological perspective in an attempt to understand the child and his/her education.

ROWLEY, Kenneth. "Chakijane Kamnjololo" / Kenneth Rowley. - Mbabane: Webster Print [printers], 1986, 22 p., illus., ISBN 0-7978-0367-X.

Documents Siswati folk tales. These have been translated from Siswati to English, forming a continuous narrative beginning with Chakijanes birth, ending with his/her death.

SARANA, Gopala. "Rituals of rebellion: the Swazi case re-examined" / Gopala Sarana. - IN: Eastern anthropologist. - Vol. 23, no. 3 (1970), pp. 141 - 162; revised version of the paper presented at the 8th International Congress of Anthropological Sciences, Tokyo, September, 1968, includes bibliographical references.

Describes the characteristic social units in Swazi society, the dual monarchy, political authority and the territorial groupings. Also deals with the Incwala ceremony and the author wonders whether or not the Incwala is a ritual of rebellion.

SAVORY, Phyllis. Swazi fireside tales / Phyllis Savory ; illustrated by Jillian Hulme. - Cape Town: Howard Timmins, 1972, 159 p., illus., ISBN 0 86978 041 7.

A selection of 25 folk tales that are central to Swazi culture.

SCHOEMAN, P.J. "The Swazi rain ceremony" / P. J. Schoeman. - IN: Bantu studies. - Vol. 9 (1935), pp. 169-175.

Analyses the rain ceremony, including the role of women, the preparations and what happens either in the case of failure or excessive rains.

SCHOEMAN, P.J. "Volkekundige navorsing onder die Swazis" / deur P.J. Schoeman. - Kaapstad: Nasionale Pers, 1930, 23 p., in Afrikaans.

SHUENYANE, Morakile. "A taste of the old Africa" / Morakile Shuenyane and Ronnie Kweyi. - Pace. - (Nov. 1985), pp. 26-28.

Describes the reed dance at which the 18-year old Crown prince Makhosetive was expected to choose a wife as a prelude to wearing the Kings crown.

SITHEBE, Zodwa. Our way of life / Zodwa Sithebe. - IN: Dzadze. - Vol. 2, no. 3 (Nov./Dec. 1988), p. 15.

Describes Swazi burial and marriage rituals and the negative consequences of modernization.

SOUTHGATE, Vera. Ntjiyo lintjwele / Vera Southgate. - Cape Town: Juta & Co., [19?], 51 p., illus. (some col.). - (Swazi), ISBN 0 7021 2023 5.

A SiSwati folktale.

SOWERBY, Norman. "Here's what happens when a Swazi monarch dies" / Norman Sowerby. - IN: New African (Oct. 1982), pp. 24-25.

Observations on the traditional provisions relating to political succession in respect of the Swazi monarchy.

"STORIES of Swaziland or stories for students about Swaziland long ago" / edited and illustrated by K. R. W. Treanor. - Mbabane: Ministry of Education, 1972, 28 p., illus.

Adapted from entries in the Swaziland traditional short story content in 1971. A narrative of stories of Swaziland long ago.

"A SWAZI national festival: feast of the first fruits and its significance." - IN: African world. - (Dec. 1952), pp. 11-12.

Notes the resilience of Swazi culture and describes the main features of the incwala.

"SWAZI reed dance" [text]. - IN: African ceremonies / Carol Beckwith and Angela Fisher; foreword by Malidoma Patrice Some. New York: Harry N. Abrams, 1999, pp. 196-209.

Defines and notes the social and political significance as well as timing of the reed dance in Swazi society. With vivid illustrations, the activities that mark the ceremony are described.

"SWAZILAND. Education Dept., A Collection of Swazi folk tales and proverbs = Tinsimi tesi Swati kanye netiga" / Education Dept. = Umnyango wemfundo kaNgwane. - Mbabane: Education Dept., 1952, 23 leaves.

Documents folk tales and proverbs denoting Swazi culture and customs.

"SWAZILAND. Education Dept., A collection of Swazi folk tales and proverbs," [microform] / Education Dept. - Pretoria: State Library, 1974, 1 microfiche; 10 x 15 cm. - (Swaziland official publications), ISBN 0-7978-0812-4 (as above).

A selection of folk tales and proverbs.

THOMAS, Viv. "A royal Swazi celebration" / by Viv Thomas. - IN: Bona. - (Jul. 1987), pp. 30-31.

King Mswati III's speech delivered at the first anniversary of his ascension to the throne, reaffirming the need for Africans to regain and maintain their old traditional and cultural virtues and values whilst blending them with acceptable foreign traditions.

"TIBONGO ta Sobhuza II = King Sobhuza II's praise songs." - [S.l.: s.n., 19?], 2 leaves.

Narration of King Sobhuza II's praise songs.

"TIBONGO telibutfo laLindimpi = Lindimpis praise songs." - [S.l.: s.n., 19?], 1 leaf

Narrates praise songs of Lindimpi (name of regiment).

"TRADITIONAL ceremonies." - IN: Swaziland: book 3 / edited by Dave Johnson. - Mbabane: Tourist Office, [19?], pp. 1003-1012.

Comments on traditional ceremonies such as Ncwala, umhlanga, tingoma temabhaca, sibhaca, music and tincomo temadhloti.

TSABEDZE, Besto. "Incwala: Swazi precious rituals and dance" / Besto Tsabedze. - IN: The Nation. - (Dec. 1999 - Jan. 2000), p. 20.

A description of the intricate organization and main features of the incwala ceremony.

TWALA, Regina C. "Beads as regulating the social life of the Zulu and Swazi" / Regina G. Twala. - IN: African studies. - Vol. 10 (Sep. 1951), pp. 113-123.

Discusses the significance of beads in regulating Swazi social life, especially as social sanctions of social codes; as tokens of love between young people. Gives the literature of beads with vocabulary and explains colours and designs.

TWALA, Regina G. "Umhlanga (reed) ceremony of the Swazi maidens" / Regina G. Twala. - IN: African studies. - Vol. 11, no. 3 (Sept. 1952), pp. 93-104.

Highlights the meaning and significance of Umhlanga (Reed Dance Ceremony) among the Swazi. It deals with the organization of women for the cutting of the reed; the march for the ceremony; as well as the ceremony itself as a means of inculcating discipline, character and sex education in the life of Swazi girls.

WENTZEL, Volkmar. "Swaziland tries independence" / Volkmar Wentzel. - IN: National geographic. - Vol. 136, no. 2 (1969), pp. 266-293.

Among other things, examines the cultural situation in Swaziland on the eve of independence.

WENTZEL, Volkmar. "Zulu King weds a Swazi princess" / Volkmar Wentzel. - IN: National geographic. - Vol. 153, no. 1 (1978), pp. 47-61.

Illustrated account of the activities marking the June 1977 wedding of King Goodwill Zwelithini and Princess Mantfombi, including the age-old rituals.


ASIKHUTULISANE: SiSwati grade 4: pupilsreader. - Manzini: Macmillan for the Ministry of Education, 1982, v, 134 p., illus. - (Primary course for Swaziland), ISBN 0-333-34325-5.

A SiSwati grammar book.

ASILUNGELE kufundza: SiSwati grade 1: pupilsworkbook with teacher's notes. - Manzini: Macmillan for the Ministry of Education, 1983, 32 p., illus. - (Primary course for Swaziland), ISBN 0-333-36945-9.

A SiSwati grammar book.

CHAZA ngive = Explain so that I can understand / B. Mbhamali ... [et al.]; bahleli, T.S. Vilakati, E.S. Sibanda. - Manzini: Macmillan, 1997, 124 p. - (Emagabelweni elulwimi), ISBN 0-7978-0544-3.

A SiSwati grammar book.

CONCISE SiSwati dictionary: SiSwati-English/English-SiSwati / compiled by D.K. Rycroft. - 1st ed. - Pretoria: J.L. van Schaik, 1981, xxix, 189 p., ISBN 0 627 01190 X.

A dictionary of standard SiSwati.

DAVEY, Anthony Stephen. "Aspects of the tonology of Siswati" / by Anthony Stephen Davey. - xi, 246 leaves, Thesis (D.Litt et Phil)--University of South Africa, 1981, includes bibliographical references.

Discusses Siswati grammar covering tones, verbal forms, nouns, phonetics and dialects.

DE GUEMAN, Videa P. "Indirect objects in siSwati" / Videa P. De Guzman. - IN: Studies in African linguistics. - Vol. 18, no. 3 (Dec. 1987), pp. 309-325.

Shows the necessity of making a distinction between the direct object and the indirect object relations. The arguments presented refer to word order, object concord and the interaction between object concord and some syntactic phenomena such as passivization,, topicalization, relativization, and clefting.

DLAMINI, A.M. Sibane: SiSwati grade 1: pupilsreader / ibhalwe ngu A.M. Dlamini. - Manzini: Macmillan for the Ministry of Education, 1979, 44 p., illus. - (Primary course for Swaziland).

A SiSwati grammar book.

DLAMINI, G.D. Lwati lweSiSwati = The knowledge of SiSwati / G.D. Dlamini. - 1st ed. - Pietermaritzburg: Shuter & Shooter, 1981, 150 p., ISBN 0 86985 537 9.

SiSwati grammar for junior secondary pupils.

DLAMINI, G.D. Lulwimi lwe SiSwati = The Swazi language / G.D. Dlamini. - 1st ed. - Pietermaritzburg: Shuter & Shooter, 1978, 96 p., ISBN 0 86985 264 7.

A SiSwati language and grammar textbook for Standards 5 to 6.

DLAMINI, J.V. Luhlelo lweSiSwati = SiSwati grammar / J.V. Dlamini. - 1st ed. - Pietermaritzburg: Shuter & Shooter, 1979, 89 p., ISBN 0 86985 431 3.

A SiSwati grammar book for secondary schools.

ENGCONGWANENI: SiSwati grade 7: pupilsreader. - Manzini: Macmillan for the Ministry of Education, 1985, 243 p., illus. - (Primary course for Swaziland), ISBN 0-333-40265-0.

A SiSwati grammar book.

ENGCONGWANENI: SiSwati grade 7: incwadzi yemfundzi. - Revised ed. - Manzini: Macmillan for the Ministry of Education, 1994, vii, 187 p., illus. - (Primary course for Swaziland), ISBN 0-7978-0431-5.

A SiSwati grammar book.

GININDZA, T.T. Kusile / T.T. Ginindza. - London: Longman, 1982, 66 p., illus., ISBN 0-582-61883-5.

A SiSwati grammar.

GININDZA, T.T. Lifa / T.T. Ginindza. - Cape Town: Longman, 1975, 64 p., illus. - (SiSwati sami; 1), ISBN 0-582-61162-8.

A SiSwati grammer.

GININDZA, T.T. Sancoti / T.T. Ginindza. - Cape Town: Longman, 1976, 46 p., illus. - (SiSwati sami; 3), ISBN 0-582-61800-2.

A SiSwati grammar.

INTSABA yesiSwati: SiSwati grade 6: pupilsreader. - Manzini: Macmillan for the Ministry of Education, 1984, 186 p., illus. - (Primary course for Swaziland), ISBN 0-333-38424-5.

A SiSwati grammer.

KAMERA, W.D. "Language and literature skills: a case for Swaziland schools" / W.D. Kamera and G.B. Malambe. - IN: UNISWA research journal. Vol. 7 (Dec. 1993), pp. 1-6.

Demonstrates the impracticability of treating siSwati language and literature as separate subjects of study and advocates integration.

KOCKAERT, Hendrik J. "Comparison of the siSwati, French (English & Portuguese) bases of articulation" / Hendrik J. Kockaert. - IN: UNISWA Research Centre Board report series. - No. 3 (May 2000), pp. 71 - 80.

Analyses the way in which siSwati speakers decode phonological intelligibility into observable phonetic facts and resultant applications in teaching French as a foreign language in Swaziland.

KUNENE, Euphrasia Constantine Lwandle. "The acquisition of SiSwati as a first language: a morphological study with special refrence to noun prefixes, noun classes, and some agreement markers" / Euphrasia Constantine Lwandle, xvi, 360 leaves, Thesis (Ph.D.)--University of California, 1979, includes bibliographical references.

Discusses the acquisition of nouns, locative affixes, subject-verb-agreement markers, possessive-agreement markers and object-verb-agreement.

KUNENE, Euphrasia Constantine Lwandle. "Acquisition of siSwati noun classes" / Euphrasia C.L. Kunene. - IN: South African journal of African languages. - Vol. 6, no.1 (1986), pp. 34-37.

Investigates the strategies children use when learning siSwati as their first language. Discusses how this process relates to other language acquisition data, as well as the implications thereof in comparison to claims made by some linguists.

KUNENE, Euphrasia Constantine Lwandle. "Borrowing and neologism as a means of bridging the gap between foreign concepts/experiences and siSwati terminology in applied branches of knowledge" / E.C.L. Kunene & J.G.B. Sukumane. - IN: Logos. - Vol. 7, no. 2 (1987), pp. 115-125.

Discusses, giving examples, borrowing as a means of generating siSwati lexical items that will bridge the gap between siSwati and foreign concepts. Highlights ways and means of standardizing, disseminating and adopting newly created terminologies as well as the attitudes of the users towards such technical vocabulary.

KUNENE, Euphrasia Constantine Lwandle. Tihlelele SiSwati 1: incwadzi yekucala = Arrange your Siswati well / Euphrasia Constantine Lwandle Kunene. - Mbabane: Foundation Publications, 1981, 214 p., includes bibliographical references, ISBN 0 7978 0362 1.

A SiSwati grammar book.

KUNENE, Euphrasia Constantine Lwandle. Tihlelele SiSwati 1: incwadzi yekucala / ibhalwe ngu E.C.L. Kunene. - [Kwaluseni: University of Swaziland, 1981], [400] leaves. - (UNISWA research publication series; no. 6).

A SiSwati grammar book.

KUNENE, Euphrasia Constantine Lwandle. Tihlelele SiSwati 1: incwadzi yekucala: timphendvulo / ibhalwe ngu E.C.L. Kunene. - [Kwaluseni: University of Swaziland, 1981], 43 p. - (UNISWA research publication series; no.7).

A SiSwati grammar book.

KUNENE, Euphrasia Constantine Lwandle. Tihlelele SiSwati II: incwadzi yesibili / ibhalwe ngu E.C.L. Kunene. - [Kwaluseni: University of Swaziland, 198?], [350] leaves. - (UNISWA research publication series; no.8).

A SiSwati grammar book.

KUSILE: SiSwati grade 2: pupilsreader. - Mbabane: Macmillan for the Ministry of Education, 1980, 63 p., illus. - (Primary course for Swaziland), ISBN 0-333-31092-6.

A SiSwati grammar book.

LUKHELE, Senzenjani. Inala yesiSwati / Senzenjani Lukhele. - London: Longman, 1980, iv, 67 p., ISBN 0 582 61170 9.

A SiSwati grammar book.

MABUZA, E.J. Umlalati: libanga 5 / E.J. Mabuza, S.S. Mahlalela. - Pretoria: Via Afrika Ltd., 1989, 80 p., ISBN 0-7994-1140-X.

A SiSwati grammar book.

MAGAGULA, H.M. Litsala leSiSwati = SiSwati shelf / H.M. Magagula, B. Dlamini. - Manzini: Macmillan, 1994, ii, 54 p. - (Emagabelweni elulwimi), ISBN 0-7978-0413-7.

A SiSwati grammar book.

MALAMBE, Gloria Baby. "Palatalization in the formation of passives in siSwati: an autosegmental analysis" / Gloria Baby Malambe. - IN: UNISWA research journal. - Vol. 13 (Dec. 1999), pp. 53 - 60.

Analyses palatalization in the siSwati language.

MASUKU, N. "A preliminary investigation into the relevance of linguistic theory in a gender- based analysis of womens organization in Swaziland" / N. Masuku. - IN: UNISWA research journal. - Vol. 7 (Dec. 1993), pp. 33 - 45.

Describes the relevance of linguistic theory to a gender-based analysis of womens organisations. Notes that while siSwati is the vehicle for the transmission of Swazi culture it has not kept pace with the demands made on it by development.

MATSEBULA, J.S.M. Insika 2 / J.S.M. Matsebula. - Cape Town: Longman, 1969, 42 p., illus. - (Longman SiSwati series), ISBN 0-582-61237-3.

A SiSwati grammar.

MATSEBULA, J.S.M. Insika 3 / J.S.M. Matsebula. - Cape Town: Longman, 1971, 48 p., illus. - (Longman SiSwati series), ISBN 0-582-61242-X.

A SiSwati grammar.

MATSEBULA, J.S.M. Insika 4 / J.S.M. Matsebula. - Cape Town: Longman, 1972, 47 p., illus. - (Longman SiSwati series), ISBN 0-582-61243-8.

A SiSwati grammar.

MATSEBULA, J.S.M. Insika 5 / J.S.M. Matsebula. - Cape Town: Longman, 1972, 47 p., illus. - (Longman SiSwati series), ISBN 0-582-61239-X.

A SiSwati grammar.

MATSEBULA, J.S.M. Insika 6 / J.S.M. Matsebula. - Cape Town: Longman, 1973, 61 p., illus. - (Longman SiSwati series), ISBN 0-582-61241-1.

A SiSwati grammar.

MATSEBULA, J.S.M. Insika 7 / J.S.M. Matsebula. - Cape Town: Longman, 1974, 61 p., illus. - (Longman SiSwati series), ISBN 0-582-61266-7.

A SiSwati grammar.

MAZIBUKO, T.T. Asifundze: SiSwati grade 1: pupilsreader / ibhalwe ngu T.T. Mazibuko. - New ed. - Mbabane: Macmillan for the Ministry of Education, 1984, 21 p., illus. - (Primary course for Swaziland).

A SiSwati grammar.

MAZIBUKO, T.T. SiSwati setfu: lencwadzi ibhalewe bantfwana belibanga: lesitsatfu (grade III): lasebakwati kufundza nekubhala / ibhalwe ngu T.T. Mazibuko. - Manzini: Ministry of Education, Primary Curriculum Unit, [19?], 63 p., illus.

SiSwati grammar trial materials for primary schools.

MAZIBUKO, T.T. SiSwati setfu: teachers guide / prepared by T. Mazibuko. - Manzini: Ministry of Education, Primary Curriculum Unit, [19?], xii, 63 p., illus., Cover title.

SiSwati grammar trial materials for primary schools.

MKHONZA, S.T. "SiSwati or French: a case for language planning in Swaziland" / S.T. Mkhonza. - IN: UNISWA research journal. - Vol. 3 (Jun. 1990), pp. 22 - 34.

Underscores the cultural significance of siSwati in the school curriculum and recommends that French should not be accorded equal status. Instead, French should be optional.

MORDAUNT, O.G. "English in Swaziland" / O.G. Mordaunt. - IN: Swaziland Institute for Educational Research (SIER) bulletin. - No. 6 (Oct. 1985), pp. 78-85.

Notes that while siSwati and English are official languages in Swaziland, English serves as the vehicle for education and economic development. Traces the history and development of siSwati as a written language and its introduction in school curricula. Observes the role of siSwati in the promotion of cultural identity and nationalism.

MULDER, J.G. "Verbal art in siSwati: final report" / J.G. Mulder. - [S.l.: s.n., 19?], 24 leaves, Unpublished report.

An initial discussion on the grammatical aspects of the verbal art of telling tinsimu in SiSwati.

NGCONGWANE, S.D. Some focus on Swazi / S.D. Ngcongwane. - KwaDlangezwa: University of Zululand, 1987, iii, 39 p., includes bibliographical references, ISBN 0 907995 75 6.

Discusses the use of the reciprocal in SiSwati and includes poems on the death of King Sobhuza II and the coronation of King Mswati III.

NXUMALO, M.V.F. Lulwimi lweSiSwati: indzima 4 / prepared by M.V. F. Nxumalo. - Manzini : Ministry of Education, Primary Curriculum Unit, 1980, 67 p., Cover title.

SiSwati grammar trial materials for primary schools.

RYCROFT, D.K. Essential SiSwati: a phrase-book for Swaziland / D.K. Rycroft. - Pretoria: J.L. van Schaik, 1981, 80 p., ISBN 0 627 01191 8.

Gives essential SiSwati phrases for everyday use and guidance on pronunciation.

RYCROFT, David K. Say it in SiSwati = Shóno n_esíSwati / David K. Rycroft. - 1st ed. - London: University of London, School of Oriental and African Studies, 1976, vii, 233 p., illus., map, includes bibliographical references.

Practical course manual for SiSwati beginners.

RYCROFT, David K. Say it in SiSwati = Shóno n_esíSwati / David K. Rycroft. - 2nd & Rev. ed. - Mbabane: Websters, 1979, vii, 233 p., illus., map, includes bibliographical references, ISBN 0-7978-0255-6.

Practical course manual for SiSwati beginners.

RYCROFT, David K. Say it in SiSwati [sound recording] / David Rycroft. - London : University of London, School of Oriental and African Studies, 1976, 21 sound cassettes (ca. 1260 min.): 3 7/8 x 2 1/2 in., 1/8 in. tape.

A collection of sound cassette recordings of the SiSwati language.

RWEYEMAMU, Novatus. "SiSwati nouns traceable to English nouns" / by Novatus Rweyemamu. - Mbabane: Novatus Rweyemamu, 1987, ii, 9 p.

A compilation of 175 English nouns translated into their respective siSwati nouns which are derived from English.

SIBANDA, Eric Sandile. "Causative, applicative and passive in siSwati: an incorporation approach" / by Eric S. Sibanda. - vi, 78 leaves, Thesis (M.A.)--Ohio University, College of Arts and Sciences, Dept. of Linguistics, 1991, includes bibliographical references.

Analysis and characterization of the causative, applicative and passive morphemes in siSwati.

SIBANDA, E.S. "The ECP and agreement in siSwati" / E.S. Sibanda. - IN: UNISWA research journal. - Vol. 7 (Dec. 1993), pp. 7 - 13.

Explores agreement (pronouns) phenomena in SiSwati.

SIBANDA, E.S. Sihlatiya SiSwati = We analyse SiSwati / E.S. Sibanda, E.T. Mthembu. - Manzini: Macmillan, 1996, 216 p., illus. - (Emagabelweni elulwimi), ISBN 0-7978-0583-4.

A SiSwati grammar book.

SIBIYA, A.K. An elementary course in siSwati / by A.K. Sibiya. - 2nd ed. - Mhlambanyatsi: Usutu Pulp Co. Training Centre, 1975, vii, 204 p., ISBN 0-7978-0182-0.

A SiSwati grammar book.

SILONDVOLOTA SiSwati 5 - 10 = We preserve siSw, 6 v., ISBN 0 7021 2672 1.

A Swazi grammar.

SIMELANE, V.M. SiSwati sesibayeni 1 / V.M. Simelane. - Cape Town: Longman, 1975, vi, 57 p., illus. - (Longman SiSwati), ISBN 0-582-61161-X.

A SiSwati grammar.

SIMELANE, V.M. SiSwati sesibayeni 3 / V.M. Simelane. - Cape Town: Longman, 1976, 75 p., illus. - (Longman SiSwati), ISBN 0-582-61165-2.

A SiSwati grammar.

SiSWATI siyatfutfuka 1: incwadzi yebafundzi / babhali, E.L. Dlamini ... [et al.]; bahleli, E.T. Mthembu, I.N. Mpofu. - Manzini: Longman, 1988, vii, 104 p., ISBN 0-7978-0369-6.

A SiSwati grammar book.

SiSWATI siyatfutfuka 2: incwadzi yebafundzi / babhali, E.L. Dlamini ... [et al.] ; bahleli, E.T. Mthembu, I.N. Mpofu. - Manzini: Longman, 1991, xiv, 222 p., ISBN 0-7978-0374-2.

A SiSwati grammar book.

SIYAFUNDZA: SiSwati grade 1: pupilsworkbook 2 with teachers notes. - Manzini: Macmillan for the Ministry of Education, 1984, 32 p., illus. - (Primary course for Swaziland), ISBN 0-333-38527-6.

A SiSwati grammar.

SPEAKING and understanding SiSwati. - [Mbabane: United States Peace Corps/Swaziland, 19?], [200] p., illus.

A SiSwati grammar book.

SUKUMANE, Joyce B.G. "Objects and causative constructions in siSwati" / Joyce B.G. Sukumane. - ix, 87 leaves, Thesis (M.A.)--University of Calgary, Faculty of Graduate Studies, Dept. of Linguistics, 1986, includes bibliographical references.

Discusses the problem encountered in Bantu languages in distinguishing between direct object (DO) and indirect object (IO) when the two unmarked nominals occur after the verb. Argues for the existence of DO as different from IO in SiSwati.

TALJAARD, P.C. Handbook of SiSwati / P.C. Taljaard, J.N. Khumalo, S.E. Bosch. - 1st ed. - Pretoria: J.L. van Schaik, 1991, xv, 174 p., includes bibliographical references and index, ISBN 0 627 01764 9.

A SiSwati grammar book.

TINSIMI: SiSwati grade 2: a teachers resource book. - Mbabane: Macmillan for the Ministry of Education, 1980., 20 p. - (Primary course for Swaziland), ISBN 0-333-31093-4.

A SiSwati grammar.

UMTSALA 1: incwadzi yathishela: tifundvo telulwimi lwesiSwati. - Manzini : Macmillan BOLESWA, 1997, xv, 112 p. - (Emagabelweni elulwimi), ISBN 0-7978-0995-3.

A SiSwati language book.

ZIERVOGEL, D. A grammar of the Swati language (siSwati) / D. Ziervogel, E.J. Mabuza. - 1st & Rev. ed. - Pretoria: J.L. van Schaik, 1976, 240 p., Includes index, ISBN 0 627 00929 8.

A SiSwati grammar.

ZIERVOGEL, Dirk. "Die klank - en vormleer van die sentrale vorm van Swati" / Dirk Ziervogel, iii, [111] leaves: illus., map, Thesis (M.A.)--Universiteit van Pretoria, 1941, includes bibliographical references.

In Afrikaans.

ZIERVOGEL, D. "Notes on the noun classes of Swati and Ndebele" / D. Ziervogel. - IN: African studies. - Vol. 7, nos. 2-3 (Jun.-Sep. 1948), pp. 59-70.

Describes speech-sounds and compares noun classes with Zulu.

Medical sciences

DE HEN, F. "Music and healers among the Swazi" / by F. de Hen. - IN: Bulletin des seances. - Vol. 36, no. 4 (1990), pp. 665-677.

Observes that according to the Swazi, death and illness are always considered to be the result of malicious incantation; the two groups of Swazi healers are herb doctors (tinyanga) and spirit mediums (tangoma); drums used by tangoma during their rituals do not belong to the traditional Swazi culture.

FORSTER, Edward B. "A short ethnopsychiatric study of Swaziland" / Edward B. Forster. - IN: Psychopathologie Africaine. - Vol. X, no. 2 (1974), pp. 211-227, includes bibliographical references.

Discusses beliefs which influence Swazi attitudes to mental health problems. Includes comments on beliefs in God, spirits, religious rituals and witchcraft. Notes the traditional ways of delivering medical psychiatric services particularly the role of inyanga, isangoma and witch doctor. Acknowledges the resilience of Swazi culture and observes threats from external influences.

GORT, Enid. "Changing traditional medicine in rural Swaziland: the effects of the global system" / Enid Gort. - IN: Social science and medicine. - Vol. 29, no. 9 (1989), pp. 1099-1104.

Analyses how the practice of traditional medicine in Swaziland has been transformed in response to political, economic and cultural factors originating at national, regional and global levels.

GORT, Enid. "Incorporation of traditional medicinal practitioners into a western biomedical project: a feasibility study in Swaziland" / Enid Gort. - New York: Columbia University, 1982, 21 p., includes bibliographical references.

A project proposal to determine the feasibility of incorporating traditional practitioners into a western biomedical program currently introduced in Swaziland by gathering material on theories and practices of traditional healing, the peoples expectations of the new health system and by ascertaining whether or not the utilization of indigenous personnel will significantly improve rural health care.

GREEN, Edward C. "Traditional healers in Swaziland: toward improved cooperation between the traditional and modern health sectors" / Edward C. Green and Lydia Makhubu. - Mbabane: Ministry of Health, 1983, ii, 25 p., includes bibliographical references.

A report on traditional healers in Swaziland. Identifies two types of traditional healers, namely the divine-healer (sangoma, inyanga) and the herbalist (lugedla, inyanga, yemitsi) and their work. Assesses the areas and extent of cooperation possible between traditional healers and modern health care personnel.

HOFF, Wilbur. "Nurses and traditional healers join hands" / Wilbur Hoff & D. Nhlavana Maseko. - IN: World health forum. - Vol. 7 (1986), pp. 412-416.

Examines a pilot project that successfully brought together nurses and traditional healers. Concludes that joint training workshops led to a marked improvement in attitudes and to the involvement of traditional healers in efforts to promote good health practices and prevent diseases.

HOFF, W. "Traditional healers in Swaziland" / W. Hoff and G. Shapiro. - IN: Parasitology today. - Vol. 2, no. 12 (1986), pp. 360-361.

Observes that there are an estimated 5 - 8000 traditional healers practicing as herbalists, spirit mediums and faith healers. Describes the role of traditional healers and beliefs in health care and changes in attitudes and practices.

MAKHUBU, Lydia Phindile. Aselaphe kahle / ngu Lydia Phindile Makhubu. - Kwaluseni: University of Swaziland, 1983, vi, 20 p., illus. - (UNISWA research publication series; no. 2), ISBN 0-7978-0362-7, siSwati.

Documents traditional healing practices. Includes a patients and traditional healers reports, explanation of the importance of correct dosage, and importance of recording traditional healing practices.

MAKHUBU, Lydia Phindile. The traditional healer / Lydia Phindile Makhubu. - Kwaluseni: University of Swaziland, 1978, vi, 86 p., includes bibliographical references, ISBN 0-7978-0354-8.

Describes various types of traditional healers by highlighting the manner in which they acquire their skills, differences between Swazi and modern-style diagnosis, methods of treatment used by traditional healers, and the Swazi concept of disease.

MAKHUBU, Lydia Phindile. Witchcraft or science / by Lydia Phindile Makhubu. - Kwaluseni: University of Swaziland, 1982, ii, 81 leaves. - (UNISWA research publication series; no. 1), includes bibliographical references, ISBN 0-7978-0362-5.

Compilation of recipes used by traditional healers in the treatment of disease. Includes plants used to promote good fortune, harmonize discord in personal affairs, and prevent lightning strikes, in accordance with socio-cultural beliefs. Gives a glossary of siSwati - English words.

"SYMPOSIUM on African Medicinal and Indigenous Food Plants & the Role of Traditional Medicine in Health Care" (1999: University of Swaziland, Kwaluseni, Swaziland), Proceedings of the symposium on African medicinal and indigenous food plants & the role of traditional medicine in health care / edited by L.P.Makhubu ... [et al.]. - Lagos: Organisation of African Unity, Scientific, Technical and Research Commission, 2000, iii, 254 p, includes the report and recommendations of the 14th session of the InterAfrican Committee of Experts on African Medicinal Plants and Traditional Medicine, includes bibliographical references.

Collection of papers presented at the symposium covering medicinal plant research, nutritive values of indigenous plants and role of traditional medicine in health care delivery.

TRADITIONAL medicine and pharmacopoeia: contribution to ethnobotanical and floristic studies in Swaziland / K.O. Adeniji ... [et al.]. - Lagos: Organization of African Unity, Scientific, Technical & Research Commission, 2001, v, 205 p., includes bibliographical references, ISBN 9782453663.

Reports the ethnobotanical survey of traditional medicine and medicinal plants in Swaziland. Lists vernacular names of medicinal plants; diseases and plants used to treat them; vernacular names of diseases and plants used to treat them, etc.

UPVALL, Michele J. "The articulation of nurses and indigenous healers in Swaziland: a nursing perspective" / by Michele J. Upvall. - x, 229 p., Thesis (Ph.D.)--University of Utah, College of Nursing, 1990, includes bibliographical references.

Discusses the articulation of nurses and indigenous healers in Swaziland from the perspective of nurses. Observes that utilization of rural health motivators as culture brokers serves to articulate indigenous and cosmopolitan health care systems.

ZULU, Mongie. "African divine healing under licence" / Mongie Zulu. - IN: The Nation. - (Nov. 1998), p. 14.

Notes low level government support to traditional healers; differences with modern medical doctors; and differences between traditional and spiritual healer.


DORAN, M. H. "Cattle as a store of wealth in Swaziland: implications for livestock development and overgrazing in eastern and southern Africa" / M. H. Doran, A. R. C. Low and R. L. Kemp. - IN: American journal of agricultural economics. - Vol. 61, no. 1, (1979), pp. 41 - 47, includes bibliographical references.

The contention that cattle are held as a store of wealth is supported by a regression analysis of slaughter against price and rainfall, and an examination of the Swazi herd structure. The failure to recognize that cattle directly satisfy both wealth and income motives in traditional societies has led to the implementation of production-oriented livestock development programs, which are likely to worsen the overgrazing problem in Swaziland.

Home economics & family living

GODEFFROY, Dolores. Edladleni: Swazi tradish[t]ional food and addish[t]ional recipes / Dolores Godeffroy. - Mbabane: Jubilee Printing [printers], c1999, 72 p., illus., ISBN 0-7978-1565-1.

Documents recipes for various Swazi traditional dishes and how to prepare them.

OGLE, Britta Mathilda. "Legacy of the Chameleon: edible wild plants in the Kingdom of Swaziland, Southern Africa: a cultural, ecological, nutritional study" / Britta Mathilda Ogle and Louis Evan Grivetti. - IN: Ecology of food and nutrition. - Vols. 16, 17 (1985), 4 parts.

Contents: pt. 1. Introduction, objectives, methods, Swazi culture, landscape and diet. - pt. 2. Demographics, species availability and dietary use, analysis by cological zone. - pt. 3. Cultural and ecological analysis. - pt. 4. Nutritional analysis and conclusions. includes bibliographical references.

Part I examines the availability and dietary use of fresh and preserved edible plant species in each of the four ecological zones in Swaziland. Cultural data on Swazi methods of site selection, gathering, preparation, storage and specimen protection is presented. The mineral composition of the most important edible wild species was determined and analysis for protein conducted. Part II presents demographic characteristics of children and adults surveyed in the four ecological zones of Swaziland. It identifies edible species recognized and consumed, and concludes with an analysis of edible plant use by ecological zone. Part III presents cultural and ecological data on division of labor, collection, storage and the use of edible wild plants. It provides behavioral data connected with the identification, procurement, cultivation and preservation of these plants. Part IV presents proximate analysis, protein and mineral values for 29 important wild plant species consumed in Swaziland.

The arts

GININDZA, Teresa Thoko. "The aesthetic components of Swazi artifacts" / by Teresa Thoko Ginindza. - IN: Ufahamu. - [19?], pp. 27-30.

Analyses the aesthetic components of Swazi artifacts made from wood, grass, clay, sisal, beads and leather.

"The SWAZI." - IN: Myths and legends of Southern Africa / Penny Miller ; introduction by T.V. Bulpin; edited by Rosemund Handler. - 1st ed. - Cape Town: T.V. Bulpin Publications, 1979, pp.219- 232.

Describes Swazi myths and legends. Includes discussion of the ncwala, romantic story attached to Poponyane river, costume and beads, bead messages, the heavens, the supreme being (Mkhulumnqande), the messenger (Mlentengamunye), the moss-green Princess, the unnatural mother, Umtsakatsi (evil wizard), and ancestral spirits (emadloti).


SCHULZ, Sheila Jean. "A palace for the Swazi King: hideaway for a King" / Sheila Jean Schulz. - IN: Living. - (Jul. 1990), pp. 46-48.

Describes the traditional influences on the architecture of King Mswati IIIs palace.


HARDING, J.R. "A note on the conus shell disc ornament in Swaziland" / by J.R. Harding. - IN: Man. - (Nov.-Dec. 1964), pp. 185-186.

Describes the rare occurrence of the disc in the form of the manufactured porcelain copy and establishes that it is worn only by witch doctors.

MHLANGA, Johan. Carving a future [videorecording] / Johan Mhlanga. - [Mbabane: Eye to Eye, 199?], 1 videocassette (ca. 8 min.): sd., col.

A videocassette recording of a Swazi man undertaking carving works.

SCHOFIELD, J.F. "A preliminary study of the pottery of the Bantu tribes of the Union of South Africa" / by J.F. Schofield. - IN: South African journal of science. - Vol. XXXIX (Jan. 1943), pp. 256-281.

Classifies Bantu tribes, including the Swazi, from the types of pottery which they make and use. Notes that the pottersart is on the decline; women are the only potters; and, the Swazi have developed the making of wooden vessels to a greater degree of perfection than any other Nguni people.


MASSON, J.R. "The rock art of Swaziland" / by J.R. Masson. - IN: Rock paintings of Southern Africa / edited by Murray Schoonraad. - Johannesburg: South African Association for the Advancement of Science, 1971, pp. 11-13.

Records and describes rock engraving sites and their affinities with the rock paintings of South Africa and Zimbabwe.

MASSON, J.R. "Rock-paintings in Swaziland" / J.R. Masson. - IN: The South African archeological bulletin. - (Dec. 1961), pp. 128-133.

Reports on locations of nine rock-painting sites, Litchfield, Mbabane, Nyonyane, Ekuthandeni, Nkaba, Mphentshane, Ntungula, Ndlozane and Nsangwini. Comments on the distribution and age of the paintings as well as cultural associations.

"ROCK paintings." - IN: Swaziland: book 3 / edited by Dave Johnson. - Mbabane: Tourist Office, [19?], pp. 1045-1047.

Comments on occurrences of rock paintings in Swaziland.


"HAIL the king" = Khula mlisa. - IN: Dzadze: Swaziland's family magazine. - (Mar./Apr. 1989), p. 17.

Praise song for the King.

"The MUSIC of the Swazis: a note." - Journal of the African Music Society. - Vol. 1, no. 5 (1952) p. 14.

Notes the significance of rhythm of dance and song in the cultural inheritance of the Swazis. Identifies two types of song (i) sacred songs used only on special occasions like the incwala and (ii) the sibaca which are mostly songs of a topical nature. Between the two types are songs associated with reaping, hunting, etc.

RYCROFT, David. "The national anthem of Swaziland" / David Rycroft; the source of this 21 page (pp. 298-318) article is not traceable, includes bibliographical references.

Describes the history leading to the adoption of the national anthem. Highlights the unique Swazi features of the anthem including simple antiphony, overlapping vocal phrases, speech- tones, and length and stress.

RYCROFT, David. "Nguni vocal polyphony" / David Rycroft. - IN: International folk music journal. - Vol. 19 (1967), pp. 88-103.

Discusses indigenous music of the Nguni Group, including the Swazi. Focuses on musical structure and texture paying attention to general features, variations, double-ended overlap, three-part songs, parallelism and texture enrichment, etc.

RYCROFT, David K. "Stylistic evidence in Nguni song" / David K. Rycroft. - IN: Essays on music and history in Africa,...1971, pp. 213-241.

Survey of the musical style of the Nguni language group, including the Swazi. Discusses general features of Swazi music, speech-tones and tonality, bow-songs, chains of fourths, chromaticism and contrasting tonality, etc.

SIMELANE, A.E.F. "National anthem of Swaziland" / words by A.E.F. Simelane ; music by D. K. Rycroft. - IN: Essential Siswati / D.K. Rycroft. - Pretoria: J.L. van Schaik, 1981, pp. 78-79.

The Swazi National Anthem in verse or song.

Recreational & performing arts

KHUMALO, Joe. "Karateka culture" / Joe Khumalo. - IN: Pace. - (Aug. 1987), pp. 135-136.

Discusses martial arts in Swaziland, with a focus on karate.

SWAZILAND. Ministry of Home Affairs. Dept. of Sports, Youth and Culture. "The Swaziland national sports policy" / Dept. of Sports, Youth and Culture. - Mbabane: The Ministry, 1992, 37 leaves.

National sports policy outlining rationale, objectives, strategy, stake holders and duties of the youth, culture and sports sections.

Literature & rhetoric

Included in this category are various genres that include drama, fiction, plays, short stories, anthologies, poems, etc. The works are in SiSwati and English, the official languages.

ASIVE Ngwane / N.D. Ntiwane ... [et al.]. - Manzini: Swaziland Academic Services, 1977, 62 p.

BHEMBE, Congo. A crooked path / Congo Bhembe. - Manzini: Macmillan BOLESWA, 1995, 106 p. - (Macmillan BOLESWA African fiction), ISBN 0-7978-0496-X.

BHIYA, O.A. Impalampala 2 = An anthology of Swazi poems / O.A. Bhiya. - Pretoria: De Jager-HAUM Publishers, 1991, 57 p. - (Swazi poetry), ISBN 0-7986-3139-2.

CLAXON, Noel. Like father, like son?: a collection of poems / by Noel Claxon and Richard Claxon. - 1st ed. - Mbabane: Swaziland Printing and Publishing, 1997, 25 p., illus., ISBN 0-7978-1327-6.

DAVIS, Alexander. Umbandine: a romance of Swaziland / Alexander Davis. - London: T. Fisher Unwin, 1898, ix, 239 p.

DLAMINI, Constance. Imali yimphandze yesono / Constance Dlamini. - Manzini: Macmillan BOLESWA, 1987, 114 p. - (Babhali besiSwati), ISBN 0-7978-0411-8.

DLAMINI, Lucy Zodwa. Kuba njalo nje = This is just how things go / Lucy Zodwa Dlamini. - Manzini: Macmillan BOLESWA, 1996, v, 58 p. - (Babhali besiSwati), ISBN 0-7978-0582-6.

DLAMINI, Patrick Mdabulane. Imali yami ngiyawufa nayo / ngu Patrick Mdabulane Dlamini. - Nhlangano: Sebenta, [19?], 17 p., illus.

DLAMINI, Sisana R. Mtfukululeni bo! ... = Untie him / yahlelwa ngu Sisana R. Dlamini. - Manzini: Macmillan BOLESWA, 1992, ii, 23 p. - (Temphilo), ISBN 0-7978-0415-X.

DUBE, Oswald Basize. The arrow of King Sobhuza II: a book of poems and tributes to the Crown Prince Makhosetive and King Sobhuza II / by Oswald Basize Dube. - Mbabane: Websters, 1986, vi, 66 p., illus., ISBN 0-7978-0358-0.

DUBE, Oswald Basize. The Spear of the Swazi nation / by Oswald Basize Dube & Joice Jabulile Dlamini. - Mbabane: Websters, 1986, 28 p., illus.

Swaziland Independence brochure containing poems and King Mswati IIIs speeches. Poetically explores the origins of Swazi culture and the attributes which have resulted into its growth. Includes among others, the following poems: Kings, coronation, welcome Lion of Swaziland, His teeth are like ice, Hope for the future, Lion of Phondo, Song of love for Makhosetive. Also documents speeches of King Mswati III presented during historical and traditional occasions.

DUBE, Phola. Kungetsembeki kwakhe / ibhalwe ngu Phola Dube. - Mbabane: Ministry of Education, [19?], 137 p., ISBN 0-7978-0232-0.

EMAGAMA ekutjelwa: naletinye tindzatjana / umhleli, S.Z. Simelane. - 2nd rev. ed. - Manzini: Macmillan BOLESWA, 1995, 99 p. - (Babhali besiSwati), ISBN 0-333-58397-3.

EMAKHANGALA: naletinye tinkondlo / Clara Tsabedze, umhleli. - Manzini: Macmillan BOLESWA, 1996, vii, 129 p., illus. - (Babhali besiSwati), ISBN 0-7978-0742-X.

FAKUDZE, G.B. Incatfu = Skipping rope / G.B. Fakudze, G.A. Malinzisa, M.S. Zulu. - Pietermaritzburg: Shuter and Shooter, 1993, 89 p. - (SiSwati reader), ISBN 0-7960-0483-8.

GININDZA, T.T. Emabhungane 1 / T.T. Ginindza. - 1st ed. - Mbabane: Foundation Publications, 1982, 55 p., Cover title, ISBN 0-7978-0361-4.

GININDZA, T.T. Sibongo: Swazi clan names and clan praises / by T.T. Ginindza . - Manzini: Blue Moon Printing Co. [printer], 1992, [66] p. - (Swazi heritage series), includes bibliographical references, ISBN 0-628-15426-8.

Records a number of selected Swazi clan names and their praises.

GININDZA, T.T. Tibongelelo 1: ikhishwe litiko letemfundvo / T.T. Ginindza. - Mbabane : Foundation Publications, 1981, 26 p., ISBN 0-7978-0361-3.

GININDZA, T.T. Tibongo temakhosi netetiNdlovukazi 1 / T.T. Ginindza. - London: Longman, 1977, 40 p., ISBN 0 582 61166 0.

Short histories and praises for their Majesties.

GULE, N. Masiphalata / N. Gule. - Mbabane: Foundation Publications, 1982, 103 p., ISBN 0-7978-0361-2.

HALL, James. Umlungu in paradise: the anthology / James Hall. - Mbabane: Websters, 1998, 184 p., illus., ISBN 0797813446.

An anthology documenting a year in the life of the Swazis covering major national traditional ceremonies: the Incwala ceremonies, reed dance, one of King Mswati IIIs traditional weddings, the royal Butimba hunt and the kuhlehla work of the warriors.

IDUBUKELE = The meal is ready / E.T. Mthembu, D.B.Z. Ntuli, bahleli. - 2nd ed. - Pietermaritzburg: Shuter & Shooter, 1988, 158 p. - (SiSwati short stories), ISBN 0-7960-0120-0.

INGCAMU = Food for a long journey / E.T. Mthembu, D.B.Z. Ntuli, bahleli. - 2nd ed. - Pietermaritzburg: Shuter & Shooter, 1989, 116 p. - (SiSwati short stories), ISBN 0-7960-0159-6.

INHLAVA = Honeyguide / E.T. Mthembu, N.F. Mbhele, E.S.Q. Zulu. - Manzini: Macmillan BOLESWA, 1990, vi, 66 p. - (Babhali besiSwati), ISBN 0-333-47967-X.

INKHUNDLA: imidlalo lelishumi nakubili = The stage: 12 one act plays / bahleli, E.T. Mthembu, C.T. Msimang. - Manzini: Macmillan BOLESWA, 1988, vi, 103 p. - (Babhali besiSwati), ISBN 0-7978-0413-4

JOHNSON, Anthony Kwamlah. Sunset at noon / Anthony Kwamlah Johnson. - London: Macmillan, 1989, 110 p. - (Macmillan pacesetter series), ISBN 0-333-49691-4.

KHANYILE, B.S. Insindza betjatsi = A hard-to-solve problem / B.S. Khanyile. - 1st ed. - Isando: Prima Books, 1993, 99 p. - (SiSwati), ISBN 1-87486-003-3.

KHOLWANE / M.A. Thwala, umhleli. - 1st ed. - Kenwyn: Juta & Co., 1993, 69 p. - (SiSwati), ISBN 0-7021-3043-5.

KHULA nesiSwati: libanga 5 = Grow up with siSwati / Sibongile Dlamini, umhleli. Macmillan BOLESWA, 1994, [iii], 153 p. - (Siswati setfu), ISBN 0 333 61237 X.

SiSwati novel and poetry anthology.

KUHLE kwetsembeka / Theo M. Mbuli, editor. - Nhlangano: Sebenta, [19?], 20 p.

KUPER, Hilda. "Bird of the storm" / Hilda Kuper. - IN: Studies in African social anthropology: essays presented to Professor Isaac Schapera / Meyer Fortes and Sheila Patterson, eds. - London: Academic Press, 1975, pp. 221-227.

Fictional story based on Swaziland.

KUPER, Hilda. Bite of hunger: a novel of Africa / by Hilda Kuper. - New York : Harcourt, Brace & World, c. 1965, 210 p.

KUPER, Hilda. Inhlitiyo ngumtsakatsi = The heart is a witch / ngu Hilda Kuper; umdlalo lohunyushwe ngesiSwati ngu-Thembi Mthembu na-Zodwa Ginindza. - 1st ed. - Pietermaritzburg: Shuter & Shooter, 1978, 59 p., ISBN 0 86985 238 8.

KUPER, Hilda. A witch in my heart: a play set in Swaziland in the 1930s / Hilda Kuper. - London: Oxford University Press for the International African Institute, 1970, xxxii, 70 p., ISBN 19 724180 8.

KUPHUMA kwelilanga = Sunrise / N.P. Mabaso, umhleli. - Kenwyn: Juta & Co., 1993, 74 p. - (SiSwati poetry), ISBN 0 7021 3041 9.

SiSwati poetry collection.

LIGABAZI / bahleli, N.F. Mbhele, E.T. Mthembu, E.S.Q. Zulu. - Manzini: Macmillan BOLESWA, 1989, vii, 63 p., ISBN 0 333 47968 8.

LUBISI, P.M. Sishwala / P.M. Lubisi. - 1st ed. - Kenwyn: Juta & Co., 1993, 64 p. - (SiSwati), ISBN 0-7021-2617-9.

LUKHELE, Senzenjani. Tell me no more / Senzenjani Lukhele. - Manzini: Macmillan BOLESWA, 1980, 101 p. - (Macmillan pacesetters series), ISBN 0-333-29356-8.

LUKHELE, Simeon Zamuva. Lomagugu imbali yakaLamgabhi / ngu Simeon Zamuva Lukhele. - Nhlangano: Sebenta, [1973], 34 p.

MABASO, N.P. Kuphuma kwelilanga = Sunrise / N.P. Mabaso. - 1st ed. - Kenwyn: Juta & Co., 1993, 74 p. - (SiSwati), ISBN 0-7021-3041-9.

MAGAGULA, Salayedvwa Modison. Lilungelo lakhe = Ones right / Salayedvwa Modison Magagula. - Manzini: Macmillan BOLESWA, 1994, viii, 85 p. - (Babhali besiSwati), ISBN 0-7978-0410-0.

MAGAGULA, Salayedvwa Modison. Tentile: ugcwele ematolo nje uyawutsand_ umena = As you sow, so shall you reap / Salayedvwa Modison Magagula. - Manzini: Macmillan BOLESWA, 1990, vi, 90 p. - (Babali besiSwati), ISBN 0-333-47950-5.

MALANGWANE, B.B. Kusasa kuyitolo / B.B. Malangwane. - Mbabane: Sebenta National Institute [printers], 1981, 101 p., ISBN 0-7978-0361-5.

MALINDZISA, Gubudla. Ngoneni nkhosi yami / Gubudla Malindzisa. - 1st ed. - Pretoria: De Jager-Haum, 1988, [iii], 255 p., ISBN 0-7986-2716-6.

MATSEBULA, J.S.M. Inkanankana: a translation from the original Zulu / J.S.M. Matsebula. - 1st ed. - Pietermaritzburg: Shuter & Shooter, 1978, 133 p., ISBN0 86985 262 0.

MATSEBULA, J.S.M. Inkanankana / J.S.M. Matsebula. - 1st ed. - Pietermaritzburg: Shuter & Shooter, 1964, 176 p.

MATSEBULA, J.S.M. Iqoqo lezinkondlo: ziqoqwe zahlelwa / ngu- J.S.M. Matsebula. - Pietermaritzburg: Shuter & Shooter, 1975, 130 p., ISBN 0 86985 182 9.

MATSEBULA, J.S.M. Liqoqo letinkondlo: kuhunyushwe iqoqo lezinkondlo elingesiZulu / ngu J.S.M. Matsebula. - 1st ed. - Pietermaritzburg: Shuter & Shooter, 1978, 126 p., ISBN 0 86985 348 1.

MATSEBULA, J.S.M. Tibongo tema Khosi akaNgwane = Poems of Swazi kings / J.S.M. Matsebula. - Manzini: Macmillan BOLESWA, 1990, 37 p. - (Babhali besiSwati), ISBN 0-333-47953- X.

MATSEBULA, S.M.N. Mane ungitfole tsine / S.M.N. Matsebula. - Manzini: Macmillan BOLESWA, 1986, 68 p. - (Babhali besiSwati), ISBN 0-333-40284-7.

MAVUSO, M.T. Tindzatjana tesiSwati / M.T. Mavuso, D. Nkambule. - Nhlangano: Sebenta, 1973, 27 p., illus., ISBN 0-7978-0371-7.

MAZIBUKO, T.T. Grade 2 SiSwati: poems and fairy tales / prepared by T.T. Mazibuko. - Trial ed. - Manzini: Ministry of Education, 1979, 16 leaves.

MBATHA, A.H. Ingubo leluhlata lenesiphika lesibovu / ibhalwe ngu A.H. Mbatha ; ihunyushwe yahlelwa ngu J.V. Dlamini. - 3rd ed. - Manzini: Swaziland Academic Services, 1980, 77 p., ISBN 0-7978-0402-1.

MBULI, Theo Muzi. Ayinamhlabelo / ngu Theo Muzi Mbuli. - Nhlangano: Sebenta, [19?], 15 p., illus.

MBULI, Theo Muzi. Kungahlwa kwenile / ngu Theo Muzi Mbuli. - Nhlangano: Sebenta, [19?], 16 p., illus.

MGABHI, Thoko E. Nalu lubhamo lwami = Here is my life partner / Thoko E. Mgabhi. - Manzini: Macmillan BOLESWA, 1990, 179 p. - (Babhali besiSwati), ISBN 0-333-47931-9.

MILLER, Allister. Mamisa: the Swazi warrior / Allister Miller. - Pietermaritzburg: Shuter & Shooter, [1933], 269 p.

MKHATSHWA, S.S. Umuntfu locotfo = An honest person / S.S. Mkhatshwa. - Mbabane: Foundation Publications, 1981, 44 p., ISBN 0-7978-0361-X.

MKHOMBE, S.M.M. Siphashaphasha / S.M.M. Mkhombe. - Manzini: Macmillan BOLESWA, 1986, 117 p. - (Babhali besiSwati), ISBN 0-333-40285-5.

MKHONTA, Elias A.B. Maphindisiganga / Elias A.B. Mkhonta. - Manzini: Macmillan BOLESWA, 1986, 69 p. - (Babhali besiSwati), ISBN 0-333-40283-9.

MKHONTA, Elias A.B. Mhlupheki / Elias A.B. Mkhonta. - Manzini: Longman, 1989, 101 p. - (Tinhlelo tebabhali besiSwati), ISBN 0-7978-0370-X.

MKHONTA, Elias A.B. Ubolibamba lingashoni = Your days are numbered / Elias A.B. Mkhonta. - Manzini: Macmillan BOLESWA, 1990, 99 p. - (Babhali besiSwati), ISBN 0-333-47949-1.

MKHONZA, Sarah. Pains of a maid / Sarah Mkhonza. - London: Macmillan, 1989, 87 p. - (Macmillan pacesetter series), ISBN 0-333-49690-6.

MNGADI, M.J. Umhlaba uyahlaba = The world is a painful place / M.J. Mngadi; ihunyushwe ngu G.A. Malindzisa. - 1st ed. - Pietermaritzburg: Shuter & Shooter, 1986, 183 p., ISBN 0-86985-926-9.

MTSETFWA, M.S. Umnyama wendlulile = The darkness is over / M.S. Mtsetfwa. - 1st ed. - Isando: Prima Books, 1993, 78 p. - (SiSwati), ISBN 1-874860-05-X.

NCONGWANE, J.J. Emahemuhemu = Rumours / J.J. Ncongwane. - 1st ed. - Pietermaritzburg: Shuter & Shooter, 1987, 99 p. - (SiSwati short stories), ISBN 0-7960-0043-3.

NCONGWANE, J.J. Ngenca yakho = Because of you / J.J. Ncongwane. - 1st ed. - Pietermaritzburg: Shuter & Shooter, 1994, 175 p. - (siSwati novel), ISBN 0-7960-0685-7.

NCONGWANE, J.J. Tikhatsi tiyagucuka / J.J. Ncongwane. - Cape Town: Oxford University Press, 1996, 95 p., ISBN 0-19-570914-4.

NCONGWANE, S.J. Injalo-ke imphilo = Life is like that / S.J. Ncongwane, M.J. Ncongwane. - 1st ed. - Kenwyn: Juta & Co., 1989, iii, 87 p., ISBN 0-7021-2238-6.

A collection of Swazi short stories.

NSIBANDZE, Sijabulile W. Umjingi udliwa yinhlitiyo = You choose the one you love / Sijabulile W. Nsibandze. - Manzini: Macmillan BOLESWA, 1991, vi, 77 p. - (Babhali besiSwati), ISBN 0-7978-04147.

NTIWANE, N.D. Takitsi / N.D. Ntiwane, G.N. Mamba, P.N. Dlamini. - Manzini: Macmillan BOLESWA, 1986, 88 p. - (Babhali besiSwati), ISBN 0-333-40321-5.

PATO, Gladys L. Ingati yemlumbi / Gladys L. Pato. - Manzini: Longman, 1989, 51 p. - (Tinhlelo tebabhali besiSwati), ISBN 0-7978-0372-6.

PATO, Gladys L. Khala mdumbadhumbane / Gladys L. Pato. - Manzini: Longman, 1987, 72 p., illus. - (Tinhlelo tebabhali besiSwati), ISBN 0-582-62834-2.

PATO, Gladys L. Umtsango / Gladys L. Pato. - Rev. ed. - Manzini: Swaziland Academic Services, 1980, 113 p.

ROWLEY, Kenneth. Small affairs / Kenneth Rowley. - London: Macmillan, 1989, 105 p. - (Macmillan pacesetter series), ISBN 0-333-49420-2.

ROWLEY, Kenneth. Tales of a form three dreamer / Kenneth Rowley. - Manzini: Macmillan BOLESWA, 1989, 93 p., illus. - (Macmillan library series), ISBN 0-333-47935-1.

SCUTT, Joan F. The drums are beating: missionary life in Swaziland / by Joan F. Scutt. - 3rd ed. - London: Africa Evangelical Fellowship, 1966, 132p., illus., Cover title.

SELECTED speeches of His Majesty, King Sobhuza II: Builder of the Swazi Nation(longest reigning monarch of his era: 1921-1982). - [Mbabane: Webster Print [printers], 19?], 83 p., illus.

Documents speeches made by the late King Sobhuza II during national or traditional ceremonial events.

SIMELANE, M.A. Hamba kahle, Mdikileni = Farewell Mdikileni / M.A. Simelane. - 2nd ed. - Pretoria: J.L. van Schaik, 1983, 70 p., ISBN 0-627-00993-X.

SIMELANE, S.Z. Inhlabamkhosi 1-3 = A warning signal / S.Z. Simelane, J.J. Thwala. - 1st ed. - Kenwyn: Juta & Co., 1991, 3 v., ISBN 0-7021-2600-4; 0-7021-2601-2; 0-7021-2602-0.

SIMELANE, S.Z. Umsinsi = Indigenous tree / S.Z. Simelane, J.J. Thwala. - 1st ed. - Kenwyn: Juta & Co., 1991, 100 p., ISBN 0-7021-2277 7.

TEMBE, Edmund B. Inkondlo yemaSwati / Edmund B. Tembe. - Manzini: Macmillan BOLESWA, 1986, 54 p. - (Babhali besiSwati), ISBN 0-333-40286-3.

THWALA, J.J. Lami lingumncamulajucu / J.J. Thwala. - 1st ed. - Kenwyn: Juta & Co., 1992, 67 p. - (SiSwati), ISBN 0-7021-2903-8.

TINANATELO: Swazi family praises / collected by W.D. Kamera; postface by A. Koopman. - Durban: University of Natal, Centre for Oral Studies, 1999, 300 p., includes bibliographical references, ISBN 1868403211.

Documents the texts of the Swazi clan praises and their extensions. Includes some quasi- histories and legendary and mythological accounts and musings of the clans.

VILANE, L.L.N. Inkondlo yaSomhlolo = Somhlolos poem / L.L.N. Vilane, A.D. Sibiya. - 1st ed. - Pietermaritzburg: Shuter and Shooter, 1993, 72 p. - (SiSwati reader), ISBN 0-7960-0532-X.

ZWANE, Richard T.J. Iminjunju yemphefumulo = Sharp pains in the soul / Richard T.J. Zwane. - Pretoria: J.L. van Schaik, 1983, 50 p., ISBN 0-627-01334-1.


NYEKO, Balam. "History, culture and social change in Swaziland: a survey of recent studies" / Balam Nyeko. - IN: UNISWA research journal. - Vol. 11 (Jun. 1997), pp. 1 - 16.

Examines Swazilands historiography. Alludes to the historical changes to Swazi culture.

PATRICKS, Richard Mdvumowencwala. Tibongo netinanatelo teMaswati = Swazi surnames and their praise names / by Richard Mdvumowencwala Patricks. - Rev. ed. - Lobamba: R.M. Patricks, 1999, 44 leaves.

A collection of surnames found in Swaziland and in some areas in South Africa and Mozambique which were ruled by Swazi kings in the past. The surnames are accompanied by their praise names or tinanatelo.


The excellent translation and interpretation support rendered by Leaphlina Mnisi and Mfanimpela W. Matsebula and the cooperation of officials at the Swaziland National Museum, Swaziland National Archives and Codification of Swazi Law and Custom Project during this exercise is acknowledged. However, any inadvertent and, of course, regrettable omissions and mistakes in this bibliography are the responsibility of the compilers.


(1) Nyeko, Balam, comp. Swaziland. Oxford, Clio Press, 1982.

(2) Nyeko, Balam, ibid.

(3) Jiyane, Mathokoza M. "A bibliography of periodical articles on Swaziland, 1968-1978". A Current Bibliography on African Affairs, 15 (2), 1982-1983, 127-182.

(4) State Library (South Africa), comp. Swaziland official publications, 1880-1972: a bibliography of the original and microfiche edition. Pretoria, State Library, 197.

(5) University of Swaziland Library, comp. Swaziland national bibliography, 1977-2000. Kwaluseni, University of Swaziland Library, 1978-2000.

(6) University of Swaziland. Social Science Research Unit. Documentation Centre, comp. Accessions bulletin, 1981-1994. Kwaluseni, University of Swaziland, 1981-1994.

(7) Ngcobo, Zipho G., comp. An annotated bibliography on women: Swaziland. Mbabane, Women and Law in Southern Africa Research Project, 1989.

(8) Swaziland. Prime Ministers Office. Dept. of Economic Planning and Statistics. Economic Planning Office, comp. Socio-economic development bibliography. Mbabane, Prime Ministers Office, 1989.

(9) Serageldin, Ismail & Taboroff, June, eds. Culture and development in Africa: proceedings of an international conference held at the World Bank, Washington, D.C., April 2 and 3, 1992. Washington, D.C., World Bank, 1994.

(10) Edje, O.T. and Smith, A.C., eds. Proceedings of workshops held at the University of Swaziland under the auspices of the National Research Council: potential and constraints for research in Swaziland, 24th February 1994 and setting national research priorities, 11th May 1994. Kwaluseni, University of Swaziland, 1994.

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Last Revised: 30 September 2003

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