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Footnote and Endnote Citations

General Citation Guidelines Bibliographic Citations Footnote and Endnote Citations Additional Materials on Electronic Citations


Basic citation components and punctuation

Note number. Author's First name and Last name, <author's internet address, if available>, "Title of Work" or "title line of message," in "Title of Complete Work" or title of list/site as appropriate, <internet address>, [menu path, if appropriate], date if available, archived at if appropriate.

The examples below indicate how citations of particular electronic sources might be made:

Listserv Messages

  • Phillip Curtin, <curtinpd@jhunix.hcf.jhu.edu>, "Goree and the Slave Trade," in H-AFRICA, <h-africa@msu.edu>, 31 July 1995, archived at <gopher.h-net.msu.edu>, [path: H-NET E-Mail Discussion Groups/H-AFRICA/Discussion Threads/Goree and the Atlantic Slave Trade--item number 465].

  • Richard Lobban, <RLobban@grog.ric.edu>, "REPLY: African Muslim Slaves in America," in H-AFRICA, <h-africa@msu.edu>, 4 August 1995, archived at <http://h-net.msu.edu/~africa/archives/august95>.

  • Gretchen Walsh, "REPLY: Using African newspapers in teaching," in H-AFRICA, <h-africa@msu.edu>, 18 October 1995.

World Wide Web

Peter Limb, "Relationships between Labour & African Nationalist/Liberation Movements in Southern Africa," <http://neal.ctstateu.edu/history/world_history/archives/limb-l.html>, May1992.

FTP Site

Gregor Heinrich, <100303.100@compuserve.com">, "Where There Is Beauty, There is Hope: Sao Tome e Principe," <ftp.us.ubc.ca>, [path: pub/local/FAQ/african/gen/saoep.txt], July 1994.

Gopher Site

  • "Democratic Party Platform, 1860," <wiretap.spies.com>, [path: Wiretap Online Library/Civic & Historical/Political Platforms of the U.S.], 18 June 1860.

  • David Graeber, <gr2a@midway.uchicago.edu>, "Epilogue to *The Disastrous Ordeal of 1987*," <gopher://h-net.msu.edu:70/00/lists/H-AFRICA/doc/graeber>.

Usenet Group Messages

  • Thomas Dell, <dell@wiretap.spies.com>, "[EDTECH] EMG: Sacred Texts (Networked Electronic Versions)," in <alt.etext>, 4 February 1993.

  • Sonya Legg, <legg@harquebus.cgd.ucar.edu>, "African history book list," in <soc.culture.african>, 5 September 1995, archived at <http://www.lib.ox.ac.uk/internet/news/faq/archive/african-faq.general.html>.

E-Mail Messages

Mel Page, <pagem@etsuarts.east-tenn-st.edu>, "African dance...and Malawi," private e-mail message to Masankho Banda, 28 November 1994.


General Citation Guidelines Bibliographic Citations Footnote and Endnote Citations Additional Materials on Electronic Citations



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