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Bibliographic Citations

General Citation Guidelines Bibliographic Citations Footnote and Endnote Citations Additional Materials on Electronic Citations


Basic citation components and punctuation

Author's Last Name, First Name <author's internet address, if appropriate>. "Title of Work" or "title line of message." In "Title of Complete Work" or title of list/site as appropriate. <internet address>. [menu path, if appropriate]. Date, if available. Archived at: if appropriate.

The samples below indicate how citations of particular electronic sources might be made:

Listserv Messages

  • Curtin, Phillip <curtinpd@jhunix.hcf.jhu.edu>. "Goree and the Atlantic Slave Trade." In H-AFRICA. <h-africa@msu.edu>. 31 July 1995. Archived at: <gopher.h-net.msu.edu> [path: H-NET E-Mail Discussion Groups/H-AFRICA/Discussion Threads/Goree and the Atlantic Slave Trade--item number 465].

  • Lobban, Richard <RLobban@grog.ric.edu>. "REPLY: African Muslim Slaves in America." In H-AFRICA. <h-africa@msu.edu">. 4 August 1995. Archived at: <http://www.h-net.msu.edu/~africa/archives/august95>.

  • Walsh, Gretchen. "REPLY: Using African newspapers in teaching." In H-AFRICA. <h-africa@msu.edu>. 18 October 1995.

World Wide Web

Limb, Peter. "Alliance Strengthened or Diminished?: Relationships between Labour & African Nationalist/Liberation Movements in Southern Africa." <http://neal.ctstateu.edu/history/world_history/archives/limb-l.html>. May 1992.

FTP Site

Heinrich, Gregor <100303.100@compuserve.com>. "Where There Is Beauty, There is Hope: Sau Tome e Principe." <ftp.cs.ubc.ca> [path: pub/local/FAQ/african/gen/saoep.txt]. July 1994.

Gopher Site

  • "Democratic Party Platform, 1860." <wiretap.spies.com> [Path: Wiretap Online Library/Civic & Historical/Political Platforms of the U.S.]. 18 June 1860.

  • Graeber, David <gr2a@midway.uchicago.edu>. "Epilogue to *The Disastrous Ordeal of 1987*". <gopher://h-net.msu.edu:70/00/lists/H-AFRICA/doc/graeber>. No date.

Usenet Group Messages

  • Dell, Thomas <dell@wiretap.spies.com>. "[EDTECH] EMG: Sacred Texts (Networked Electronic Versions)." In <alt.etext>. 4 February 1993.

  • Legg, Sonya <legg@harquebus.cgd.ucar.edu>. "African history book list." In <soc.culture.african>. 5 September 1994. Archived at: <http://www.lib.ox.ac.uk/internet/news/faq/archive/african-faq.">http://www.lib.ox.ac.uk/internet/news/faq/archive/african-faq.general.html>.

E-mail Messages

Page, Mel <pagem@etsuarts.east-tenn-st.edu>."African dance...and Malawi." Private e-mail message to Masankho Banda. 28 November 1994.


General Citation Guidelines Bibliographic Citations Footnote and Endnote Citations Additional Materials on Electronic Citations



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